About: Veterinary Microbiology is an academic journal published by Elsevier BV. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Virus & Virulence. It has an ISSN identifier of 0378-1135. Over the lifetime, 9982 publications have been published receiving 345339 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The recent development of defined mutagenesis systems for Leptospira heralds the potential for gaining a much improved understanding of pathogenesis in leptospirosis, and shows promise for the development of vaccines based on defined protective antigens.
Abstract: Leptospirosis is the most wide spread zoonosis worldwide; it is present in all continents except Antarctica and evidence for the carriage of Leptospira has been found in virtually all mammalian species examined. Humans most commonly become infected through occupational, recreational, or domestic contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or via contaminated water or soil. Leptospires are thin, helical bacteria classified into at least 12 pathogenic and 4 saprophytic species, with more than 250 pathogenic serovars. Immunity following infection is generally, but not exclusively, mediated by antibody against leptospiral LPS and restricted to antigenically related serovars. Vaccines currently available consist of killed whole cell bacterins which are used widely in animals, but less so in humans. Current work with recombinant protein antigens shows promise for the development of vaccines based on defined protective antigens. The cellular and molecular basis for virulence remains poorly understood, but comparative genomics of pathogenic and saprophytic species suggests that Leptospira expresses unique virulence determinants. However, the recent development of defined mutagenesis systems for Leptospira heralds the potential for gaining a much improved understanding of pathogenesis in leptospirosis.
TL;DR: Only type A influenza viruses are known to cause natural infections in birds, but viruses of all 15 haemagglutinin and all nine neuraminidase influenza A subtypes in the majority of possible combinations have been isolated from avian species.
Abstract: Only type A influenza viruses are known to cause natural infections in birds, but viruses of all 15 haemagglutinin and all nine neuraminidase influenza A subtypes in the majority of possible combinations have been isolated from avian species. Influenza A viruses infecting poultry can be divided into two distinct groups on the basis of their ability to cause disease. The very virulent viruses cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), in which mortality may be as high as 100%. These viruses have been restricted to subtypes H5 and H7, although not all viruses of these subtypes cause HPAI. All other viruses cause a much milder, primarily respiratory disease, which may be exacerbated by other infections or environmental conditions. Since 1959, primary outbreaks of HPAI in poultry have been reported 17 times (eight since 1990), five in turkeys and 12 in chickens. HPAI viruses are rarely isolated from wild birds, but extremely high isolation rates of viruses of low virulence for poultry have been recorded in surveillance studies, giving overall figures of about 15% for ducks and geese and around 2% for all other species. Influenza viruses have been shown to affect all types of domestic or captive birds in all areas of the world, but the frequency with which primary infections occur in any type of bird depends on the degree of contact there is with feral birds. Secondary spread is usually associated with human involvement, probably by transferring infective faeces from infected to susceptible birds.
TL;DR: This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial diseases in aquaculture, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date.
Abstract: The increase of productivity in aquaculture has been accompanied by ecological impacts including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance. These impacts are in part due to the indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutic agents as a result of management practices in production cycles. This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial diseases in aquaculture, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date.
TL;DR: Estimates of economic losses due to BVDV infection vary depending on the immune status of the population and the pathogenicity of the infecting virus strains, and cost-benefit analyses of control programs are highly dependent on the risks of new infections under different circumstances and on the strains of the virus involved.
Abstract: Infections with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) are widespread throughout the world. Although the prevalence of infection varies among surveys, the infection tends to be endemic in many populations, reaching a maximum level of 1-2% of the cattle being persistently infected (PI) and 60-85% of the cattle being antibody positive. Persistently infected cattle are the main source for transmission of the virus. However, acutely infected cattle as well as other ruminants, either acutely or persistently infected, may transmit the virus. Transmission is most efficient by direct contact. However, as infections have been observed in closed, non-pasturing herds, other transmission routes seem likely to have some practical importance. Differences in BVDV prevalence among regions or introduction of virus in herds previously free of BVDV are often associated with particular epidemiological determinants such as cattle population density, animal trade and pasturing practices. However, on a few occasions there have been no obvious explanations for infection of individual herds. Estimates of economic losses due to BVDV infection vary depending on the immune status of the population and the pathogenicity of the infecting virus strains. Introduction of the infection into a totally susceptible population invariably causes extensive losses until a state of equilibrium is reached. Infection with highly virulent BVDV strains causing severe clinical signs and death after acute infection gives rise to substantial economical losses. At an estimated annual incidence of acute infections of 34%, the total annual losses were estimated as US$ 20 million per million calvings when modeling the losses due to a low-virulent BVDV strain. At the same incidence of infection, the losses due to a high-virulent BVDV strain were estimated as US$ 57 million per million calvings. Low-virulent BVDV infections caused maximum losses at an incidence of 45%, whereas high-virulent BVDV infections caused maximum losses at an incidence of 65%. Thus, cost-benefit analyses of control programs are highly dependent on the risks of new infections under different circumstances and on the strains of the virus involved.
TL;DR: Brucellosis, especially caused by Brucella melitensis, remains one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually.
Abstract: Brucellosis, especially caused by Brucella melitensis, remains one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. The bacterial pathogen is classified by the CDC as a category (B) pathogen that has potential for development as a bio-weapon. Brucella spp. are considered as the most common laboratory-acquired pathogens. The geographical distribution of brucellosis is constantly changing with new foci emerging or re-emerging. The disease occurs worldwide in both animals and humans, except in those countries where bovine brucellosis has been eradicated. The worldwide economic losses due to brucellosis are extensive not only in animal production but also in human health. Although a number of successful vaccines are being used for immunization of animals, no satisfactory vaccine against human brucellosis is available. When the incidence of brucellosis is controlled in the animal reservoirs, there is a corresponding and significant decline in the incidence in humans.