DAMAD: Database, Attack, and Model Agnostic Adversarial Perturbation Detector
12 Mar 2021-IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks (IEEE)-pp 1-13
TL;DR: DAMAD as mentioned in this paper is a generalized perturbation detection algorithm which is agnostic to model architecture, training data set, and loss function used during training, which is based on the fusion of autoencoder embedding and statistical texture features extracted from convolutional neural networks.
Abstract: Adversarial perturbations have demonstrated the vulnerabilities of deep learning algorithms to adversarial attacks. Existing adversary detection algorithms attempt to detect the singularities; however, they are in general, loss-function, database, or model dependent. To mitigate this limitation, we propose DAMAD--a generalized perturbation detection algorithm which is agnostic to model architecture, training data set, and loss function used during training. The proposed adversarial perturbation detection algorithm is based on the fusion of autoencoder embedding and statistical texture features extracted from convolutional neural networks. The performance of DAMAD is evaluated on the challenging scenarios of cross-database, cross-attack, and cross-architecture training and testing along with traditional evaluation of testing on the same database with known attack and model. Comparison with state-of-the-art perturbation detection algorithms showcase the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm on six databases: ImageNet, CIFAR-10, Multi-PIE, MEDS, point and shoot challenge (PaSC), and MNIST. Performance evaluation with nearly a quarter of a million adversarial and original images and comparison with recent algorithms show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
01 Jun 2022
TL;DR: The possible robustness connection between natural and artificial adversarial examples is studied and can pave a way for the development of unified resiliency because defense against one attack is not sufficient for real-world use cases.
Abstract: Although recent deep neural network algorithm has shown tremendous success in several computer vision tasks, their vulnerability against minute adversarial perturbations has raised a serious concern. In the early days of crafting these adversarial examples, artificial noises are optimized through the network and added in the images to decrease the confidence of the classifiers against the true class. However, recent efforts are showcasing the presence of natural adversarial examples which can also be effectively used to fool the deep neural networks with high confidence. In this paper, for the first time, we have raised the question that whether there is any robustness connection between artificial and natural adversarial examples. The possible robustness connection between natural and artificial adversarial examples is studied in the form that whether an adversarial example detector trained on artificial examples can detect the natural adversarial examples. We have analyzed several deep neural networks for the possible detection of artificial and natural adversarial examples in seen and unseen settings to set up a robust connection. The extensive experimental results reveal several interesting insights to defend the deep classifiers whether vulnerable against natural or artificially perturbed examples. We believe these findings can pave a way for the development of unified resiliency because defense against one attack is not sufficient for real-world use cases.
11 Feb 2022
TL;DR: Noise augmentation (NoiseAug) is provided which is a non-trivial byproduct of simplifying GradAlign and achieves SOTA results in FGSM AT, and it is verified that this is caused not by data augmentation effect (inject noise on image) but by improved local linearity.
Abstract: —PGD-based and FGSM-based are two popular ad- versarial training (AT) approaches for obtaining adversarially robust models. Compared with PGD-based AT, FGSM-based one is signiﬁcantly faster but fails with catastrophic overﬁtting (CO). For mitigating CO in such Fast AT, there are two popular existing strategies: random start (RandStart) and Gradient Alignment (GradAlign). The former works only for a relatively small perturbation 8 / 255 with the l ∞ constraint, and GradAlign improves it by extending the perturbation size to 16 / 255 (with the l ∞ constraint) but at the cost of being 3 to 4 times slower. How to avoid CO in Fast AT for a large perturbation size but without increasing the computation overhead remains as an unsolved issue, for which our work provides a frustratingly simple (yet effective) solution. Speciﬁcally, our solution lies in just noise augmentation (NoiseAug) which is a non-trivial byproduct of simplifying GradAlign. By simplifying GradAlign we have two ﬁndings: (i) aligning logit instead of gradient in GradAlign requires half the training time but achieves higher performance than GradAlign; (ii) the alignment operation can also be removed by only keeping noise augmentation (NoiseAug). Simpliﬁed from GradAlign, our NoiseAug has a surprising resemblance with RandStart except that we inject noise on the image instead of perturbation. To understand why injecting noise to input prevents CO, we verify that this is caused not by data augmentation effect (inject noise on image) but by improved local linearity. regularization. Extensive results demonstrate that our NoiseAug achieves SOTA results in FGSM AT. The code will be released after accepted.
TL;DR: A wavelet regularization method based on the Haar wavelet decomposition which is named Wavelet Average Pooling is proposed and integrated into the wide residual neural network so that a new WideWaveletResNet model is formed.
Abstract: Adversarial training methods are state-of-the-art (SOTA) empirical defense methods against adversarial examples. Many regularization methods have been proven to be effective with the combination of adversarial training. Nevertheless, such regularization methods are implemented in the time domain. Since adversarial vulnerability can be regarded as a high-frequency phenomenon, it is essential to regulate the adversarially-trained neural network models in the frequency domain. Faced with these challenges, we make a theoretical analysis on the regularization property of wavelets which can enhance adversarial training. We propose a wavelet regularization method based on the Haar wavelet decomposition which is named Wavelet Average Pooling. This wavelet regularization module is integrated into the wide residual neural network so that a new WideWaveletResNet model is formed. On the datasets of CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100, our proposed Adversarial Wavelet Training method realizes considerable robustness under different types of attacks. It verifies the assumption that our wavelet regularization method can enhance adversarial robustness especially in the deep wide neural networks. The visualization experiments of the Frequency Principle (F-Principle) and interpretability are implemented to show the effectiveness of our method. A detailed comparison based on different wavelet base functions is presented. The code is available at the repository: https://github.com/momo1986/AdversarialWaveletTraining.
TL;DR: In this article, an anonymous graph convolutional network (AN-GCN) is proposed to counter against edge-perturbing attacks in node classification tasks, which can classify nodes without taking their position as input and thus makes it impossible for attackers to perturb edges anymore.
Abstract: Recent studies have revealed the vulnerability of graph convolutional networks (GCNs) to edge-perturbing attacks, such as maliciously inserting or deleting graph edges. However, a theoretical proof of such vulnerability remains a big challenge, and effective defense schemes are still open issues. In this paper, we first generalize the formulation of edge-perturbing attacks and strictly prove the vulnerability of GCNs to such attacks in node classification tasks. Following this, an anonymous graph convolutional network, named AN-GCN, is proposed to counter against edge-perturbing attacks. Specifically, we present a node localization theorem to demonstrate how the GCN locates nodes during its training phase. In addition, we design a staggered Gaussian noise based node position generator, and devise a spectral graph convolution based discriminator in detecting the generated node positions. Further, we give the optimization of the above generator and discriminator. AN-GCN can classify nodes without taking their position as input. It is demonstrated that the AN-GCN is secure against edge-perturbing attacks in node classification tasks, as AN-GCN classifies nodes without the edge information and thus makes it impossible for attackers to perturb edges anymore. Extensive evaluations demonstrated the effectiveness of the general edge-perturbing attack model in manipulating the classification results of the target nodes. More importantly, the proposed AN-GCN can achieve 82.7% in node classification accuracy without the edge-reading permission, which outperforms the state-of-the-art GCN.
TL;DR: Zhang et al. as mentioned in this paper proposed an accurate and secure adversarial example detector, relying on a spatial-frequency discriminative decomposition with secret keys, which is more suitable for capturing adversarial patterns than the common trigonometric or wavelet basis.
Abstract: The vulnerability of deep neural networks to adversarial perturbations has been widely perceived in the computer vision community. From a security perspective, it poses a critical risk for modern vision systems, e.g., the popular Deep Learning as a Service (DLaaS) frameworks. For protecting off-the-shelf deep models while not modifying them, current algorithms typically detect adversarial patterns through discriminative decomposition of natural-artificial data. However, these decompositions are biased towards frequency or spatial discriminability, thus failing to capture subtle adversarial patterns comprehensively. More seriously, they are typically invertible, meaning successful defense-aware (secondary) adversarial attack (i.e., evading the detector as well as fooling the model) is practical under the assumption that the adversary is fully aware of the detector (i.e., the Kerckhoffs's principle). Motivated by such facts, we propose an accurate and secure adversarial example detector, relying on a spatial-frequency discriminative decomposition with secret keys. It expands the above works on two aspects: 1) the introduced Krawtchouk basis provides better spatial-frequency discriminability and thereby is more suitable for capturing adversarial patterns than the common trigonometric or wavelet basis; 2) the extensive parameters for decomposition are generated by a pseudo-random function with secret keys, hence blocking the defense-aware adversarial attack. Theoretical and numerical analysis demonstrates the increased accuracy and security of our detector w.r.t. a number of state-of-the-art algorithms.
••27 Jun 2016
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously, which won the 1st place on the ILSVRC 2015 classification task.
Abstract: Deeper neural networks are more difficult to train. We present a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously. We explicitly reformulate the layers as learning residual functions with reference to the layer inputs, instead of learning unreferenced functions. We provide comprehensive empirical evidence showing that these residual networks are easier to optimize, and can gain accuracy from considerably increased depth. On the ImageNet dataset we evaluate residual nets with a depth of up to 152 layers—8× deeper than VGG nets  but still having lower complexity. An ensemble of these residual nets achieves 3.57% error on the ImageNet test set. This result won the 1st place on the ILSVRC 2015 classification task. We also present analysis on CIFAR-10 with 100 and 1000 layers. The depth of representations is of central importance for many visual recognition tasks. Solely due to our extremely deep representations, we obtain a 28% relative improvement on the COCO object detection dataset. Deep residual nets are foundations of our submissions to ILSVRC & COCO 2015 competitions1, where we also won the 1st places on the tasks of ImageNet detection, ImageNet localization, COCO detection, and COCO segmentation.
•04 Sep 2014
TL;DR: This work investigates the effect of the convolutional network depth on its accuracy in the large-scale image recognition setting using an architecture with very small convolution filters, which shows that a significant improvement on the prior-art configurations can be achieved by pushing the depth to 16-19 weight layers.
Abstract: In this work we investigate the effect of the convolutional network depth on its accuracy in the large-scale image recognition setting. Our main contribution is a thorough evaluation of networks of increasing depth using an architecture with very small (3x3) convolution filters, which shows that a significant improvement on the prior-art configurations can be achieved by pushing the depth to 16-19 weight layers. These findings were the basis of our ImageNet Challenge 2014 submission, where our team secured the first and the second places in the localisation and classification tracks respectively. We also show that our representations generalise well to other datasets, where they achieve state-of-the-art results. We have made our two best-performing ConvNet models publicly available to facilitate further research on the use of deep visual representations in computer vision.
••20 Jun 2009
TL;DR: A new database called “ImageNet” is introduced, a large-scale ontology of images built upon the backbone of the WordNet structure, much larger in scale and diversity and much more accurate than the current image datasets.
Abstract: The explosion of image data on the Internet has the potential to foster more sophisticated and robust models and algorithms to index, retrieve, organize and interact with images and multimedia data. But exactly how such data can be harnessed and organized remains a critical problem. We introduce here a new database called “ImageNet”, a large-scale ontology of images built upon the backbone of the WordNet structure. ImageNet aims to populate the majority of the 80,000 synsets of WordNet with an average of 500-1000 clean and full resolution images. This will result in tens of millions of annotated images organized by the semantic hierarchy of WordNet. This paper offers a detailed analysis of ImageNet in its current state: 12 subtrees with 5247 synsets and 3.2 million images in total. We show that ImageNet is much larger in scale and diversity and much more accurate than the current image datasets. Constructing such a large-scale database is a challenging task. We describe the data collection scheme with Amazon Mechanical Turk. Lastly, we illustrate the usefulness of ImageNet through three simple applications in object recognition, image classification and automatic object clustering. We hope that the scale, accuracy, diversity and hierarchical structure of ImageNet can offer unparalleled opportunities to researchers in the computer vision community and beyond.
••01 Jan 1998
TL;DR: In this article, a graph transformer network (GTN) is proposed for handwritten character recognition, which can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters.
Abstract: Multilayer neural networks trained with the back-propagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradient based learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradient-based learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional neural networks, which are specifically designed to deal with the variability of 2D shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Real-life document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called graph transformer networks (GTN), allows such multimodule systems to be trained globally using gradient-based methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for online handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of graph transformer networks. A graph transformer network for reading a bank cheque is also described. It uses convolutional neural network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provide record accuracy on business and personal cheques. It is deployed commercially and reads several million cheques per day.
••21 Jul 2017
TL;DR: DenseNet as mentioned in this paper proposes to connect each layer to every other layer in a feed-forward fashion, which can alleviate the vanishing gradient problem, strengthen feature propagation, encourage feature reuse, and substantially reduce the number of parameters.
Abstract: Recent work has shown that convolutional networks can be substantially deeper, more accurate, and efficient to train if they contain shorter connections between layers close to the input and those close to the output. In this paper, we embrace this observation and introduce the Dense Convolutional Network (DenseNet), which connects each layer to every other layer in a feed-forward fashion. Whereas traditional convolutional networks with L layers have L connections—one between each layer and its subsequent layer—our network has L(L+1)/2 direct connections. For each layer, the feature-maps of all preceding layers are used as inputs, and its own feature-maps are used as inputs into all subsequent layers. DenseNets have several compelling advantages: they alleviate the vanishing-gradient problem, strengthen feature propagation, encourage feature reuse, and substantially reduce the number of parameters. We evaluate our proposed architecture on four highly competitive object recognition benchmark tasks (CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, SVHN, and ImageNet). DenseNets obtain significant improvements over the state-of-the-art on most of them, whilst requiring less memory and computation to achieve high performance. Code and pre-trained models are available at https://github.com/liuzhuang13/DenseNet.
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