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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11356-021-13184-2

Effect of microplastics in water and aquatic systems.

02 Mar 2021-Environmental Science and Pollution Research (Springer Berlin Heidelberg)-Vol. 28, Iss: 16, pp 19544-19562
Abstract: Surging dismissal of plastics into water resources results in the splintered debris generating microscopic particles called microplastics. The reduced size of microplastic makes it easier for intake by aquatic organisms resulting in amassing of noxious wastes, thereby disturbing their physiological functions. Microplastics are abundantly available and exhibit high propensity for interrelating with the ecosystem thereby disrupting the biogenic flora and fauna. About 71% of the earth surface is occupied by oceans, which holds 97% of the earth's water. The remaining 3% is present as water in ponds, streams, glaciers, ice caps, and as water vapor in the atmosphere. Microplastics can accumulate harmful pollutants from the surroundings thereby acting as transport vectors; and simultaneously can leach out chemicals (additives). Plastics in marine undergo splintering and shriveling to form micro/nanoparticles owing to the mechanical and photochemical processes accelerated by waves and sunlight, respectively. Microplastics differ in color and density, considering the type of polymers, and are generally classified according to their origins, i.e., primary and secondary. About 54.5% of microplastics floating in the ocean are polyethylene, and 16.5% are polypropylene, and the rest includes polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, polyester, and polyamides. Polyethylene and polypropylene due to its lower density in comparison with marine water floats and affect the oceanic surfaces while materials having higher density sink affecting seafloor. The effects of plastic debris in the water and aquatic systems from various literature and on how COVID-19 has become a reason for microplastic pollution are reviewed in this paper.

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Topics: Microplastics (69%)

23 results found

Open accessJournal Article
20 Jun 1984-Nursing mirror
Abstract: * There will be a total of one monthly grand prize drawing for a $350 gift certificate and five monthly drawings for $100 gift certificates. Winners will be randomly selected from January 2012 to January 31, 2013. Non-winning entries from each drawing will roll over to the successive drawing. Winning entries will not be rolled over to successive drawings after their entry is drawn. If you have already received a well-care visit this year, you have been automatically entered into our drawing. The odds of winning depend on the total number of claims received. No purchase or contribution required. Reward program may be suspended/end without written notification. This program is sponsored by Health Alliance Plan, located at 2850 W. Grand Blvd., Detroit, MI 48202-9912. Certificate vendors are not sponsors of this promotion and are not liable for any actual or alleged claims related to this offer. If you have any questions about HAP’s Reaching New Heights Program, please call HAP Client Services at (313) 872-8100 or toll-free at (800) 422-4641.

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Topics: Geriatric psychiatry (58%), Certification (54%)

17 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2021.148505
Abstract: The use of disposable face masks became essential to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in an unprecedented rise in their production and, unfortunately, to a new form of environmental contamination due to improper disposal. Recent publications reported the abundance of COVID-19-related litter in several environments, wildlife interaction with such items, and the contaminants that can be released from such protective equipment that has the potential to induce ecotoxicological effects. This paper provides a critical review of COVID-19 face mask occurrence in diverse environments and their adverse physiological and ecotoxicological effects on wildlife. It also outlines potential remediation strategies to mitigate the environmental challenge impose by COVID-19-related litter.

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10 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FENVS.2021.678574
Abstract: Microplastics, which serve as sources and vector transport of organic contaminants in both terrestrial and marine environments, are emerging micropollutants of increasing concerns due to their potential harmful impacts on the environment, biota and human health. Microplastic particles have a higher affinity for hydrophobic organic contaminants due to their high surface area-to-volume ratio, particularly in aqueous conditions. However, recent findings have shown that the concentrations of organic contaminants adsorbed on microplastic surfaces, as well as their fate through vector distribution and ecological risks, are largely influenced by prevailing environmental factors and physicochemical properties in the aquatic environment. Therefore, this review article draws on scientific literature to discuss inherent polymers typically used in plastics and their affinity for different organic contaminants, as well as the compositions, environmental factors, and polymeric properties that influence their variability in sorption capacities. Some of the specific points discussed are (a) an appraisal of microplastic types, composition and their fate and vector transport in the environment; (b) a critical assessment of sorption mechanisms and major polymeric factors influencing organic contaminants-micro (nano) plastics (MNPs) interactions; (c) an evaluation of the sorption capacities of organic chemical contaminants to MNPs in terms of polymeric sorption characteristics including hydrophobicity, Van der Waals forces, π–π bond, electrostatic, and hydrogen bond interactions; and (d) an overview of the sorption mechanisms and dynamics behind microplastics-organic contaminants interactions using kinetic and isothermal models. Furthermore, insights into future areas of research gaps have been highlighted.

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Topics: Sorption (54%)

4 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EURPOLYMJ.2021.110789
Abstract: During the early nineteens, enhanced concern towards “biodegradable materials” and “green chemistry,” along with the significant advancements in nanotechnology, coerce scientists and scholars to ferret out an alternative biomaterial. Prolonged rummage to the alternate biomaterial leads to the discovery of nanoparticles from cellulose as cellulose nanocrystal composites. Various cellulosic sources yield nano cellulosic derivatives after various pretreatment and extraction procedures, including acid hydrolysis, micro grinding, cryocrushing, electron spinning, and centrifugal spinning. Agricultural resources like cotton, wheat, garlic, ramie, switchgrass, and curaua for cellulose nanocrystal composites extraction of varying properties; hence are applicable for distinct functions. Extraction from agricultural resources adds more profit and advancement in the agricultural sector. Pure cellulose nanocrystal composite possesses a mechanical strength of 7000 MPa, a young modulus of 100–140 GPa, and 250–500 m2/g surface area. The vulnerability of cellulose nanocrystal composites towards moisture due to alcoholic group nullifies by the modification and grafting processes which yield functionalized cellulose nanocrystal composites. Functionalized cellulose nanocrystal composites find applications in various fields, including biomedicine, catalysis, electronics, and laboratories. The review summarises the extraction procedure of cellulose nanocrystal composites from agricultural resources and functionalization methodologies, facilitating cellulose nanocrystal composite's prospective implementation.

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Topics: Cellulose (56%), Nanocrystal (55%)

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.HELIYON.2021.E07676
30 Jul 2021-Heliyon
Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of microplastics on Spirulina sp., the pigment phycocyanin in Spirulina sp., and the effect of Spirulina sp. on the degradation of PE and PP plastic. The interaction of Spirulina sp. with microplstic (PE and PP) was conducted by adding the microplastic (500 mg/500 mL, with a size of 0.5-1 mm2) to microalgae culture. The optical density was measured for 30 days to determine the growth of Spirulina sp. Harvesting was performed to obtain dry Spirulina sp biomass. Phycocyanin was obtained through extraction by mixing 0.1 g dry Spirulina sp. biomass with 25 ml of 1% CaCl2 in an ultrasonic water bath at 50 kHz, 300 W at 30 °C for 15 min. The results showed that the growth rate of Spirulina sp significantly decreased (p < 0.05) with treatment of PE (SP + PE) (0.0228/day) and PP (Sp + PP) (0.0221/day), compared to the control (Sp-Control) (0.0312/day). Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses of Spirulina sp. biomass with the addition of PE and PP revealed surface damage of Spirulina sp. cells and loss of carboxyl groups from proteins in Spirulina sp. at wavelengths of 1397-1450 cm-1. In addition, Spirulina sp. had decreased the intensity of amine and amide groups from proteins at wavelengths of 3280, 1637, and 1537 cm-1 in the microplastic treatment. The phycocyanin yield and protein content in Spirulina sp. control were 19.69% and 0.147%, respectively, which decreased by 10.7% and 0.121%, respectively, with PE treatment and by 8.7% and 0.108%, respectively, with PP treatment. Moreover, the investigation of PE and PP treated by Spirulina sp showed more significant changes of functional group indicated by the formation of hydroxyl (3286 cm-1), carbonyl (1700 cm-1), ester (1750 cm-1) and primary alcohol (1085 cm-1). The results of the EDX microplastic analysis showed a decrease in carbon in PE (1.62%) and PP (1.08%). These FTIR and EDX analysis also proved that microplastic has experienced degradation when treated by Spirulina sp cell culture.

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Topics: Spirulina (genus) (67%), Phycocyanin (53%)

1 Citations


209 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJSU.2020.02.034
Catrin Sohrabi1, Zaid Alsafi2, Niamh O'Neill1, M.N.I. Khan2  +4 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: An unprecedented outbreak of pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan City, Hubei province in China emerged in December 2019. A novel coronavirus was identified as the causative agent and was subsequently termed COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Considered a relative of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), COVID-19 is caused by a betacoronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 that affects the lower respiratory tract and manifests as pneumonia in humans. Despite rigorous global containment and quarantine efforts, the incidence of COVID-19 continues to rise, with 90,870 laboratory-confirmed cases and over 3,000 deaths worldwide. In response to this global outbreak, we summarise the current state of knowledge surrounding COVID-19.

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2,691 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.1314705111
Abstract: There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. However, the global load of plastic on the open ocean surface was estimated to be on the order of tens of thousands of tons, far less than expected. Our observations of the size distribution of floating plastic debris point at important size-selective sinks removing millimeter-sized fragments of floating plastic on a large scale. This sink may involve a combination of fast nano-fragmentation of the microplastic into particles of microns or smaller, their transference to the ocean interior by food webs and ballasting processes, and processes yet to be discovered. Resolving the fate of the missing plastic debris is of fundamental importance to determine the nature and significance of the impacts of plastic pollution in the ocean.

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Topics: Marine debris (60%), Plastic pollution (59%), Great Pacific garbage patch (55%) ... read more

1,469 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ES800249A
Abstract: Plastics debris is accumulating in the environment and is fragmenting into smaller pieces; as it does, the potential for ingestion by animals increases. The consequences of macroplastic debris for wildlife are well documented, however the impacts of microplastic (< 1 mm) are poorly understood. The mussel, Mytilus edulis, was used to investigate ingestion, translocation, and accumulation of this debris. Initial experiments showed that upon ingestion, microplastic accumulated in the gut. Mussels were subsequently exposed to treatments containing seawater and microplastic (3.0 or 9.6 microm). After transfer to clean conditions, microplastic was tracked in the hemolymph. Particles translocated from the gut to the circulatory system within 3 days and persisted for over 48 days. Abundance of microplastic was greatest after 12 days and declined thereafter. Smaller particles were more abundant than larger particles and our data indicate as plastic fragments into smaller particles, the potential for accumulation in the tissues of an organism increases. The short-term pulse exposure used here did not result in significant biological effects. However, plastics are exceedingly durable and so further work using a wider range of organisms, polymers, and periods of exposure will be required to establish the biological consequences of this debris.

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1,262 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVPOL.2013.10.013
Abstract: Experiments were carried out with different Baltic Sea zooplankton taxa to scan their potential to ingest plastics. Mysid shrimps, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, polychaete larvae and ciliates were exposed to 10 μm fluorescent polystyrene microspheres. These experiments showed ingestion of microspheres in all taxa studied. The highest percentage of individuals with ingested spheres was found in pelagic polychaete larvae, Marenzelleria spp. Experiments with the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the mysid shrimp Neomysis integer showed egestion of microspheres within 12 h. Food web transfer experiments were done by offering zooplankton labelled with ingested microspheres to mysid shrimps. Microscopy observations of mysid intestine showed the presence of zooplankton prey and microspheres after 3 h incubation. This study shows for the first time the potential of plastic microparticle transfer via planktonic organisms from one trophic level (mesozooplankton) to a higher level (macrozooplankton). The impacts of plastic transfer and possible accumulation in the food web need further investigations.

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Topics: Zooplankton (51%), Copepod (51%), Trophic level (50%)

838 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVINT.2017.02.013
H.S. Auta1, C.U Emenike2, S.H. Fauziah1Institutions (2)
Abstract: The presence of microplastics in the marine environment poses a great threat to the entire ecosystem and has received much attention lately as the presence has greatly impacted oceans, lakes, seas, rivers, coastal areas and even the Polar Regions. Microplastics are found in most commonly utilized products (primary microplastics), or may originate from the fragmentation of larger plastic debris (secondary microplastics). The material enters the marine environment through terrestrial and land-based activities, especially via runoffs and is known to have great impact on marine organisms as studies have shown that large numbers of marine organisms have been affected by microplastics. Microplastic particles have been found distributed in large numbers in Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia, India, South Africa, North America, and in Europe. This review describes the sources and global distribution of microplastics in the environment, the fate and impact on marine biota, especially the food chain. Furthermore, the control measures discussed are those mapped out by both national and international environmental organizations for combating the impact from microplastics. Identifying the main sources of microplastic pollution in the environment and creating awareness through education at the public, private, and government sectors will go a long way in reducing the entry of microplastics into the environment. Also, knowing the associated behavioral mechanisms will enable better understanding of the impacts for the marine environment. However, a more promising and environmentally safe approach could be provided by exploiting the potentials of microorganisms, especially those of marine origin that can degrade microplastics. Capsule The concentration, distribution sources and fate of microplastics in the global marine environment were discussed, so also was the impact of microplastics on a wide range of marine biota.

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Topics: Microplastics (73%)

825 Citations

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