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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.049819

Linear and Nonlinear Mendelian Randomization Analyses of the Association Between Diastolic Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Events: The J-Curve Revisited.

02 Mar 2021-Circulation (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health))-Vol. 143, Iss: 9, pp 895-906
Abstract: Background: Recent clinical guidelines support intensive blood pressure treatment targets. However, observational data suggest that excessive diastolic blood pressure (DBP) lowering might increase ...

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Topics: Mendelian Randomization Analysis (65%), Mendelian randomization (63%), Blood pressure (57%) ... read more
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14 results found


Open access
01 Jan 2018-
Abstract: High blood pressure is a highly heritable and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We report the largest genetic association study of blood pressure traits (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) to date in over 1 million people of European ancestry. We identify 535 novel blood pressure loci that not only offer new biological insights into blood pressure regulation but also highlight shared genetic architecture between blood pressure and lifestyle exposures. Our findings identify new biological pathways for blood pressure regulation with potential for improved cardiovascular disease prevention in the future.Association analyses in over 1 million individuals identify 535 new loci influencing blood pressure traits. The results provide new insights into blood pressure regulation and highlight shared genetic architecture between blood pressure and lifestyle exposures.

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9 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JACC.2021.08.035
Abstract: Background SBP and DBP have important associations with cardiovascular events, but are seldom considered simultaneously. Objectives This study sought to simultaneously analyze systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measurements on the associated risk of a primary composite outcome of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), congestive heart failure (CHF), or stroke. Methods This study analyzed ALLHAT (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial) data, which randomized adults to chlorthalidone, amlodipine, or lisinopril. The authors evaluated the simultaneous association of repeated SBP and DBP measurements on the primary composite outcome, and each outcome using proportional hazards regression. The authors report hazard ratios using a “heat map” to represent high and low risk according to SBP and DBP combinations. Results During a median follow-up of 4.4 years (interquartile range: 3.6-5.4 years), 33,357 participants experienced 2,636 MIs, 866 CHF events, 936 strokes, and 3,700 deaths; 8,138 patients (24.4%) had at least 1 event. For the composite outcome, all-cause mortality, MI, and CHF, a U-shaped association was observed with SBP and DBP, but the SBP and DBP associated with the lowest hazards differed for each outcome. For example, SBP/DBP of 140-155/70-80 mm Hg was associated with the lowest HR for all-cause mortality, compared with 110-120/85-90 mm Hg for MI and 125-135/70-75 mm Hg for CHF. In contrast, the association of SBP and stroke was linear. Conclusions The risk pattern of SBP and DBP differs by clinical outcomes, and the SBP and DBP associated with the lowest risk. Our results suggest individualization of blood pressure targets may depend in part on the cardiovascular event for which the patient is most at risk.

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Topics: Blood pressure (51%)

1 Citations



Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1210/CLINEM/DGAB272
Abstract: Background A genetic predisposition to lower thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels associates with increased atrial fibrillation (AF) risk through undefined mechanisms. Defining the genetic mediating mechanisms could lead to improved targeted therapies to mitigate AF risk. Methods We used two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) to test associations between TSH-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 16 candidate mediators. We then performed multivariable Mendelian randomization (MVMR) to test for a significant attenuation of the genetic association between TSH and AF, after adjusting for each mediator significantly associated with TSH. Results Four candidate mediators (free T4, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and height) were significantly inversely associated with genetically predicted TSH after adjusting for multiple testing. In MVMR analyses, adjusting for height significantly decreased the magnitude of the association between TSH and AF from -0.12 (s.e. 0.02) occurrences of AF per standard deviation change in height to -0.06 (0.02) (p=0.005). Adjusting for the other candidate mediators did not significantly attenuate the association. Conclusions The genetic association between TSH and increased AF risk is mediated, in part, by taller stature. Thus, some genetic mechanisms underlying TSH variability may contribute to AF risk through mechanisms determining height occurring early in life that differ from those driven by thyroid hormone level elevations in later life.

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1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ATHEROSCLEROSIS.2019.06.197
01 Aug 2019-Atherosclerosis
Abstract: Background Causal risk factors for aortic valve stenosis are poorly understood, limiting the possibility of preventing the most common heart valve disease. Objectives The hypothesis was tested that genetically based obesity measured by body mass index is causally associated with risk of aortic valve stenosis and replacement. Methods The authors included 108,211 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study. Participants had measurements of body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and waist circumference, and information on 5 genetic variants associated with obesity. A Mendelian randomization design was used to investigate genetic and observational associations of obesity with incident aortic valve stenosis (n = 1,215) and replacement (n = 467) for a median follow-up time of 8.7 years. Results Genetically increased body mass index was causally associated with increased risk of aortic valve stenosis. Compared with an unweighted allele score of 0 to 3, individuals with an allele score 7 to 10 had a mean increase in body mass index of 0.87 kg/m2, and the age and sex–adjusted hazard ratio for aortic valve stenosis was 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 1.7) for allele score 4, 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1 to 1.8) for allele score 5 to 6, and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3 to 2.1) for allele score 7 to 10 (p for trend: 9 × 10−5). A 1-kg/m2 increase in body mass index was associated with causal risk ratios for aortic valve stenosis and replacement, respectively, of 1.52 (95% CI: 1.23 to 1.87) and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.07 to 2.08) genetically, and with corresponding hazard ratios of 1.06 (95% CI: 1.05 to 1.08) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.03 to 1.08) observationally. Conclusions Obesity from human genetics was causally associated with higher risk of aortic valve stenosis and replacement.

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Topics: Aortic valve stenosis (59%), Heart valve (56%), Body mass index (53%) ... read more

1 Citations


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51 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1511939
Abstract: BACKGROUND The most appropriate targets for systolic blood pressure to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among persons without diabetes remain uncertain. METHODS We randomly assigned 9361 persons with a systolic blood pressure of 130 mm Hg or higher and an increased cardiovascular risk, but without diabetes, to a systolic blood-pressure target of less than 120 mm Hg (intensive treatment) or a target of less than 140 mm Hg (standard treatment). The primary composite outcome was myocardial infarction, other acute coronary syndromes, stroke, heart failure, or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS At 1 year, the mean systolic blood pressure was 121.4 mm Hg in the intensive-treatment group and 136.2 mm Hg in the standard-treatment group. The intervention was stopped early after a median follow-up of 3.26 years owing to a significantly lower rate of the primary composite outcome in the intensive-treatment group than in the standard-treatment group (1.65% per year vs. 2.19% per year; hazard ratio with intensive treatment, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.89; P<0.001). All-cause mortality was also significantly lower in the intensive-treatment group (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.90; P=0.003). Rates of serious adverse events of hypotension, syncope, electrolyte abnormalities, and acute kidney injury or failure, but not of injurious falls, were higher in the intensive-treatment group than in the standard-treatment group. CONCLUSIONS Among patients at high risk for cardiovascular events but without diabetes, targeting a systolic blood pressure of less than 120 mm Hg, as compared with less than 140 mm Hg, resulted in lower rates of fatal and nonfatal major cardiovascular events and death from any cause, although significantly higher rates of some adverse events were observed in the intensive-treatment group. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01206062.).

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Topics: Blood pressure (59%), Standard treatment (53%), Hazard ratio (53%) ... read more

3,374 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMC1602668
Abstract: BACKGROUND The most appropriate targets for systolic blood pressure to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among persons without diabetes remain uncertain. METHODS We randomly assigned 9361 persons with a systolic blood pressure of 130 mm Hg or higher and an increased cardiovascular risk, but without diabetes, to a systolic blood-pressure target of less than 120 mm Hg (intensive treatment) or a target of less than 140 mm Hg (standard treatment). The primary composite outcome was myocardial infarction, other acute coronary syndromes, stroke, heart failure, or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS At 1 year, the mean systolic blood pressure was 121.4 mm Hg in the intensive-treatment group and 136.2 mm Hg in the standard-treatment group. The intervention was stopped early after a median follow-up of 3.26 years owing to a significantly lower rate of the primary composite outcome in the intensive-treatment group than in the standard-treatment group (1.65% per year vs. 2.19% per year; hazard ratio with intensive treatment, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.89; P<0.001). All-cause mortality was also significantly lower in the intensive-treatment group (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.90; P=0.003). Rates of serious adverse events of hypotension, syncope, electrolyte abnormalities, and acute kidney injury or failure, but not of injurious falls, were higher in the intensive-treatment group than in the standard-treatment group. CONCLUSIONS Among patients at high risk for cardiovascular events but without diabetes, targeting a systolic blood pressure of less than 120 mm Hg, as compared with less than 140 mm Hg, resulted in lower rates of fatal and nonfatal major cardiovascular events and death from any cause, although significantly higher rates of some adverse events were observed in the intensive-treatment group. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01206062.).

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Topics: Prehypertension (59%), Blood pressure (56%), Randomized controlled trial (53%) ... read more

2,628 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1410489
Improve-It Investigators1Institutions (1)
Abstract: RESULTS The median time-weighted average LDL cholesterol level during the study was 53.7 mg per deciliter (1.4 mmol per liter) in the simvastatin–ezetimibe group, as compared with 69.5 mg per deciliter (1.8 mmol per liter) in the simvastatin-monotherapy group (P<0.001). The Kaplan–Meier event rate for the primary end point at 7 years was 32.7% in the simvastatin–ezetimibe group, as compared with 34.7% in the simvastatin-monotherapy group (absolute risk difference, 2.0 percentage points; hazard ratio, 0.936; 95% confidence interval, 0.89 to 0.99; P = 0.016). Rates of prespecified muscle, gallbladder, and hepatic adverse effects and cancer were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS When added to statin therapy, ezetimibe resulted in incremental lowering of LDL cholesterol levels and improved cardiovascular outcomes. Moreover, lowering LDL cholesterol to levels below previous targets provided additional benefit. (Funded by Merck; IMPROVE-IT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00202878.) abstr act

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Topics: Ezetimibe (57%), Alirocumab (56%), Bococizumab (53%) ... read more

2,470 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/IJE/DYV080
Abstract: Background: The number of Mendelian randomization analyses including large numbers of genetic variants is rapidly increasing. This is due to the proliferation of genome-wide association studies, and the desire to obtain more precise estimates of causal effects. However, some genetic variants may not be valid instrumental variables, in particular due to them having more than one proximal phenotypic correlate (pleiotropy). Methods: We view Mendelian randomization with multiple instruments as a meta-analysis, and show that bias caused by pleiotropy can be regarded as analogous to small study bias. Causal estimates using each instrument can be displayed visually by a funnel plot to assess potential asymmetry. Egger regression, a tool to detect small study bias in meta-analysis, can be adapted to test for bias from pleiotropy, and the slope coefficient from Egger regression provides an estimate of the causal effect. Under the assumption that the association of each genetic variant with the exposure is independent of the pleiotropic effect of the variant (not via the exposure), Egger’s test gives a valid test of the null causal hypothesis and a consistent causal effect estimate even when all the genetic variants are invalid instrumental variables. Results: We illustrate the use of this approach by re-analysing two published Mendelian randomization studies of the causal effect of height on lung function, and the causal effect of blood pressure on coronary artery disease risk. The conservative nature of this approach is illustrated with these examples. Conclusions: An adaption of Egger regression (which we call MR-Egger) can detect some violations of the standard instrumental variable assumptions, and provide an effect estimate which is not subject to these violations. The approach provides a sensitivity analysis for the robustness of the findings from a Mendelian randomization investigation.

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Topics: Mendelian Randomization Analysis (68%), Mendelian randomization (66%), Funnel plot (54%) ... read more

1,864 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NG.3656
Sayantan Das1, Lukas Forer2, Sebastian Schönherr2, Carlo Sidore1  +20 moreInstitutions (9)
01 Oct 2016-Nature Genetics
Abstract: Christian Fuchsberger, Goncalo Abecasis and colleagues describe a new web-based imputation service that enables rapid imputation of large numbers of samples and allows convenient access to large reference panels of sequenced individuals. Their state space reduction provides a computationally efficient solution for genotype imputation with no loss in imputation accuracy.

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Topics: Imputation (genetics) (63%)

1,544 Citations


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