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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/03009742.2020.1786854

Nailfold videocapillaroscopy: a novel possible surrogate marker for the evaluation of peripheral microangiopathy in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

04 Mar 2021-Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 50, Iss: 2, pp 85-94
Abstract: Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) changes in systemic sclerosis (SSc) are correlated with vascular complications, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), supporting a potential link between peripheral and internal organ vasculopathy. The current stage of knowledge regarding NVC and PAH is discussed, focusing on the assessment of peripheral microangiopathy and a potential relationship with functional, echocardiographic, and haemodynamic markers of cardiac dysfunction. A comprehensive literature search was carried out to identify all studies focusing on NVC findings in patients with PAH, diagnosed with right heart catheterization. The majority of the studies examined NVC findings in patients with SSc-PAH, while three studies reported NVC abnormalities in patients with idiopathic PAH. Besides the pulmonary vasculature, a systemic component of microangiopathy seems to be involved in PAH. Well-designed prospective trials are warranted to validate NVC as a biomarker, with clinical implications in the diagnostic evaluation, risk stratification, and overall management of PAH in the daily clinical setting.

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Topics: Microangiopathy (52%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12931-021-01622-1
Abstract: Although pulmonary vascular bed has been the main subject of research for many years in pulmonary hypertension (PH), interest has recently started to divert towards the possibility of a co-existing peripheral microangiopathy. The aim of the current study was to investigate the presence of nailfold video-capillaroscopic (NVC) structural changes in patients with precapillary PH and to identify possible associations of NVC measurements with markers of disease severity. Α prospective case–control study was performed in 28 consecutive patients with precapillary PH [14 with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and 14 with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH)] and 30 healthy controls. NVC quantitative and qualitative parameters were evaluated using Optilia Digital Capillaroscope. To ensure inter-observer repeatability capillaroscopic images were reviewed by two independent investigators. For multiple comparisons among continuous variables, one-way ANOVA or the Kruskal–Wallis test were used. Differences between the groups were tested with post-hoc analysis with adjustment for multiple comparisons (Bonferroni test). Both IPAH (71.4% were women, mean age 53.1 ± 13.4 years) and CTEPH (64.3% women, mean age 60.9 ± 14.4 years) groups presented reduced capillary density compared to healthy controls (8.4 ± 1.2 loops/mm and 8.0 ± 1.2 loops/mm vs. 9.7 ± 0.81 loops/mm, p < 0.001) and increased loop width (15.7 ± 3.9 μm and 15.8 ± 1.9 μm vs. 11.5 ± 2.3 μm, p < 0.001). More than half of patients with IPAH presented microhaemorrhages on capillary nailfold, while increased shape abnormalities in capillary morphology and more capillary thrombi per linear mm were detected in patients with CTEPH compared to patients with IPAH and healthy controls. All PH patients presented a non-specific NVC pattern compared to controls (p < 0.001). The findings of the study reveal a degree of significant peripheral microvascular alterations in patients with IPAH and CTEPH, suggesting a generalized impairment of peripheral microvasculature in pulmonary vascular disease.

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6 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJCARD.2021.03.033
Abstract: Background Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) comprises a severe phenotype of pulmonary arterial hypertension characterized by angiopathy of the lung circulation. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the presence of systemic microvascular abnormalities in patients with ES using nailfold video-capillaroscopy (NVC) and to identify potential correlations of nailfold capillaroscopic characteristics with non-invasive markers of systemic organ function. Methods Α cross-sectional NVC study was performed in 17 consecutive patients with ES and 17 healthy controls matched for age and sex. NVC quantitative (capillary density, capillary dimensions, haemorrhages, thrombi, shape abnormalities) and qualitative (normal, non-specific or scleroderma pattern) parameters were evaluated. Results Patients with ES [median age 40 (18–65) years, 11 women] presented reduced capillary density [8.8 (7.2–10.2) loops/mm vs. 9.9 (8.3–10.9) loops/mm, p = .004] and increased loop width [15.9 (10.3–21.7) μm vs. 12.3 (7.6–15.2) μm, p Conclusions This study supports the hypothesis of peripheral microvascular involvement in ES parallel to pulmonary microangiopathy detected by NVC. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our preliminary results.

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Topics: Microangiopathy (53%), Eisenmenger syndrome (50%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.31138/MJR.32.1.6
15 Feb 2021-
Abstract: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterised by an increased pressure in the pulmonary arterial circulation, resulting in the elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance. Pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, triggered by shear stress and hypoxia, constitute the hallmarks of pulmonary vasculopathy by promoting endothelial and smooth muscle cells proliferation, vasoconstriction, and thrombosis. While research was predominantly focused on pulmonary vasculature, the investigation of peripheral endothelial damage in different vascular beds has attracted the interest over the last years. As a result, effective non-invasive methods that can assess the endothelial function and the architectural integrity have been utilized for the evaluation of pulmonary and peripheral vasculature. Non-invasive plethysmography, pulmonary flow reserve, nailfold videocapillaroscopy, near-infrared spectroscopy, and imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance angiography and perfusion imaging coupled by a number of biomarkers can be used for the assessment of peripheral vascular function in PAH individuals. In this review, we summarise and critically approach the current evidence of more systemic derangement of vascular function in PAH defined by novel, non-invasive methods employed for functional and morphological assessment of endothelium and microcirculation.

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Topics: Vascular resistance (60%), Endothelial dysfunction (57%), Hypoxia (medical) (55%) ... read more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JCM10071528
Abstract: Systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH) is a leading cause of mortality in SSc. The extent of peripheral microvasculopathy assessed through nailfold capillaroscopy might correlate with the presence of PAH in SSc patients. We searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and performed a random effects meta-analysis of observational studies comparing nailfold capillaroscopic alterations in SSc-PAH versus SSc-noPAH patients. Weighted mean differences (WMD) with the corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using a modified Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Seven studies with 101 SSc-PAH and 277 SSc-noPAH participants were included. Capillary density was marginally reduced in the SSc-PAH group (WMD: −1.0, 95% CI: −2.0 to 0.0, I2 = 86%). This effect was strengthened once PAH diagnosis was confirmed by right heart catheterization (WMD: −1.2, 95% CI: −2.3 to −0.1, I2 = 85%). An increase in capillary loop width was observed in SSc-PAH compared to SSc-noPAH patients (WMD: 10.9, 95% CI: 2.5 to 19.4, I2 = 78%). Furthermore, SSc-PAH patients had a 7.3 times higher likelihood of active or late scleroderma pattern (95% CI: 3.0 to 18.0, I2 = 4%). SSc-PAH patients presented with worse nailfold capillaroscopic findings compared to SSc-noPAH patients.

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1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00296-021-04839-X
Abstract: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) represents one of the most devastating complications in connective tissue diseases (CTDs). The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of peripheral microangiopathy in patients with PAH associated with CTDs (CTD-PAH) by exploring nailfold videocapillaroscopic (NVC) changes and identify possible associations of NVC characteristics with markers of disease severity. Α cross-sectional study was performed in 18 CTD-PAH patients [13 PAH due to systemic sclerosis (SSc-PAH) and 5 with other types of CTD-PAH], 14 patients with SSc without PAH (SSc-non-PAH) and 20 healthy controls. NVC quantitative and qualitative parameters were evaluated using Optilia Digital Capillaroscope. To ensure inter-observer repeatability, capillaroscopic images were reviewed by two independent investigators. When compared to healthy controls, patients with CTD-PAH (77.8% women, mean age 65.9 years) presented reduced capillary density (6.5 ± 1.6 loops/mm vs. 9.7 ± 0.7 loops/mm, p < 0.001) and increased capillary loop width (23.3 ± 10.1 μm vs. 11.2 ± 2.5 μm, p < 0.001). SSc-PAH patients presented lower capillary density in comparison with other CTD-PAH patients and SSc-non-PAH subjects and abnormal and disorganized capillaries compared to controls. Patients with other CTD-PAH had also reduced capillary density and increased loop diameter compared to controls. A significant linear correlation was identified between capillary density and estimated glomerular filtration rate in the total CTD-PAH population (r = 0.63, p = 0.007). In SSc-PAH group, capillary loop diameter was positively correlated to cardiac index (r = 0.61, p = 0.02). Significant NVC microvascular changes were detected in patients with various types of CTD-PAH, suggesting an impaired peripheral microcirculation parallel to pulmonary vasculopathy.

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Topics: Population (51%)
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54 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ART.38098
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The 1980 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria for systemic sclerosis (SSc) lack sensitivity for early SSc and limited cutaneous SSc. The present work, by a joint committee of the ACR and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), was undertaken for the purpose of developing new classification criteria for SSc. METHODS: Using consensus methods, 23 candidate items were arranged in a multicriteria additive point system with a threshold to classify cases as SSc. The classification system was reduced by clustering items and simplifying weights. The system was tested by 1) determining specificity and sensitivity in SSc cases and controls with scleroderma-like disorders, and 2) validating against the combined view of a group of experts on a set of cases with or without SSc. RESULTS: It was determined that skin thickening of the fingers extending proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joints is sufficient for the patient to be classified as having SSc; if that is not present, 7 additive items apply, with varying weights for each: skin thickening of the fingers, fingertip lesions, telangiectasia, abnormal nailfold capillaries, interstitial lung disease or pulmonary arterial hypertension, Raynaud's phenomenon, and SSc-related autoantibodies. Sensitivity and specificity in the validation sample were, respectively, 0.91 and 0.92 for the new classification criteria and 0.75 and 0.72 for the 1980 ACR classification criteria. All selected cases were classified in accordance with consensus-based expert opinion. All cases classified as SSc according to the 1980 ACR criteria were classified as SSc with the new criteria, and several additional cases were now considered to be SSc. CONCLUSION: The ACR/EULAR classification criteria for SSc performed better than the 1980 ACR criteria for SSc and should allow for more patients to be classified correctly as having the disease.

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2,303 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1183/13993003.01913-2018
Abstract: Since the 1st World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension (WSPH) in 1973, pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been arbitrarily defined as mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) ≥25 mmHg at rest, measured by right heart catheterisation. Recent data from normal subjects has shown that normal mPAP was 14.0±3.3 mmHg. Two standard deviations above this mean value would suggest mPAP >20 mmHg as above the upper limit of normal (above the 97.5th percentile). This definition is no longer arbitrary, but based on a scientific approach. However, this abnormal elevation of mPAP is not sufficient to define pulmonary vascular disease as it can be due to an increase in cardiac output or pulmonary arterial wedge pressure. Thus, this 6th WSPH Task Force proposes to include pulmonary vascular resistance ≥3 Wood Units in the definition of all forms of pre-capillary PH associated with mPAP >20 mmHg. Prospective trials are required to determine whether this PH population might benefit from specific management. Regarding clinical classification, the main Task Force changes were the inclusion in group 1 of a subgroup “pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) long-term responders to calcium channel blockers”, due to the specific prognostic and management of these patients, and a subgroup “PAH with overt features of venous/capillaries (pulmonary veno-occlusive disease/pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis) involvement”, due to evidence suggesting a continuum between arterial, capillary and vein involvement in PAH.

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Topics: Pulmonary wedge pressure (66%), Pulmonary hypertension (63%), Vascular resistance (55%) ... read more

1,277 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1164/RCCM.200109-016OC
Abstract: Microvascular blood flow alterations are frequent in animal models of sepsis and may impair tissue oxygenation. We hypothesized that alterations of the microcirculation are present in patients with sepsis. We used an orthogonal polarization spectral imaging technique to investigate the sublingual microcirculation in 10 healthy volunteers, 16 patients before cardiac surgery, 10 acutely ill patients without sepsis (intensive care unit control subjects), and 50 patients with severe sepsis. The effects of topical application of acetylcholine (10(-2) M) were tested in 11 patients with sepsis. In each subject, five to seven sublingual areas were recorded and analyzed semiquantitatively. Data were analyzed with nonparametric tests and are presented as medians (25th-75th percentiles). No significant difference in microvascular blood flow was observed between healthy volunteers and patients before cardiac surgery or intensive care unit control subjects. The density of all vessels was significantly reduced in patients with severe sepsis (4.5 [4.2-5.2] versus 5.4 [5.4-6.3]/mm in volunteers, p < 0.01). The proportion of perfused small (< 20 microm) vessels was reduced in patients with sepsis (48 [33-61] versus 90 [89-92]% in volunteers, p < 0.001). These alterations were more severe in nonsurvivors. The topical application of acetylcholine totally reversed these alterations. In conclusion, microvascular blood flow alterations are frequent in patients with sepsis and are more severe in patients with a worse outcome.

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Topics: Sepsis (60%), Septic shock (54%), Intensive care unit (52%) ... read more

1,209 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1183/13993003.01032-2015
Nazzareno Galiè1, Marc Humbert2, Jean-Luc Vachiery, Simon Gibbs1  +17 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Guidelines summarize and evaluate all available evidence on a particular issue at the time of the writing process, with the aim of assisting health professionals in selecting the best management strategies for an individual patient with a given condition, taking into account the impact on outcome, as well as the risk–benefit ratio of particular diagnostic or therapeutic means. Guidelines and recommendations should help health professionals to make decisions in their daily practice. However, the final decisions concerning an individual patient must be made by the responsible health professional(s) in consultation with the patient and caregiver as appropriate.

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712 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JACC.2009.04.006
Abstract: Inflammatory processes are prominent in various types of human and experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH) and are increasingly recognized as major pathogenic components of pulmonary vascular remodeling. Macrophages, T and B lymphocytes, and dendritic cells are present in the vascular lesions of PH, whether in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) or PAH related to more classical forms of inflammatory syndromes such as connective tissue diseases, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or other viral etiologies. Similarly, the presence of circulating chemokines and cytokines, viral protein components (e.g., HIV-1 Nef), and increased expression of growth (such as vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor) and transcriptional (e.g., nuclear factor of activated T cells or NFAT) factors in these patients are thought to contribute directly to further recruitment of inflammatory cells and proliferation of smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Other processes, such as mitochondrial and ion channel dysregulation, seem to convey a state of cellular resistance to apoptosis; this has recently emerged as a necessary event in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular remodeling. Thus, the recognition of complex inflammatory disturbances in the vascular remodeling process offers potential specific targets for therapy and has recently led to clinical trials investigating, for example, the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This paper provides an overview of specific inflammatory pathways involving cells, chemokines and cytokines, cellular dysfunctions, growth factors, and viral proteins, highlighting their potential role in pulmonary vascular remodeling and the possibility of future targeted therapy.

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601 Citations