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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07391102.2020.1731603

Natural chemical entities from Arisaema genus might be a promising break-through against Japanese encephalitis virus infection: a molecular docking and dynamics approach

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 39, Iss: 4, pp 1404-1416
Abstract: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection affects millions of population worldwide whose incidence is increasing year by year and currently, no specific drugs are available for its treatment. How...

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Topics: Japanese encephalitis (58%), Population (53%)
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12 results found


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Introduction Japanese encephalitis (JE) is among the most important viral encephalitides in Asia, especially in rural and suburban areas where rice culture and pig farming coexist. (1-3) It has also occurred rarely and sporadically in northern Australia and parts of the Western Pacific. (4-6) JE is due to infection with the JE virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus. The main JEV transmission cycle involves Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes and similar species that lay eggs in rice paddies and other open water sources, with pigs and aquatic birds as principal vertebrate amplifying hosts. (1,2,7) Humans are generally thought to be dead-end JEV hosts, i.e. they seldom develop enough viremia to infect feeding mosquitoes. Fewer than 1% of human JEV infections result in JE. Approximately 20-30% of JE cases are fatal and 30-50% of survivors have significant neurologic sequelae. (8) JE is primarily a disease of children and most adults in endemic countries have natural immunity after childhood infection, but all age groups are affected. In most temperate areas of Asia, JEV is transmitted mainly during the warm season, when large epidemics can occur. In the tropics and subtropics, transmission can occur year-round but often intensifes during the rainy season. (1-3) The global incidence of JE is unknown because the intensity and quality of JE surveillance and the availability of diagnostic laboratory testing vary throughout the world. Countries that have implemented high-quality childhood JE vaccination programmes have seen a dramatic decline in JE incidence. Although JE is reportable to the World Health Organization (WHO) by its Member States, reporting is highly variable and incomplete. In the late 1980s, Burke and Leake estimated that 50 000 new cases of JE occurred annually among the 2.4 billion people living in the 16 Asian countries considered endemic at the time (approximate overall annual incidence: 2 per 100 000). (2) In the intervening two decades, despite major population growth, urbanization, changes in agricultural practices and increased use of the JE vaccine in many countries, this figure has been widely quoted, including very recently. (9-13) In 2000, assuming an annual, age-group-specific incidence of 25 cases per 100 000, Tsai estimated that in the absence of vaccination 175 000 cases of JE would occur annually among Asian children aged 0-14 years living in rural areas. (14) The current study used more recent, published, local or national incidence estimates and current population data to produce an updated estimate of the annual global incidence of JE. Methods We approximated the JE-affected territory of each of the 24 countries endemic for JE using a recent update (15) of an earlier approximation by Tsai (16) with some modifications (Table 1, available at: http://www.who.int/bulletin/ volumes/89/10/10-085233). Based on these same approximations, (15,16) we then stratified the JE-affected territory of some countries (e.g. China excluding Taiwan, India and Nepal) into two or more incidence strata. Because suitable studies of JE incidence were not available for every endemic country or incidence stratum, we sorted JE-endemic countries and incidence strata into 10 incidence groups (A, B, C1, C2 and D through I) based primarily on geographic proximity, ecologic similarity, vaccine programme similarity. Table 1 briefly describes the status of each endemic country's JE vaccination programme as of 2009, according to recent publications and unpublished sources. (8,17-20) Incidence data We identified studies that contained potentially useful data on the incidence of JE in Asia in a manner similar to the one used in a recent study of global typhoid fever incidence. (21) Whenever possible, this review followed the relevant guidelines for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA). (22) The review process is described as follows and no protocol is available. …

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Topics: Incidence (epidemiology) (51%)

539 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2174/1386207323666200416150754
Kamal Kant1, Uma Ranjan Lal, Ravi Rawat1, Anoop Kumar  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Background The Arisaema (Araceae) is a genus of approximately 180 perennial herbs widely distributed in the evergreen and deciduous forests. This genus (Arisaema) has been used as a medicinal agent since ancient times. Experimental investigations have shown a promising positive correlation with its folklore claim and this encourages us to report updated medicinal review (genus Arisaema) for future research. Objective This review aimed to summarize the ethnobotany, folklore uses, chemistry and biological activities. Conclusion The comprehensive literature on genus Arisaema indicates the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, and glycosphingolipids as the principal chemical constituents. Additionally, phytosterols, alkaloids, carboline derivatives and miscellaneous compounds were documented in plants of genus Arisaema. Biological investigations led to the credentials of antioxidant, anticancer, insecticidal, antimicrobial, anthelmintic and hepatoprotective activities. Following, several plant species are promising candidates for the treatment of cancer, parasitic diseases and microbial infection complications. Though, a lot of facets of this genus like phytoconstituents identification, mechanistic profile, adverse effects and clinical studies are still quite limited. Thus, this systematic review may act as a powerful tool in future studies for promoting health benefits against various health hazards.

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Topics: Arisaema (60%)

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.LFS.2021.119400
Parichehr Hassanzadeh1Institutions (1)
15 Jul 2021-Life Sciences
Abstract: The emergence of nanotechnology has provided the possibilities to overcome the potential problems associated with the development of pharmaceuticals including the low solubility, non-specific cellular uptake or action, and rapid clearance. Regarding the biomaterials (BMs), huge efforts have been made for improving their multi-functionalities via incorporation of various nanomaterials (NMs). Nanocomposite hydrogels with suitable properties could exhibit a variety of beneficial effects in biomedicine particularly in the delivery of therapeutics or tissue engineering. NMs including the silica- or carbon-based ones are capable of integration into various BMs that might be due to their special compositions or properties such as the hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, magnetic or electrical characteristics, and responsiveness to various stimuli. This might provide multi-functional nanobiomaterials against a wide variety of disorders. Meanwhile, inappropriate distribution or penetration into the cells or tissues, bio-nano interface complexity, targeting ability loss, or any other unpredicted phenomena are the serious challenging issues. Computational simulations and models enable development of NMs with optimal characteristics and provide a deeper knowledge of NM interaction with biosystems. This review highlights the biomedical significance of the multifunctional NMs particularly those applied for the development of 2-D or 3-D BMs for a variety of applications including the site-specific delivery of therapeutics. The powerful impacts of the computational techniques on the design process of NMs, quantitation and prediction of protein corona formation, risk assessment, and individualized therapy for improved therapeutic outcomes have also been discussed.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S276504
Abstract: Purpose The objective of our work was to prepare a potent and safe antimicrobial and anticancer agents, through synthesis of several peptides and examine their biological activities, namely as, cytotoxically potent and antimicrobial and antifungal agents. Introduction Multidrug-resistant microbial strains have arisen against all antibiotics in clinical use. Infections caused by these bacteria threaten global public health and are associated with high mortality rates. Methods The main backbone structure for the novel synthesized linear peptide is Nα-1, 3-benzenedicarbonyl-bis-(Amino acids)-X, (3–11). A computational docking study against DNA gyrase was performed to formulate a mode of action of the small compounds as antimicrobial agents. Results The peptide-bearing methionine-ester (4) exhibited potent antimicrobial activity compared to the other synthesized compounds, while, peptide (8), which had methionine-hydrazide fragment was the most potent as antifungal agent against Aspergillus niger with 100% inhibition percent. Compounds (6 and 7) showed the highest potency against breast human tumor cell line “MCF-7” with 95.1% and 79.8% of cell inhibition, respectively. The nine compounds possessed weak to moderate antiproliferative effect over colon tumor cell line. The docking results suggest good fitting through different hydrogen bond interactions with the protein residues. In silico ADMET study also evaluated and suggested that these compounds had promising oral bioavailability features. Conclusion The tested compounds need further modification to have significant antimicrobial and antitumor efficacy compared to the reference drugs.

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Topics: Antimicrobial (59%), Docking (molecular) (53%), Dipeptide (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CRPHAR.2021.100043
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the viral diseases affecting millions of peoples across the globe specifically developing countries. There is no specific treatment available, however, vaccines are available for its prevention. Unfortunately, available vaccines are not effective against all clinical isolates and are also associated with neurological complications in some individuals. We have screened the selected phytoconstituents of Andrographis paniculata against various targets of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) using Schrodinger suite 2019-3. Among all selected phytoconstituents, andrographolide has shown a good binding affinity towards NS3 protease as compared to NS3 helicase and NS5 Rdrp (RNA dependent RNA polymerase) of JEV. The molecular dynamics (MD) results have also shown good stability of andrographolide in the active site of NS3 protease. The absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) analysis has also indicated a good pharmacokinetic and safety profile of andrographolide. Finally, the in-vitro target-based assay have confirmed the inhibitory potential of andrographolide against the NS3 protease of JEV. In conclusion, andrographolide could have the potential to develop as an antiviral agent against JEV through inhibition of protease, however, further investigations are required.

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References
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33 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2471/BLT.10.085233
Grant L. Campbell, Susan L. Hills1, Marc Fischer1, Julie Jacobson2  +7 moreInstitutions (8)
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To update the estimated global incidence of Japanese encephalitis (JE) using recent data for the purpose of guiding prevention and control efforts. METHODS: Thirty-two areas endemic for JE in 24 Asian and Western Pacific countries were sorted into 10 incidence groups on the basis of published data and expert opinion. Population-based surveillance studies using laboratory-confirmed cases were sought for each incidence group by a computerized search of the scientific literature. When no eligible studies existed for a particular incidence group, incidence data were extrapolated from related groups. FINDINGS: A total of 12 eligible studies representing 7 of 10 incidence groups in 24 JE-endemic countries were identified.Approximately 67 900 JE cases typically occur annually (overall incidence: 1.8 per 100 000), of which only about 10% are reported to the World Health Organization. Approximately 33 900 (50%) of these cases occur in China (excluding Taiwan) and approximately 51 000 (75%) occur in children aged 0-14 years (incidence: 5.4 per 100 000). Approximately 55 000 (81%) cases occur in areas with well established or developing JE vaccination programmes, while approximately 12 900 (19%) occur in areas with minimal or no JE vaccination programmes. CONCLUSION: Recent data allowed us to refine the estimate of the global incidence of JE, which remains substantial despite improvements in vaccination coverage. More and better incidence studies in selected countries, particularly China and India, are needed to further refine these estimates.

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Topics: Incidence (epidemiology) (56%), Population (52%)

556 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Introduction Japanese encephalitis (JE) is among the most important viral encephalitides in Asia, especially in rural and suburban areas where rice culture and pig farming coexist. (1-3) It has also occurred rarely and sporadically in northern Australia and parts of the Western Pacific. (4-6) JE is due to infection with the JE virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus. The main JEV transmission cycle involves Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes and similar species that lay eggs in rice paddies and other open water sources, with pigs and aquatic birds as principal vertebrate amplifying hosts. (1,2,7) Humans are generally thought to be dead-end JEV hosts, i.e. they seldom develop enough viremia to infect feeding mosquitoes. Fewer than 1% of human JEV infections result in JE. Approximately 20-30% of JE cases are fatal and 30-50% of survivors have significant neurologic sequelae. (8) JE is primarily a disease of children and most adults in endemic countries have natural immunity after childhood infection, but all age groups are affected. In most temperate areas of Asia, JEV is transmitted mainly during the warm season, when large epidemics can occur. In the tropics and subtropics, transmission can occur year-round but often intensifes during the rainy season. (1-3) The global incidence of JE is unknown because the intensity and quality of JE surveillance and the availability of diagnostic laboratory testing vary throughout the world. Countries that have implemented high-quality childhood JE vaccination programmes have seen a dramatic decline in JE incidence. Although JE is reportable to the World Health Organization (WHO) by its Member States, reporting is highly variable and incomplete. In the late 1980s, Burke and Leake estimated that 50 000 new cases of JE occurred annually among the 2.4 billion people living in the 16 Asian countries considered endemic at the time (approximate overall annual incidence: 2 per 100 000). (2) In the intervening two decades, despite major population growth, urbanization, changes in agricultural practices and increased use of the JE vaccine in many countries, this figure has been widely quoted, including very recently. (9-13) In 2000, assuming an annual, age-group-specific incidence of 25 cases per 100 000, Tsai estimated that in the absence of vaccination 175 000 cases of JE would occur annually among Asian children aged 0-14 years living in rural areas. (14) The current study used more recent, published, local or national incidence estimates and current population data to produce an updated estimate of the annual global incidence of JE. Methods We approximated the JE-affected territory of each of the 24 countries endemic for JE using a recent update (15) of an earlier approximation by Tsai (16) with some modifications (Table 1, available at: http://www.who.int/bulletin/ volumes/89/10/10-085233). Based on these same approximations, (15,16) we then stratified the JE-affected territory of some countries (e.g. China excluding Taiwan, India and Nepal) into two or more incidence strata. Because suitable studies of JE incidence were not available for every endemic country or incidence stratum, we sorted JE-endemic countries and incidence strata into 10 incidence groups (A, B, C1, C2 and D through I) based primarily on geographic proximity, ecologic similarity, vaccine programme similarity. Table 1 briefly describes the status of each endemic country's JE vaccination programme as of 2009, according to recent publications and unpublished sources. (8,17-20) Incidence data We identified studies that contained potentially useful data on the incidence of JE in Asia in a manner similar to the one used in a recent study of global typhoid fever incidence. (21) Whenever possible, this review followed the relevant guidelines for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA). (22) The review process is described as follows and no protocol is available. …

... read more

Topics: Incidence (epidemiology) (51%)

539 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/EMBOJ/21.11.2757
03 Jun 2002-The EMBO Journal
Abstract: Viruses represent an attractive system with which to study the molecular basis of mRNA capping and its relation to the RNA transcription machinery. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5 of flaviviruses presents a characteristic motif of S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferases at its N-terminus, and polymerase motifs at its C-terminus. The crystal structure of an N-terminal fragment of Dengue virus type 2 NS5 is reported at 2.4 Å resolution. We show that this NS5 domain includes a typical methyltransferase core and exhibits a (nucleoside-2′-O-)-methyltransferase activity on capped RNA. The structure of a ternary complex comprising S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and a guanosine triphosphate (GTP) analogue shows that 54 amino acids N-terminal to the core provide a novel GTP-binding site that selects guanine using a previously unreported mechanism. Binding studies using GTP- and RNA cap-analogues, as well as the spatial arrangement of the methyltransferase active site relative to the GTP-binding site, suggest that the latter is a specific cap-binding site. As RNA capping is an essential viral function, these results provide a structural basis for the rational design of drugs against the emerging flaviviruses.

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Topics: RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (71%), Five-prime cap (67%), RNA polymerase I (65%) ... read more

524 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/JVI.65.5.2467-2475.1991
Abstract: The cleavages at the junctions of the flavivirus nonstructural (NS) proteins NS2A/NS2B, NS2B/NS3, NS3/NS4A, and NS4B/NS5 share an amino acid sequence motif and are presumably catalyzed by a virus-encoded protease. We constructed recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing various portions of the NS region of the dengue virus type 4 polyprotein. By analyzing immune precipitates of 35S-labeled lysates of recombinant virus-infected cells, we could monitor the NS2A/NS2B, NS2B/NS3, and NS3/NS4A cleavages. A polyprotein composed of NS2A, NS2B, and the N-terminal 184 amino acids of NS3 was cleaved at the NS2A/NS2B and NS2B/NS3 junctions, whereas a similar polyprotein containing only the first 77 amino acids of NS3 was not cleaved. This finding is consistent with the proposal that the N-terminal 180 amino acids of NS3 constitute a protease domain. Polyproteins containing NS2A and NS3 with large in-frame deletions of NS2B were not cleaved at the NS2A/NS2B or NS2B/NS3 junctions. Coinfection with a recombinant expressing NS2B complemented these NS2B deletions for NS2B/NS3 cleavage and probably also for NS2A/NS2B cleavage. Thus, NS2B is also required for the NS2A/NS2B and NS2B/NS3 cleavages and can act in trans. Other experiments showed that NS2B was needed, apparently in cis, for NS3/NS4A cleavage and for a series of internal cleavages in NS3. Indirect evidence that NS3 can also act in trans was obtained. Models are discussed for a two-component protease activity requiring both NS2B and NS3.

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Topics: NS3 (63%), Protease (54%), Polyproteins (53%) ... read more

516 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1359-6446(01)01712-3
Abstract: There is no doubt that ADME/Tox drug properties, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicity, are properties crucial to the final clinical success of a drug candidate. It has been estimated that nearly 50% of drugs fail because of unacceptable efficacy, which includes poor bioavailability as a result of ineffective intestinal absorption and undesirable metabolic stability 1 . It has also been estimated that up to 40% of drug candidates have failed in the past because of safety issues 2 . In this review, the methodologies that are available for use in drug development as in vitro human-based screens for ADME/Tox drug properties are discussed.

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Topics: Drug development (62%), ADME (61%), Intestinal absorption (54%) ... read more

412 Citations


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