scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Observation of parabolic nondiffracting optical fields

TL;DR: The first experimental observation of parabolic non-diffracting beams is reported, and the experimental transverse patterns show an inherent parabolic structure in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.
Abstract: We report the first experimental observation of parabolic non-diffracting beams, the fourth fundamental family of propagation-invariant optical fields of the Helmholtz equation We generate the even and odd stationary parabolic beam and with them we are able to produce traveling parabolic beams It is observed that these fields exhibit a number of unitary in-line vortices that do not interact on propagation The experimental transverse patterns show an inherent parabolic structure in good agreement with the theoretical predictions Our results exhibit a transverse energy flow of traveling beams never observed before
Citations
More filters
Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a progress overview focused on the recent theoretical and experimental advances in the area of soliton manipulation in optical lattices is presented, where the authors consider reconfigurable optically-induced lattices as well as waveguide arrays made in suitable nonlinear materials.
Abstract: We present a progress overview focused on the recent theoretical and experimental advances in the area of soliton manipulation in optical lattices Optical lattices offer the possibility to engineer and to control the diffraction of light beams in media with periodically-modulated optical properties, to manage the corresponding reflection and transmission bands, and to form specially designed defects Consequently, they afford the existence of a rich variety of new families of nonlinear stationary waves and solitons, lead to new rich dynamical phenomena, and offer novel conceptual opportunities for all-optical shaping, switching and routing of optical signals encoded in soliton formats In this overview, we consider reconfigurable optically-induced lattices as well as waveguide arrays made in suitable nonlinear materials We address both, one-dimensional and multi-dimensional geometries We specially target the new possibilities made possible by optical lattices induced by a variety of existing nondiffracting light patterns, we address nonlinear lattices and soliton arrays, and we briefly explore the unique features exhibited by light propagation in defect modes and in random lattices, an area of current topical interest and of potential cross-disciplinary impact

219 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, Turunen and Friberg dealt with a class of fields with propagation-invariant properties such as the optical intensity distribution and applied them to scalar and electromagnetic approaches.
Abstract: The first article by Turunen and Friberg deals with a class of fields with propagation-invariant properties such as the optical intensity distribution. Coherent and partially coherent stationary and pulsed solutions are treated in view of scalar and electromagnetic approaches. Approximations of ideal propagation-invariant fields and methods for their generation are discussed. Finally, some application areas are covered.

149 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The theory, generation, properties, and applications of various non-diffracting beams, including the Bessel beam, Mathieu beam, and Airy beam, are reviewed in this paper.
Abstract: “Non-diffracting” beams do not spread as they propagate. This property is useful in many areas. Here, the theory, generation, properties, and applications of various “non-diffracting” beams, including the Bessel beam, Mathieu beam, and Airy beam is reviewed. Applications include imaging, micromanipulation, nonlinear optics, and optical transfection.

145 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the first experimental generation of high-order Mathieu beams and confirm their propagation invariance over a limited range were reported, using a computer-generated phase hologram.
Abstract: We report the first experimental generation of high-order Mathieu beams and confirm their propagation invariance over a limited range. In our experiment we use a computer-generated phase hologram. The peculiar behaviour of the vortices in Mathieu beams gives rise to questions about their orbital-angular-momentum content, which we calculate by performing a decomposition in terms of Bessel beams.

102 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the experimental generation and characterization of four fundamental families of Helmholtz-Gauss beams, namely, cosine Gauss, stationary and helical MathieuGauss beam, sta- tionary and traveling parabolic Gauss beam and Bessel beam, is presented.
Abstract: We present the experimental generation and characterization of each one of the four fundamental families of Helmholtz-Gauss beams: cosine-Gauss beams, stationary and helical Mathieu-Gauss beams, sta- tionary and traveling parabolic-Gauss beams, and Bessel-Gauss beams. Both the transverse intensity profile and power spectrum that each one of the beams exhibits upon propagation is observed and compared to the theoretical model with good quantitative agreement. Emphasis is made on the fact that each of the four families of HzG beams is complete and orthogonal, and thus of fundamental relevance. © 2006 Society of Photo-

68 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, exact nonsingular solutions of the scalar-wave equation for beams that are non-diffracting were presented, which means that the intensity pattern in a transverse plane is unaltered by propagating in free space.
Abstract: We present exact, nonsingular solutions of the scalar-wave equation for beams that are nondiffracting. This means that the intensity pattern in a transverse plane is unaltered by propagating in free space. These beams can have extremely narrow intensity profiles with effective widths as small as several wavelengths and yet possess an infinite depth of field. We further show (by using numerical simulations based on scalar diffraction theory) that physically realizable finite-aperture approximations to the exact solutions can also possess an extremely large depth of field.

2,283 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that dislocations are to be expected whenever limited trains of waves, ultimately derived from the same oscillator, travel in different directions and interfere -for example in a scattering problem.
Abstract: When an ultrasonic pulse, containing, say, ten quasi-sinusoidal oscillations, is reflected in air from a rough surface, it is observed experimentally that the scattered wave train contains dislocations, which are closely analogous to those found in imperfect crystals. We show theoretically that such dislocations are to be expected whenever limited trains of waves, ultimately derived from the same oscillator, travel in different directions and interfere - for example in a scattering problem. Dispersion is not involved. Equations are given showing the detailed structure of edge, screw and mixed edge-screw dislocations, and also of parallel sets of such dislocations. Edge dislocations can glide relative to the wave train at any velocity; they can also climb, and screw dislocations can glide. Wavefront dislocations may be curved, and they may intersect; they may collide and rebound; they may annihilate each other or be created as loops or pairs. With dislocations in wave trains, unlike crystal dislocations, there is no breakdown of linearity near the centre. Mathematically they are lines along which the phase is indeterminate; this implies that the wave amplitude is zero.

1,984 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
12 Sep 2002-Nature
TL;DR: Bessel beams do not diverge and, furthermore, if part of the beam is obstructed or distorted the beam reconstructs itself after a characteristic propagation distance, which may be utilized within optical tweezers to trap particles in multiple, spatially separated sample cells with a single beam.
Abstract: Optical tweezers1 are commonly used for manipulating microscopic particles, with applications in cell manipulation2, colloid research3,4,5, manipulation of micromachines6 and studies of the properties of light beams7. Such tweezers work by the transfer of momentum from a tightly focused laser to the particle, which refracts and scatters the light and distorts the profile of the beam. The forces produced by this process cause the particle to be trapped near the beam focus. Conventional tweezers use gaussian light beams, which cannot trap particles in multiple locations more than a few micrometres apart in the axial direction, because of beam distortion by the particle and subsequent strong divergence from the focal plane. Bessel beams8,9, however, do not diverge and, furthermore, if part of the beam is obstructed or distorted the beam reconstructs itself after a characteristic propagation distance10. Here we show how this reconstructive property may be utilized within optical tweezers to trap particles in multiple, spatially separated sample cells with a single beam. Owing to the diffractionless nature of the Bessel beam, secondary trapped particles can reside in a second sample cell far removed (∼3 mm) from the first cell. Such tweezers could be used for the simultaneous study of identically prepared ensembles of colloids and biological matter, and potentially offer enhanced control of ‘lab-on-a-chip’ and optically driven microstructures.

914 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A class of invariant optical fields that may have a highly localized distribution along one of the transverse directions and a sharply peaked quasi-periodic structure along the other and are described by the radial and angular Mathieu functions is presented.
Abstract: Based on the separability of the Helmholtz equation into elliptical cylindrical coordinates, we present another class of invariant optical fields that may have a highly localized distribution along one of the transverse directions and a sharply peaked quasi-periodic structure along the other. These fields are described by the radial and angular Mathieu functions. We identify the corresponding function in the McCutchen sphere that produces this kind of beam and propose an experimental setup for the realization of an invariant optical field.

489 citations