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Journal ArticleDOI

Surface characterization of CdS0.62Se0.38 by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

01 Jan 1992-Journal of Materials Science Letters (Kluwer Academic Publishers)-Vol. 11, Iss: 5, pp 252-254
About: This article is published in Journal of Materials Science Letters.The article was published on 1992-01-01. It has received 7 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy & Characterization (materials science).
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of ion sputtering on the surface layers of multicomponent targets are discussed, and it is shown that the changes are due to radiation-induced diffusion and segregation effects.
Abstract: Ion bombardment often leads to compositional changes in the surface layers of multicomponent targets. Such changes due to noble gas ion sputtering are discussed for InP and GaAs. The analyses show that the compositional change in InP (i.e., indium enrichment) is mainly due to preferential sputtering. In the case of GaAs. the changes are due to radiation-induced diffusion and segregation effects. Brief mention is made of compositional changes in a few other systems. The discussion on sputter-induced topography development deals mainly with InP because ion bombardment leads to dramatic topographical effects in this material. Ripple development on GaAs is also briefly discussed. Radiation damage has been well researched, and its mechanism and effects usually differ substantially when going from one semiconductor group to another. Bombardment-induced damage is briefly discussed for InP, GaAs, SiC, some II-VI semiconductors, and HgCdTe.

62 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the photoelectrochemical performance of CdSSe quantum dots tethered to a framework of vertically oriented titania (TiO2) nanotubes was studied.

30 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies have given concurrent results revealing the chemical states of the ternary samples.

23 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a solution mixing and casting of Cd(NO3)2·4H2O and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) at different molar ratios (1:100 − 1:600) followed by hydrogen sulfide treatment were employed to fabricate solid films of cadmium sulfide (CdS)/polyethylene Oxide (Poxide) nanocomposites.

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2020-Vacuum
TL;DR: In this paper, the ternary solid solution (CdS1-xSex) thin films were deposited by Chemical Solution onto ITO/glass substrates at 90 degrees C. The results revealed good crystalline quality of CBD films as an effect of ITO substrate and deposition temperature.

9 citations

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22 Dec 2012
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a review of the literature on electron spectroscopy and its application in the field of computer vision. But they do not discuss the specific applications of electron spectrograms.
Abstract: 1 Introduction.- 1. History.- 2. Scope of Present Book and Review of Past Books.- 3. Name-Calling.- 4. Areas Related to Electron Spectroscopy Not to be Discussed in Detail.- 4.1. Electron-Impact Spectroscopy.- 4.2. Photoemission.- 4.3. Penning Ionization Spectroscopy.- 4.4. Ion Neutralization Spectroscopy.- 5. Fields Related to Electron Spectroscopy.- 2 Instrumentation and Experimental Procedures.- 1. Source Volume.- 1.1. Excitation Devices.- 1.1.1. Electron Gun.- 1.1.2. X-Ray Tube.- 1.1.3. Synchrotron Radiation.- 1.1.4. Vacuum-UV Sources.- 1.2. Target Sample.- 1.2.1. Gases.- 1.2.2. Solids.- 1.2.3. Condensed Vapors, Liquids, and Targets at Other Than Room Temperature.- 1.3. Chamber for Angular Distribution Studies.- 1.4. Preacceleration and Deceleration.- 2. Analyzer.- 2.1. Cancellation of Magnetic Fields.- 2.1.1. Helmholtz Coils.- 2.1.2. Magnetic Shielding.- 2.2. Types of Analyzers.- 2.2.1. Retarding Grid.- 2.2.2. Dispersion.- 3. Detector Systems and Data Analysis.- 3.1. Single-Channel Detector.- 3.2. Position-Sensitive Detector.- 3.3. Scanning the Spectrum.- 3.4. Data Analysis.- 4. New Developments.- 5. Review of Commercial Instruments.- 5.1. AEI.- 5.2. Du Pont.- 5.3. Hewlett-Packard.- 5.4. McPherson.- 5.5. Perkin-Elmer.- 5.6. Physical Electronics.- 5.7. McCrone-RCI.- 5.8. Vacuum Generators, Inc..- 5.9. Varian.- 5.10. Others.- 3 Fundamental Concepts.- 1. Photoelectric Effect.- 2. Binding Energy.- 3. Final States and the Sudden Approximation.- 3.1. Spin-Orbit Splitting.- 3.2. Multiplet Splitting.- 3.3. Jahn-Teller Splitting.- 3.4. Electron Shakeoff and Shakeup.- 3.5. Configuration Interaction.- 3.6. Koopmans' Theorem and the Sudden Approximation.- 3.7. Vibrational and Rotational Final States.- 4. Atomic Wave Functions.- 5. Molecular Orbital Theory.- 5.1. Theoretical Models.- 5.1.1. Ab Initio Calculations.- 5.1.2. Semiempirical Calculations.- 5.2. Basis Set Extension and MO Mixing.- 5.3. Atomic and Molecular Orbital Nomenclature.- 5.3.1. Atoms.- 5.3.2. Molecules.- 4 Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the Outer Shells.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Energy Level Scheme.- 2.1. Binding Energy.- 2.2. Final States.- 2.2.1. Spin-Orbit Splitting.- 2.2.2. Multiplet Splitting due to Spin Coupling.- 2.2.3. Jahn-Teller Effect.- 2.2.4. Electron Shakeoff and Shakeup.- 2.2.5. Configuration Interaction.- 2.2.6. Resonance Absorption.- 2.2.7. Collision Peaks.- 3. Identification of the Orbital.- 3.1. Ionization Potentials.- 3.1.1. Characteristic Ionization Bands.- 3.1.2. Effects of Substituents.- 3.1.3. Sum Rule.- 3.1.4. The Perfluoro Effect.- 3.1.5. Dependence on Steric Effects.- 3.2. Identification of Orbitals by Vibrational Structure.- 3.3. Identification of Molecular Orbitals from Intensities of Ionization Bands.- 3.4. Identification of Molecular Orbitals by Angular Distribution.- 4. Comparison of PESOS with Other Experimental Data.- 4.1. Optical Spectroscopy.- 4.2. Mass Spectroscopy.- 5. Survey of the Literature on PESOS.- 5.1. Atoms.- 5.2. Diatomic Molecules.- 5.2.1. H2.- 5.2.2. N2 and CO.- 5.2.3. O2 and NO.- 5.2.4. Diatomic Molecules Containing Halogen.- 5.3. Triatomic Molecules.- 5.3.1. Linear Triatomic Molecules.- 5.3.2. Bent Triatomic Molecules.- 5.4. Organic Molecules.- 5.4.1. Methane, Alkanes, and Tetrahedral Symmetry.- 5.4.2. Unsaturated Aliphatics.- 5.4.3. Ring Compounds.- 5.4.4. Multiring Compounds.- 5.4.5. Organic Halides.- 5.4.6. Miscellaneous Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Phosphorus.- 5.5. Organometallics and Miscellaneous Inorganic Polyatomic Molecules.- 5.6. Ions, Transient Species, and Other Special Studies in PESOS.- 6. Studies on Solids.- 7. Analytical Applications of PESOS.- 5 Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the Inner Shells.- 1. Atomic Structure.- 2. Theoretical Basis of Chemical Shifts of Core Electrons.- 2.1. Valence Shell Potential Model.- 2.2. Effect of Neighboring Atoms.- 2.3. Calculation of Net Charge from Electronegativity.- 2.4. Calculation of Net Charge from Semiempirical MO.- 2.5. Use of Ab Initio Calculations for Chemical Shifts.- 2.6. Correlation of Chemical Shift with Thermochemical Data.- 3. Summary of Data on Chemical Shifts as a Function of the Periodic Table.- 3.1. Carbon.- 3.2. Nitrogen and Phosphorus.- 3.3. Sulfur and Oxygen.- 3.4. Group IIIA, IVA, VA, and VIA Elements.- 3.4.1. Group IIIA: B, Al, Ga, In, and Tl.- 3.4.2. Group IVA: C, Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb.- 3.4.3. Group VA: N, P, As, Sb, and Bi.- 3.4.4. Group VIA: O, S, Se, and Te.- 3.5. Halides and Rare Gases.- 3.6. Alkali Metals and Alkaline Earths.- 3.7. Transition Metals.- 3.7.1. First Transition Metal Series: Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni.- 3.7.2. Second Transition Metal Series: Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd.- 3.7.3. Third Transition Metal Series: Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt.- 3.8. Groups IB and IIB: Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg.- 3.9. Rare Earths and Actinides.- 4. Special Topics on Shifts in Core Binding Energies.- 4.1. Experimental and Interpretive Problems in PESIS.- 4.1.1. Comparative Problems in the Gas and Solid Phases.- 4.1.2. Charging.- 4.1.3. Definition of Binding Energy for Insulators.- 4.1.4. Binding Energy of Surface Atoms.- 4.1.5. Radiation Effects.- 4.1.6. Linewidths.- 4.2. Inorganic Compounds.- 4.2.1. Multiple Chemical Environment.- 4.2.2. Coordination Complexes.- 4.3. Organic Compounds.- 4.3.1. Resonance.- 4.3.2. Substituent Effects.- 4.3.3. Group Analysis.- 4.3.4. Specific Studies on Organic Molecules.- 4.4. Comparison of Core Electron Binding Energy Shifts with Other Physical Quantities.- 4.4.1. Mossbauer Isomer Shift.- 4.4.2. NMR.- 4.4.3. Other Physical Data.- 5. Other Applications of PESIS.- 5.1. Multicomponent Structure.- 5.1.1. Multiplet or Exchange Splitting.- 5.1.2. Electron Shakeoff and Shakeup.- 5.1.3. Configuration Interaction.- 5.1.4. Characteristic Energy Losses.- 5.1.5. Determining the Nature of Multicomponent Structure.- 5.2. PESIS for Surface Studies.- 5.3. Angular Studies with PESIS.- 6. Use of PESIS for Applied Research.- 6.1. PESIS as an Analytical Tool.- 6.2. Biological Systems.- 6.3. Geology.- 6.4. Environmental Studies.- 6.5. Surface Studies.- 6.6. Polymers and Alloys.- 6.7. Radiation Studies.- 6.8. Industrial Uses.- 6 Auger Electron Spectroscopy.- 1. Theory of the Auger Process.- 2. Comparison of the Auger Phenomenon with the Photoelectric Effect and X-Ray Emission.- 3. Use of Auger Spectroscopy for Gases.- 3.1. Atoms.- 3.2. Molecules.- 3.3. Study of Ionization Phenomena by Auger Spectroscopy.- 3.4. Autoionization.- 3.5. Auger Spectroscopy for Use in Gas Analysis.- 4. Use of Auger Spectroscopy in the Study of Solids.- 4.1. Special Problems Encountered on Using AES with Solids.- 4.1.1. Variables Concerned with Production of Auger Electrons.- 4.1.2. High-Energy Satellite Lines.- 4.1.3. Characteristic Energy Losses.- 4.1.4. Charging in Nonconducting Samples.- 4.2. High-Resolution Auger Spectroscopy with Solids.- 4.3. General Analytical Use of Auger Spectroscopy.- 4.4. Use of Auger Spectroscopy in the Study of Surfaces.- 4.4.1. General Considerations.- 4.4.2. Literature Survey of Surface Applications.- 4.5. Other Methods for Surface Analysis.- 4.5.1. Comparison of PESIS and Auger Spectroscopy for Surface Studies.- 4.5.2. Methods of Surface Analysis Other than AES and PESIS.- Appendixes.- 1. Atomic Binding Energies for Each Subshell for Elements Z = 1-106.- 3. Compilation of Data on Shifts in Core Binding Energies.- 4. Acronyms and Definitions of Special Interest in Electron Spectroscopy.- References.

661 citations

"Surface characterization of CdS0.62..." refers background in this paper

  • ...As the Se 3pl/2 XPS area is decreasing with increasing argon ion sputtering time, the Se 2p3/2 XPS peak area will also decrease and the ratio of the areas of the Se 3pl/2 and 3p3/2 XPS peaks should be 1:2 (for the p-orbital, l = 1, therefore, 2/:(2l + 2) = 1:2) [ 16 ]....


08 Jul 2012
TL;DR: Growth and Doping of Semiconductor Compounds: Kinetics of Incorporation Processes at Kink Sites YuYu Hervieu, MP Ruzaikin Gas-phase Growth Kinetics and Morphology of Lead and Germanium Telluride Crystals LV Yashina, VI Dernovskii, VP Zlomanov, VI Shtanov Lateral Epitaxy of Gallium Arsenide by Chloride Vapor Transport IV Ivonin, LG Lavrent'eva, LP Porokhovnichenko Growth and Structure of Si Epil
Abstract: Growth and Doping of Semiconductor Compounds: Kinetics of Incorporation Processes at Kink Sites YuYu Hervieu, MP Ruzaikin Gas-Phase Growth Kinetics and Morphology of Lead and Germanium Telluride Crystals LV Yashina, VI Dernovskii, VP Zlomanov, VI Shtanov Lateral Epitaxy of Gallium Arsenide by Chloride Vapor Transport IV Ivonin, LG Lavrent'eva, LP Porokhovnichenko Growth and Structure of Si Epilayers on Porous Si AA Fedorov, MA Revenko, EM Trukhanov, SI Romanov, AA Karanovich, VV Kirienko, MA Lamin, AK Gutakovskii, OP Pchelyakov, LV Sokolov Heteroepitaxy of Heterovalent Compounds: Molecular Beam Deposition of ZnSe on GaAs MV Yakushev, YuG Sidorov, LV Sokolov, VG Kesler, LM Logvinskii, TA Gavrilova Effect of Crystallographic Orientation of the Interface on the Growth of Perfect Epitaxial Layers of Semiconductors EM Trukhanov, AV Kolesnikov, GA Lyubas InGaAsP Solid Solutions: Phase Diagrams, Growth from the Melt on GaAs Substrates, Elastically Strained Epitaxial Layers YuB Bolkhovityanov, AS Yaroshevich, MA Revenko, EM Trukhanov Theory of Island Film Growth from a Eutectic Melt at the Late Stage of Evolution SA Kukushki, DA Grigor'ev Self-Sustained Nuclei-Assisted Explosive Crystallization VP Koverda, VN Skokov Morphological Instability and Inclusion Formation during Crystal Growth from a Flowing Solution SYu Potapenko Mechanisms of Striation Formation in Layer Growth of Crystals from Solutions IL Smolsky, AE Voloshin, EB Rudneva, NP Zaitseva, J De Yoreo Block Formation and Crystallographic Orientation Changes during Growth of Shaped Sapphire Single Crystals PI Antonov, SI Bakholdin, VM Krymov, IL Shul'pina, MP Shcheglov Revised Phase Diagrams of LiF-RF3 (R = La-Lu, Y) Systems PP Fedorov, BP Sobolev, LV Medvedeva, BM Reiterov The Growth of Laser Oxide Crystals: Structural Aspects EV Zharikov, GM Kuz'micheva, SG Novikov Vibrational Control of Czochralski Crystal Growth AZ Myal'dun, AI Prostomolotov, NK Tolochko, NA Verezub, EV Zharikov Ingrown Regular Domain Structure and Impurity Distribution in LiNbO3 Doped with a Rare Earth (Nd,Eu) and Magnesium II Naumova, NF Evlanova, OA Gliko, AA Lukashev, SV Lavrishchev

403 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the energy levels of core electrons in ZnO, ZnS and CdTe were determined using X-ray-induced electron-emission measurements.
Abstract: X-ray induced electron-emission measurements were used to determine the energy levels of core electrons in ZnO, ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdO, CdS, CdSe, CdTe, HgS, HgSe, and HgTe. The investigated energy range extends from the bottom of the valence band to about 1200 eV below the Fermi level. Chemical shifts were determined by comparing our results with experimental values for the pure elements. These shifts are plotted as a function of the fractional ionicity values determined by Phillips and Van Vechten, Pauling, and Coulson. Spinorbit-splitting values were experimentally determined for the first time for several levels including the $\mathrm{Zn}3d$, $\mathrm{Cd}4d$, and $\mathrm{Hg}5d$ levels. Furthermore, our measured energy values for these levels are used to determine the absolute energy values of the initial and final states of transitions normally labeled ${d}_{2}$ in ultraviolet reflectivity and electron-energy-loss measurements. Our results for ZnSe and CdTe are compared with self-consistent relativistic orthogonalized-plane-wave calculations for the excitation energies of these compounds. Agreement with these theoretical calculations is best for the levels closest to the valence band and appears to be angular momentum dependent.

170 citations

21 Jan 2014

146 citations