Author

# Ulf Ekström

Bio: Ulf Ekström is an academic researcher from University of Oslo. The author has contributed to research in topics: Density functional theory & Orbital-free density functional theory. The author has an hindex of 10, co-authored 12 publications receiving 1260 citations.

##### Papers

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Vilnius University

^{1}, University of Ferrara^{2}, Aarhus University^{3}, University of Oslo^{4}, Royal Institute of Technology^{5}, Electromagnetic Geoservices^{6}, University of Trieste^{7}, Norwegian Computing Center^{8}, University of Southern Denmark^{9}, University of Santiago de Compostela^{10}, Danske Bank^{11}, Ruhr University Bochum^{12}, Norwegian Meteorological Institute^{13}, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment^{14}, University of Auckland^{15}, Norwegian University of Science and Technology^{16}, Information Technology University^{17}, Technical University of Ostrava^{18}, Linköping University^{19}, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology^{20}, ETH Zurich^{21}, Australian National University^{22}, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia^{23}, Cisco Systems, Inc.^{24}, University of Buenos Aires^{25}, University of Copenhagen^{26}, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg^{27}, Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz^{28}, National Scientific and Technical Research Council^{29}, University of Valencia^{30}, Paul Sabatier University^{31}, University of Melbourne^{32}, University of Nottingham^{33}, University of Bristol^{34}, CLC bio^{35}, Princeton University^{36}, La Trobe University^{37}, Clemson University^{38}TL;DR: Dalton is a powerful general‐purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree–Fock, Kohn–Sham, multiconfigurational self‐consistent‐field, Møller–Plesset, configuration‐interaction, and coupled‐cluster levels of theory.

Abstract: Dalton is a powerful general-purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree-Fock, Kohn-Sham, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, MOller-Plesset, confi ...

1,212 citations

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TL;DR: ReSpect allows molecules with >100 atoms to be efficiently handled at the four-component level of theory on standard central processing unit-based commodity clusters, at computational costs that rarely exceed a factor of 10 when compared to the non-relativistic realm.

Abstract: With the increasing interest in compounds containing heavier elements, the experimental and theoretical community requires computationally efficient approaches capable of simultaneous non-perturbative treatment of relativistic, spin-polarization, and electron correlation effects. The ReSpect program has been designed with this goal in mind and developed to perform relativistic density functional theory (DFT) calculations on molecules and solids at the quasirelativistic two-component (X2C Hamiltonian) and fully relativistic four-component (Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian) level of theory, including the effects of spin polarization in open-shell systems at the Kramers-unrestricted self-consistent field level. Through efficient algorithms exploiting time-reversal symmetry, biquaternion algebra, and the locality of atom-centered Gaussian-type orbitals, a significant reduction of the methodological complexity and computational cost has been achieved. This article summarizes the essential theoretical and technical advances made in the program, supplemented by example calculations. ReSpect allows molecules with >100 atoms to be efficiently handled at the four-component level of theory on standard central processing unit-based commodity clusters, at computational costs that rarely exceed a factor of 10 when compared to the non-relativistic realm. In addition to the prediction of band structures in solids, ReSpect offers a growing list of molecular spectroscopic parameters that range from electron paramagnetic resonance parameters (g-tensor, A-tensor, and zero-field splitting), via (p)NMR chemical shifts and nuclear spin-spin couplings, to various linear response properties using either conventional or damped-response time-dependent DFT (TDDFT): excitation energies, frequency-dependent polarizabilities, and natural chiroptical properties (electronic circular dichroism and optical rotatory dispersion). In addition, relativistic real-time TDDFT electron dynamics is another unique feature of the program. Documentation, including user manuals and tutorials, is available at the program's website http://www.respectprogram.org.

74 citations

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TL;DR: A novel implementation of Kohn-Sham density-functional theory utilizing London atomic orbitals as basis functions is presented, which is the first fully self-consistent implementation of the latter for molecules in very strong magnetic fields.

Abstract: We present a novel implementation of Kohn–Sham density-functional theory utilizing London atomic orbitals as basis functions. External magnetic fields are treated non-perturbatively, which enable the study of both magnetic response properties and the effects of strong fields, using either standard density functionals or current-density functionals—the implementation is the first fully self-consistent implementation of the latter for molecules. Pilot applications are presented for the finite-field calculation of molecular magnetizabilities, hypermagnetizabilities, and nuclear magnetic resonance shielding constants, focusing on the impact of current-density functionals on the accuracy of the results. Existing current-density functionals based on the gauge-invariant vorticity are tested and found to be sensitive to numerical details of their implementation. Furthermore, when appropriately regularized, the resulting magnetic properties show no improvement over standard density-functional results. An advantage of the present implementation is the ability to apply density-functional theory to molecules in very strong magnetic fields, where the perturbative approach breaks down. Comparison with high accuracy full-configuration-interaction results show that the inadequacies of current-density approximations are exacerbated with increasing magnetic field strength. Standard density-functionals remain well behaved but fail to deliver high accuracy. The need for improved current-dependent density-functionals, and how they may be tested using the presented implementation, is discussed in light of our findings.

61 citations

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TL;DR: Generalized second-order vibrational perturbation theory is used to calculate the fundamental frequencies of methane, ethane, benzene, and aniline, comparing B3LYP, BLYP, and Hartree-Fock results and suggesting that the inclusion of electron correlation is not essential for the reliable calculation of cubic and quartic force constants.

Abstract: We present the first analytic implementation of cubic and quartic force constants at the level of Kohn–Sham density-functional theory. The implementation is based on an open-ended formalism for the evaluation of energy derivatives in an atomic-orbital basis. The implementation relies on the availability of open-ended codes for evaluation of one- and two-electron integrals differentiated with respect to nuclear displacements as well as automatic differentiation of the exchange–correlation kernels. We use generalized second-order vibrational perturbation theory to calculate the fundamental frequencies of methane, ethane, benzene, and aniline, comparing B3LYP, BLYP, and Hartree–Fock results. The Hartree–Fock anharmonic corrections agree well with the B3LYP corrections when calculated at the B3LYP geometry and from B3LYP normal coordinates, suggesting that the inclusion of electron correlation is not essential for the reliable calculation of cubic and quartic force constants.

39 citations

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TL;DR: The coupled perturbed Kohn-Sham (CPKS) computational scheme for the evaluation of electric susceptibility tensors in periodic systems, recently implemented in the CRYSTAL code, has been extended to third-order and used to obtain static electronic hyperpolarizabilities of zigzag BN nanotubes for the first time.

Abstract: The coupled perturbed Kohn–Sham (CPKS) computational scheme for the evaluation of electric susceptibility tensors in periodic systems, recently implemented in the CRYSTAL code, has been extended to third-order. It is, then, used to obtain static electronic hyperpolarizabilities of zigzag BN nanotubes for the first time. This procedure, which is fully analytic in all key steps, requires a double self-consistent treatment for taking into account the first- and second-order response of the system to the applied field. The performance of different functionals is compared and the B3LYP hybrid is ultimately chosen for calculations on nanotubes having radii as large as R = 20 A (6–200 atoms in the unit cell). Such large radii are sufficient to give the pure longitudinal component of the (hyper)polarizability tensors to within 1% of the “exact” hexagonal BN monolayer limit. Other tensor components involving the transverse direction converge more slowly. They can, however, be extrapolated to the monolayer limit to...

30 citations

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01 Feb 1995

TL;DR: In this paper, the unpolarized absorption and circular dichroism spectra of the fundamental vibrational transitions of the chiral molecule, 4-methyl-2-oxetanone, are calculated ab initio using DFT, MP2, and SCF methodologies and a 5S4P2D/3S2P (TZ2P) basis set.

Abstract: : The unpolarized absorption and circular dichroism spectra of the fundamental vibrational transitions of the chiral molecule, 4-methyl-2-oxetanone, are calculated ab initio. Harmonic force fields are obtained using Density Functional Theory (DFT), MP2, and SCF methodologies and a 5S4P2D/3S2P (TZ2P) basis set. DFT calculations use the Local Spin Density Approximation (LSDA), BLYP, and Becke3LYP (B3LYP) density functionals. Mid-IR spectra predicted using LSDA, BLYP, and B3LYP force fields are of significantly different quality, the B3LYP force field yielding spectra in clearly superior, and overall excellent, agreement with experiment. The MP2 force field yields spectra in slightly worse agreement with experiment than the B3LYP force field. The SCF force field yields spectra in poor agreement with experiment.The basis set dependence of B3LYP force fields is also explored: the 6-31G* and TZ2P basis sets give very similar results while the 3-21G basis set yields spectra in substantially worse agreements with experiment. jg

1,652 citations

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TL;DR: Crystal14 as discussed by the authors is an ab initio code that uses a Gaussian-type basis set: both pseudopotential and all-electron strategies are permitted; the latter is not much more expensive than the former up to the first second transition metal rows of the periodic table.

Abstract: The capabilities of the Crystal14 program are presented, and the improvements made with respect to the previous Crystal09 version discussed. Crystal14 is an ab initio code that uses a Gaussian-type basis set: both pseudopotential and all-electron strategies are permitted; the latter is not much more expensive than the former up to the first-second transition metal rows of the periodic table. A variety of density functionals is available, including as an extreme case Hartree–Fock; hybrids of various nature (global, range-separated, double) can be used. In particular, a very efficient implementation of global hybrids, such as popular B3LYP and PBE0 prescriptions, allows for such calculations to be performed at relatively low computational cost. The program can treat on the same grounds zero-dimensional (molecules), one-dimensional (polymers), two-dimensional (slabs), as well as three-dimensional (3D; crystals) systems. No spurious 3D periodicity is required for low-dimensional systems as happens when plane-waves are used as a basis set. Symmetry is fully exploited at all steps of the calculation; this permits, for example, to investigate nanotubes of increasing radius at a nearly constant cost (better than linear scaling!) or to perform self-consistent-field (SCF) calculations on fullerenes as large as (10,10), with 6000 atoms, 84,000 atomic orbitals, and 20 SCF cycles, on a single core in one day. Three versions of the code exist, serial, parallel, and massive-parallel. In the second one, the most relevant matrices are duplicated, whereas in the third one the matrices in reciprocal space are distributed for diagonalization. All the relevant vectors are now dynamically allocated and deallocated after use, making Crystal14 much more agile than the previous version, in which they were statically allocated. The program now fits more easily in low-memory machines (as many supercomputers nowadays are). Crystal14 can be used on parallel machines up to a high number of cores (benchmarks up to 10,240 cores are documented) with good scalability, the main limitation remaining the diagonalization step. Many tensorial properties can be evaluated in a fully automated way by using a single input keyword: elastic, piezoelectric, photoelastic, dielectric, as well as first and second hyperpolarizabilies, electric field gradients, Born tensors and so forth. Many tools permit a complete analysis of the vibrational properties of crystalline compounds. The infrared and Raman intensities are now computed analytically and related spectra can be generated. Isotopic shifts are easily evaluated, frequencies of only a fragment of a large system computed and nuclear contribution to the dielectric tensor determined. New algorithms have been devised for the investigation of solid solutions and disordered systems. The topological analysis of the electron charge density, according to the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules, is now incorporated in the code via the integrated merge of the Topond package. Electron correlation can be evaluated at the Moller–Plesset second-order level (namely MP2) and a set of double-hybrids are presently available via the integrated merge with the Cryscor program. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

1,172 citations

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TL;DR: Near-infrared-emissive polymer-carbon nanodots possess two-photon fluorescence; in vivo bioimaging and red-light-emitting diodes based on these PCNDs are demonstrated.

Abstract: Near-infrared-emissive polymer-carbon nanodots (PCNDs) are fabricated by a newly developed facile, high-output strategy. The PCNDs emit at a wavelength of 710 nm with a quantum yield of 26.28%, which is promising for deep biological imaging and luminescent devices. Moreover, the PCNDs possess two-photon fluorescence; in vivo bioimaging and red-light-emitting diodes based on these PCNDs are demonstrated.

620 citations

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Uppsala University

^{1}, Max Planck Society^{2}, University of Ferrara^{3}, University of Geneva^{4}, State University of New York System^{5}, University of Minnesota^{6}, University of Rostock^{7}, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven^{8}, Lund University^{9}, Stockholm University^{10}, Harvard University^{11}, Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing^{12}, ETH Zurich^{13}, University of Alcalá^{14}, University of Valencia^{15}, University College London^{16}, University of Vienna^{17}, Imperial College London^{18}, Heidelberg University^{19}, Massey University^{20}, University of Strasbourg^{21}, University of Siena^{22}, Bowling Green State University^{23}, Loughborough University^{24}, Hebrew University of Jerusalem^{25}, National University of Singapore^{26}TL;DR: The OpenMolcas environment is described and features unique to simulations of spectroscopic and magnetic phenomena such as the exact semiclassical description of the interaction between light and matter, various X-ray processes, magnetic circular dichroism and properties are described.

Abstract: In this Article we describe the OpenMolcas environment and invite the computational chemistry community to collaborate. The open-source project already includes a large number of new developments realized during the transition from the commercial MOLCAS product to the open-source platform. The paper initially describes the technical details of the new software development platform. This is followed by brief presentations of many new methods, implementations, and features of the OpenMolcas program suite. These developments include novel wave function methods such as stochastic complete active space self-consistent field, density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) methods, and hybrid multiconfigurational wave function and density functional theory models. Some of these implementations include an array of additional options and functionalities. The paper proceeds and describes developments related to explorations of potential energy surfaces. Here we present methods for the optimization of conical intersections, the simulation of adiabatic and nonadiabatic molecular dynamics, and interfaces to tools for semiclassical and quantum mechanical nuclear dynamics. Furthermore, the Article describes features unique to simulations of spectroscopic and magnetic phenomena such as the exact semiclassical description of the interaction between light and matter, various X-ray processes, magnetic circular dichroism, and properties. Finally, the paper describes a number of built-in and add-on features to support the OpenMolcas platform with postcalculation analysis and visualization, a multiscale simulation option using frozen-density embedding theory, and new electronic and muonic basis sets.

559 citations

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University of California, Irvine

^{1}, Technical University of Denmark^{2}, Dassault Systèmes^{3}, Ruhr University Bochum^{4}, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology^{5}, Technical University of Berlin^{6}, Max Planck Society^{7}, Forschungszentrum Jülich^{8}, Case Western Reserve University^{9}, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill^{10}, Aarhus University^{11}, California State University, Long Beach^{12}, Kaiserslautern University of Technology^{13}, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research^{14}TL;DR: This review focuses on recent additions to TURBOMOLE’s functionality, including excited-state methods, RPA and Green's function methods, relativistic approaches, high-order molecular properties, solvation effects, and periodic systems.

Abstract: TURBOMOLE is a collaborative, multi-national software development project aiming to provide highly efficient and stable computational tools for quantum chemical simulations of molecules, clusters, periodic systems, and solutions. The TURBOMOLE software suite is optimized for widely available, inexpensive, and resource-efficient hardware such as multi-core workstations and small computer clusters. TURBOMOLE specializes in electronic structure methods with outstanding accuracy-cost ratio, such as density functional theory including local hybrids and the random phase approximation (RPA), GW-Bethe-Salpeter methods, second-order Moller-Plesset theory, and explicitly correlated coupled-cluster methods. TURBOMOLE is based on Gaussian basis sets and has been pivotal for the development of many fast and low-scaling algorithms in the past three decades, such as integral-direct methods, fast multipole methods, the resolution-of-the-identity approximation, imaginary frequency integration, Laplace transform, and pair natural orbital methods. This review focuses on recent additions to TURBOMOLE's functionality, including excited-state methods, RPA and Green's function methods, relativistic approaches, high-order molecular properties, solvation effects, and periodic systems. A variety of illustrative applications along with accuracy and timing data are discussed. Moreover, available interfaces to users as well as other software are summarized. TURBOMOLE's current licensing, distribution, and support model are discussed, and an overview of TURBOMOLE's development workflow is provided. Challenges such as communication and outreach, software infrastructure, and funding are highlighted.

489 citations