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Showing papers in "IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation in 2002"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper describes the results of an ultra-wideband (UWB) propagation study in which arrays of propagation measurements were made, and an approach to the spatial and temporal decomposition of an array of measurements into wavefronts impinging on the receiving array is presented.
Abstract: This paper describes the results of an ultra-wideband (UWB) propagation study in which arrays of propagation measurements were made. After a description of the propagation measurement technique, an approach to the spatial and temporal decomposition of an array of measurements into wavefronts impinging on the receiving array is presented. Based on a modification of the CLEAN algorithm, this approach provides estimates of time-of-arrival, angle-of-arrival, and waveform shape. This technique is applied to 14 arrays of indoor propagation measurements made in an office/laboratory building. Statistical description of the results is presented, based on a clustering model for multipath effects. The parameters of these statistical models are compared to results derived for narrowband signal propagation in the indoor environment.

628 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the performance of the mobile phone handset antenna-chassis combination is analyzed based on an approximate decomposition of the waves on the structure into two resonant wavemodes: the antenna-element wavemode and the chassis wavemode.
Abstract: The performance of the mobile phone handset antenna-chassis combination is analyzed based on an approximate decomposition of the waves on the structure into two resonant wavemodes: the antenna-element wavemode and the chassis wavemode. A double resonator equivalent circuit model is presented and used to estimate the impedance bandwidth and the respective distributions of radiation losses with typical parameter values at 900 and 1800 MHz. It is noticed that at 900 MHz, the radiation losses of the antenna element wavemode represent typically less than 10% of the total power. Thus, the antenna element works mainly as a matching element, which couples to the low-Q resonant wavemode of the chassis. At 1800 MHz, the contribution of the antenna element wavemode is larger. By enhancing the coupling and by tuning the chassis resonance, it is possible to obtain an impedance bandwidth of over 50% (6 dB return loss) at both at 900 and 1800 MHz. The results given by the equivalent circuit study are fully supported by those of three-dimensional phone-model simulations, including calculation of the SAR and efficiency values. In prototyping, the 6 dB bandwidth of 5.5% was obtained at 980 MHz with a nonradiating coupling element with a volume of 1.6 cm/sup 3/ on a 120 mm long chassis.

500 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a quasi-Yagi antenna based on the classic Yagi-Uda dipole array is presented, which achieves a measured 48% bandwidth for VSWR <2, better than 12 dB front-to-back ratio, smaller than -15 dB cross polarization, 3-5 dB absolute gain and a nominal efficiency of 93% across the operating bandwidth.
Abstract: A novel broadband planar antenna based on the classic Yagi-Uda dipole array is presented. This "quasi-Yagi" antenna achieves a measured 48% bandwidth for VSWR <2, better than 12 dB front-to-back ratio, smaller than -15 dB cross polarization, 3-5 dB absolute gain and a nominal efficiency of 93% across the operating bandwidth. Finite-difference time-domain simulation is used for optimization of the antenna and the results agree very well with measurements. Additionally, a gain-enhanced design is presented, where higher gain has been achieved at the cost of reduced bandwidth. These quasi-Yagi antennas are realized on a high dielectric constant substrate and are completely compatible with microstrip circuitry and solid-state devices. The excellent radiation properties of this antenna make it ideal as either a stand-alone antenna with a broad pattern or as an array element. The antenna should find wide applications in wireless communication systems, power combining, phased arrays and active arrays, as well as millimeter-wave imaging arrays.

385 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a wideband dielectric resonator antenna with conical shape was designed by shape shaping of the materials and the excitation was considered to be a coaxial probe displaced from the cone axis.
Abstract: Wideband dielectric resonator antennas are designed by shaping the dielectric materials. New dielectric resonator antennas of conical shape are experimentally examined and some results are verified numerically. Four different cone shapes are considered. The excitation is considered to be a coaxial probe displaced from the cone axis. Two configurations show wideband performance. The split cone achieved about 50% impedance bandwidth. The radiation patterns are computed within the band to examine the effect of the different modes excited on the radiation patterns.

299 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduced a new explanation of the electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) material properties using the study of the EBG structures in the frequency domain and reciprocal space.
Abstract: This paper introduces a new explanation of the electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) material properties using the study of the EBG structures in the frequency domain and reciprocal space. Once the behavior of such a material is understood, the properties of the EBG are used in order to make an EBG antenna. The antenna is realized with dielectric EBG rods. Its directivity is increased compared to a simple patch antenna. Such a device allows us to obtain a high gain with a very thin structure.

278 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ability of a physically based statistical multipath propagation model to match capacity statistics and pairwise magnitude and phase distributions of measured narrow-band multiple-input multiple-output data (MIMO) at 2.4 GHz is demonstrated.
Abstract: This paper demonstrates the ability of a physically based statistical multipath propagation model to match capacity statistics and pairwise magnitude and phase distributions of measured 4 /spl times/ 4 and 10 /spl times/ 10 narrow-band multiple-input multiple-output data (MIMO) at 2.4 GHz. The model is compared to simpler statistical models based on the multivariate complex normal distribution with either complex envelope or power correlation. The comparison is facilitated by computing channel element covariance matrices for fixed sets of multipath statistics. Multipolarization data is used to demonstrate a simple method for modeling dual-polarization arrays.

242 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper investigates a method of creating thinned aperiodic linear phased arrays through the application of genetic algorithms that will suppress the grating lobes with increased steering angles and place restrictions on the driving-point impedance of each element so that they are well behaved during scanning.
Abstract: The scan volume of a thinned periodic linear phased array is proportional to the spacing between array elements. As the spacing between elements increases beyond a half wavelength, the scan range of the array will be significantly reduced due to the appearance of grating lobes. This paper investigates a method of creating thinned aperiodic linear phased arrays through the application of genetic algorithms that will suppress the grating lobes with increased steering angles. In addition, the genetic algorithm will place restrictions on the driving-point impedance of each element so that they are well behaved during scanning. A genetic algorithm approach is also introduced for the purpose of evolving an optimal set of matching networks. Finally, an efficient technique for evaluating the directivity of an aperiodic array of half-wave dipoles is developed for use in conjunction with genetic algorithms.

228 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a microstrip-line-fed circularly polarized printed ring slot antenna is proposed, where the asymmetry introduced is a meandered-slot section and the proposed CP design can be applied to printed square and annular ring slot antennas.
Abstract: A new design of a microstrip-line-fed circularly polarized printed ring slot antenna is proposed. Circular polarization (CP) radiation of the proposed design is achieved by introducing proper asymmetry in the ring slot structure and feeding the ring slot using a microstrip line at 45/spl deg/ from the introduced asymmetry. The asymmetry introduced in the proposed design is a meandered-slot section and the proposed CP design can be applied to printed square and annular ring slot antennas. Prototypes of the proposed design have been implemented. Experimental results show that good CP radiation performances are obtained and the 3 dB axial-ratio CP bandwidths obtained for the square and annular ring slot antennas are about 4.3% and 3.5%, respectively.

228 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compare the reflections produced by three different PMLs, namely the split PML, the unsplit PML and the recently introduced complex frequency shifted (CFS) PML.
Abstract: Although perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary conditions are perfect in theory, an amount of spurious reflection is present in actual computations with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. This paper compares the reflections produced by three different PMLs, namely the split PML, the unsplit PML, and the recently introduced complex frequency shifted (CFS) PML. It is shown that the reflections from the split and unsplit PMLs are identical, while the CFS PML allows the reflection of evanescent waves to be significantly reduced.

186 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new version of the combined field integral equation (CFIE) for the solution of electromagnetic scattering problems in three dimensions is introduced, meaning that it is a second kind integral equation that does not suffer from spurious resonances and does not become ill conditioned for fine discretizations.
Abstract: We introduce a new version of the combined field integral equation (CFIE) for the solution of electromagnetic scattering problems in three dimensions. Unlike the conventional CFIE, the new CFIE is well-conditioned, meaning that it is a second kind integral equation that does not suffer from spurious resonances and does not become ill conditioned for fine discretizations (the so-called "low-frequency problem"). The new CFIE combines the standard magnetic field integral operator with an analytically preconditioned electric field integral operator. We also report numerical results showing that the new formulation stabilizes the number of iterations needed to solve the CFIE on closed surfaces. This is in contrast to the conventional CFIE, where the number of iterations grows as the discretization is refined.

182 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a broadband dual-polarized single microstrip patch antenna with highly decoupled input ports and low crosspolarization (XP) radiation is presented.
Abstract: This paper presents a new design of a broad-band dual-polarized single microstrip patch antenna with highly decoupled input ports and low cross-polarization (XP) radiation. A prototype of the proposed antenna with center frequency at 1800 MHz is presented. Both the dual linear polarizations have 10-dB return-loss impedance bandwidths greater than 14% and high decoupling between the two input ports (S/sub 21/ less than -40 dB across the entire bandwidths) is obtained. Moreover, the XP radiation in the principal planes of the dual linear polarizations is seen to be less than -20 dB.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel frequency-selective surface (FSS) design aimed at enhancing the performance of broad-band reconfigurable antenna apertures and of particular interest is the design of FSS structures whose reflection coefficient has prespecified phase response over a broad set of frequencies.
Abstract: We present a novel frequency-selective surface (FSS) design aimed at enhancing the performance of broad-band reconfigurable antenna apertures. In particular, reconfigurable printed dipole arrays are examined in the presence of a multilayer FSS. Of particular interest is the design of FSS structures whose reflection coefficient has prespecified phase response over a broad set of frequencies. Previous FSSs primarily considered designs on the basis of the reflection coefficient amplitude and were intended for radome applications rather than substrates. Designing FSSs subject to phase requirements is seen to require some compromise in the magnitude. Broad-band requirements also present us with a need for noncommensurate FSS designs.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a signal subspace scaled MUSIC (SSMUSIC) algorithm is proposed to estimate the direction of arrival (DOA) and the power of each source simultaneously.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new direction of arrival (DOA) estimator for sensor-array processing. The estimator is based on a linear algebraic connection between the standard subspace model of the array correlation matrix and a special signal-plus-interference model, which we develop in this paper. The estimator we propose is a signal subspace scaled MUSIC algorithm, which we call SSMUSIC. It is not a subspace weighted MUSIC, because the scaling depends on the eigenstructure of the estimated signal subspace. SSMUSIC has the advantage of simultaneously estimating the DOA and the power of each source. We employ a second-order perturbation analysis of the estimator and derive stochastic representations for its bias and squared-error. We compare the new DOA estimator with the MUSIC estimator, based on these representations. Numerical results demonstrate the superior performance of SSMUSIC relative to MUSIC and the validity of the perturbation results.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a binary coded microgenetic algorithm (MGA) is applied to optimize various parameters, viz., the thickness and relative permittivity of each dielectric layer; the FSS screen designs and materials; their x-and y-periodicities; and their placement within the composite; the result is a multilayer composite that provides maximum absorption of both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) waves simultaneously for a prescribed range of frequencies and incident angles.
Abstract: Over the years, frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) have found frequent use as radomes and spatial filters in both commercial and military applications. In the literature, the problem of synthesizing broadband microwave absorbers using multilayered dielectrics through the application of genetic algorithms (GAs) have been dealt with successfully. Spatial filters employing multiple, freestanding, FSS screens have been successfully designed by utilizing a domain-decomposed GA. We present a procedure for synthesizing broadband microwave absorbers by using multiple FSS screens buried in a dielectric composite. A binary coded microgenetic algorithm (MGA) is applied to optimize various parameters, viz., the thickness and relative permittivity of each dielectric layer; the FSS screen designs and materials; their x- and y-periodicities; and their placement within the dielectric composite. The result is a multilayer composite that provides maximum absorption of both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) waves simultaneously for a prescribed range of frequencies and incident angles. This technique automatically places an upper bound on the total thickness of the composite. While a single FSS screen is analyzed using the electric field integral equation (EFIE), multiple FSS screens are analyzed using the scattering matrix technique.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a leaky-wave antenna (LWA) suitable for operation at millimeter-wave frequencies is introduced, which consists of a coplanar waveguide fed linear array of closely spaced capacitive transverse slots.
Abstract: A uniplanar leaky-wave antenna (LWA) suitable for operation at millimeter-wave frequencies is introduced. Both unidirectional and bidirectional versions of the antenna are presented. The proposed structure consists of a coplanar waveguide fed linear array of closely spaced capacitive transverse slots. This configuration results in a fast-wave structure in which the n=0 spatial harmonic radiates in the forward direction. Since the distance, d, between adjacent elements of the array is small d/spl Lt//spl lambda//sub o/, the slot array essentially becomes a uniform LWA. A comprehensive transmission line model is developed based upon the theory of truncated periodic transmission lines to explain the operation of the antenna and provide a tool for its design. Measured and simulated radiation patterns, directivity, gain, and an associated loss budget are presented for a 32-element antenna operating at 30 GHz. The uniplanar nature of the structure makes the antenna appropriate for integration of shunt variable capacitors such as diode or micro-electromechanical system varactors for fixed frequency beam steering at low-bias voltages.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a reconfigurable microwave surface that performs as a new kind of beam steering reflector is described. The surface is textured with an array of tiny resonators, which provide a frequency-dependent surface impedance.
Abstract: We describe a reconfigurable microwave surface that performs as a new kind of beam steering reflector. The surface is textured with an array of tiny resonators, which provide a frequency-dependent surface impedance. By tuning the individual resonators, the surface impedance, and thus the reflection coefficient phase, can be varied as a function of position across the reflector. Using a reflection phase gradient, the surface can steer a reflected beam. As an example, we have built a simple mechanically tuned surface in which physical motion of only 1/100 wavelength generates a sufficient phase gradient to steer a reflected beam by /spl plusmn/16 degrees. To steer to greater angles, the surface can be configured as an artificial microwave grating, capable of /spl plusmn/38 degrees of beam steering. The concept of the tunable impedance surface demonstrated here can be extended to electrically controlled structures, which would permit more elaborate reflection phase patterns, and provide more capabilities, such as the ability to focus or steer multiple beams.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a model was developed to calculate the antenna reflector and feed surface water layer thickness values as a function of position on each surface, and the thickness values were used to calculate additional attenuation produced by the water layers as a result of rain rate on the antenna.
Abstract: The NASA advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) propagation experiment was designed to observe the attenuation produced by rain on Earth-satellite paths operating in the Ka-band. Unwanted effects of water on the antenna reflector surface were noted. Wet-antenna attenuation could be attributed to the combined effect of a water layer on the reflector surface and water wetting the feed window surface. A model was developed to calculate the antenna reflector and feed surface water layer thickness values as a function of position on each surface. The thickness values were used to calculate the additional attenuation produced by the water layers as a function of rain rate on the antenna. The wet-antenna-attenuation prediction model was verified by sprayer tests. The goal of the ACTS propagation experiment was to obtain path attenuation statistics, statistics that represent the effects of rain on the Earth-satellite path but not on the antenna itself. The wet-antenna attenuation prediction model was used to remove the effects of water on the antenna from the combined antenna-plus-path attenuation statistics produced by the experiment. The overall efficacy of the model was demonstrated by comparing the corrected path loss statistics from two ACTS propagation experiment sites with earlier COMSTAR path loss measurements made at or near those sites. The empirical distribution functions from both the ACTS and COMSTAR experiments were identical within the expected uncertainty of an empirical annual distribution of attenuation by rain.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an efficient technique is developed to recognize target type using one-dimensional range profiles using MCS algorithm. But the proposed technique utilizes the multiple signal classification algorithm to generate superresolved range profiles.
Abstract: An efficient technique is developed to recognize target type using one-dimensional range profiles. The proposed technique utilizes the Multiple Signal Classification algorithm to generate superresolved range profiles. Their central moments are calculated to provide translation-invariant and level-invariant feature vectors. Next, the computed central moments are mapped into values between zero and unity, followed by a principal component analysis to eliminate the redundancy of feature vectors. The obtained features are classified based on the Bayes classifier, which is one of the statistical classifiers. Recognition results using five different aircraft models measured at compact range are presented to assess the effectiveness of the proposed technique, and they are compared with those of the conventional range profiles obtained by inverse fast Fourier transform.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The paper presents strategies and algorithms to combat the effects of fading channels on the overall system and considers in sufficient detail problems dealing with the choice of direction of arrival algorithm and the performance of the adaptive beamformer in the presence of antenna coupling effects.
Abstract: This paper focuses on the interaction and integration of several critical components of a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) using smart antenna systems. A MANET is a wireless network where the communicating nodes are mobile and the network topology is continuously changing. One of the central motivations for this work comes from the observed dependence of the overall network throughput on the design of the adaptive antenna system and its underlying signal processing algorithms. In fact, a major objective of this work is to study and document the overall efficiency of the network in terms of the antenna pattern and the length of the training sequence used by the beamforming algorithms. This study also considers in sufficient detail problems dealing with the choice of direction of arrival algorithm and the performance of the adaptive beamformer in the presence of antenna coupling effects. Furthermore, the paper presents strategies and algorithms to combat the effects of fading channels on the overall system.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a novel coupling scheme to a rectangular dielectric resonator antenna is proposed and investigated, in particular coupling to the resonator is achieved through a narrow slot at the end of a coplanar waveguide (CPW).
Abstract: A novel coupling scheme to a rectangular dielectric resonator antenna is proposed and investigated. In particular, coupling to the resonator is achieved through a narrow slot at the end of a coplanar waveguide (CPW). The objectives of this design are to maximize the coupling, match the dielectric resonator to the CPW feed line, achieve resonance at the desired frequency, obtain linear polarization with low cross polarization components, and minimize back radiation without using a back conductor. An approximate and quick design approach is given followed by more accurate design and analysis using commercial software. The antenna was fabricated and tested. Measurements match well with simulation results.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a Monte Carlo study of scattering from a three-dimensional penetrable object above a lossy dielectric rough interface is performed using an iterative method of moments solution for equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities.
Abstract: A numerical model is applied in a Monte Carlo study of scattering from a three-dimensional penetrable object above a lossy dielectric rough interface. The model is based on an iterative method of moments solution for equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities on the rough interface and equivalent volumetric electric currents in the penetrable object. Both time-and frequency-domain results are investigated to illustrate the relative importance of coherent and incoherent scattering effects in the sample problem considered. Results show that a four-path model using a reduced-reflection coefficient can be reasonable for coherent scattering predictions and that incoherent object/surface interaction effects can make significant contributions to received cross sections.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a direct optimization procedure that utilizes phaseless electric field data over arbitrary shaped surfaces for the reconstruction of an equivalent magnetic current density that represents the radiating structure of an antenna under test is presented.
Abstract: In this paper, we present a direct optimization procedure that utilizes phaseless electric field data over arbitrary shaped surfaces for the reconstruction of an equivalent magnetic current density that represents the radiating structure of an antenna under test. Once the equivalent magnetic current density is determined, the electric field at any point can be calculated. Numerical results (both simulated and experimental) are presented to illustrate the applicability of this approach for nonplanar near-field to far-field (NF-FF) transformation as well as to antenna diagnostics. The results are presented using both theoretical and experimental phaseless data over one and two planes.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An iterative site-based method for estimating the impulse response of wireless infrared channels and a simple geometrical model of indoor environments is presented which includes interior features such as partitions, people, and furniture, thus permitting accurate evaluation of shadowing effects.
Abstract: We describe an iterative site-based method for estimating the impulse response of wireless infrared channels. The method can efficiently account for multiple reflections of any order. A simple geometrical model of indoor environments is presented which includes interior features such as partitions, people, and furniture, thus permitting accurate evaluation of shadowing effects. For a reflection order of three, the iterative method is over 90 times faster than the existing recursive technique. A computer implementation is described and used to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the method.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the second-order nonstandard finite differences (NSFDs) were used to improve the performance of the Yee algorithm for Mie scattering on a coarse grid.
Abstract: We previously described a high-accuracy version of the Yee algorithm that uses second-order nonstandard finite differences (NSFDs) and demonstrated its accuracy numerically. We now prove that at fixed frequency and grid spacing h, the leading error term is O(h/sup 6/) versus O(h/sup 2/) for the ordinary Yee algorithm with standard finite differences (SFDs). We numerically verify the superior accuracy of the NSFD algorithm by simulating near-field Mie scattering on a coarse grid and comparing with the SFD one and with analytical solutions. We present an updated stability analysis and show that the maximum time step for the NSFD algorithm is 20% longer than the SFD time step in two dimensions, and 36% longer in three dimensions. Finally, parameters that were previously given numerically are now analytically defined.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a new design of aperture-coupled patch antennas with modified H-shaped coupling slots for achieving dual-polarization radiation with high isolation over a wide bandwidth was presented.
Abstract: This paper presents a new design of aperture-coupled patch antennas with modified H-shaped coupling slots for achieving dual-polarization radiation with high isolation over a wide bandwidth. By using the proposed coupling slots, whose two upper side arms are bent inward with a proper angle, the isolation between the two feeding ports of the patch antenna can. greatly be improved, compared to the case with conventional H-shaped coupling slots. Also, when using a pair of modified H-shaped coupling slots for each feeding port, the isolation can further be improved; a high degree of isolation ( 20 dB) for the two polarizations can be achieved. Details of the proposed design and experimental results are presented and discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed three designs of broadband dual-polarized patch antennas fed by promising feed structures of a capacitively coupled feed and a slot-coupled feed.
Abstract: Designs of broadband dual-polarized patch antennas fed by promising feed structures of a capacitively coupled feed and a slot-coupled feed (antenna A), two capacitively coupled feeds of a 180/spl deg/ phase shift and a slot-coupled feed (antenna B), and two capacitively coupled feeds of a 180/spl deg/ phase shift and two slot-coupled feeds (antenna C) are proposed and experimentally studied. The first two feed designs are for the excitation of a single-element broadband patch antenna, while the last design is for a two-element broadband patch antenna. These proposed patch antennas have a thick air substrate, and the 10 dB return-loss impedance bandwidths obtained for the two polarizations are all greater than 13%. High isolation ( 20 dB) in both E and H plane patterns for the two polarizations of antennas B and C are achieved.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) is proposed to accelerate the solution of the combined field integral equation in electromagnetic scattering and radiation, where the fast far-field approximation (FAFFA) is combined with MLFMA.
Abstract: Based on the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA), an efficient method is proposed to accelerate the solution of the combined field integral equation in electromagnetic scattering and radiation, where the fast far-field approximation (FAFFA) is combined with MLFMA. The translation between groups in MLFMA is expensive because spherical Hankel functions and Legendre polynomials are involved and the translator is defined on an Eward sphere with many k/spl circ/ directions. When two groups are in the far-field region, however, the translation can be greatly simplified by FAFFA where only a single k/spl circ/ direction is involved in the translator. The condition for using FAFFA and the way to efficiently incorporate FAFFA with MLFMA are discussed. Complexity analysis illustrates that the computational cost in FAFFA-MLFMA can be asymptotically cut by half compared to the conventional MLFMA. Numerical results are given to verify the efficiency of the algorithm.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A measurement concept which combines an RF switched receiver array and a synthetic aperture technique and allows full 3D characterization of the channel is introduced and shows that the received energy is concentrated within identifiable clusters in the azimuth-elevation-delay domain.
Abstract: This paper describes three-dimensional (3D) radio channel measurements at the base station site in an urban environment. We introduce a measurement concept which combines an RF switched receiver array and a synthetic aperture technique and allows full 3D characterization of the channel. Additionally, dual-polarized patch antennas as array elements enable full determination of the polarization properties of the impinging signals. We describe measurements at over 70 different transmitter positions and three receiver array sites with different sectors and antenna heights. Our results show that the received energy is concentrated within identifiable clusters in the azimuth-elevation-delay domain. We demonstrate that the observed propagation mechanisms are mainly determined by the environment close to the base station. Street canyon propagation dominates also when the receiver array is at or even above rooftop level with the studied measurement distances. Thus, the azimuth spectrum at the BS site is fairly independent of the location of the mobile. Signal components propagating over the rooftop are often related to reflections from high-rise buildings in the surroundings.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a fast ray-tracing procedure based on triangular division of the propagation environments that does not require knowledge of the position information of the base station and/or receiving antennas and is thus more general.
Abstract: This paper presents a fast ray-tracing procedure based on triangular division of the propagation environments. Unlike other accelerating methods that are mostly based on pre-establishment of visibility, this method does not require knowledge of the position information of the base station and/or receiving antennas and is thus more general. Although the triangulation is done in a two-dimensional (2-D) plane, this method is suitable for three-dimensional (3-D) simulations when a proper data structure for buildings is constructed. Validation results show good agreement between calculated and measured data from the European COST 231 project. The improvement in the computational efficiency is clearly demonstrated in examples.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an empirical formula for resonant frequency of a circular cavity-enclosed circular patch antenna is tested with measured results, and the patch miniaturization in the presence of the cavity is proved.
Abstract: An empirical formula for resonant frequency of a circular cavity-enclosed circular-patch antenna is tested with measured results. The patch miniaturization in the presence of the cavity is proved. Different design curves in terms of resonant frequencies and bandwidth are derived to facilitate antenna design without a priori knowledge of complex numerical techniques. A simple gain formula for a circular-patch antenna is derived and tested against the measured gain data. The results agree very well. The beamwidth, axial ratio, and mutual coupling in the presence of the cavity are investigated.