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Journal ArticleDOI

Determination of the Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci by PCR in Iranian Pigeons

28 Sep 2011-International Journal of Biology (Canadian Center of Science and Education)-Vol. 3, Iss: 4, pp 79
TL;DR: The results indicate that pigeon feces are a source of several zoonotic agents for humans, bird and animals and it is suggested that continuous surveys can estimate, and thus help to minimize the risk of humans contracting diseases from pigeons.
Abstract: Many areas in Iran such as parks and gardens can be highly contaminated with pigeon feces. Chlamydia psittaci is a lethal bacterial that causes endemic avian chlamydiosis, epizootic outbreaks in mammals, and respiratory psittacosis in humans. Chlamydia psittaci strains in birds infect mucosal epithelial cells and macrophages of the respiratory tract. The aim of this study was to determination of prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci in feces of pigeons in Iran using PCR assay. DNA was extracted from 445 fecal samples of pigeons. The prevalence of this pathogen was 14.3% in region of this study. These results indicate that pigeon feces are a source of several zoonotic agents for humans, bird and animals. We suggested that continuous surveys can estimate, and thus help to minimize the risk of humans contracting diseases from pigeons. Keywords: Chlamydia psittaci, pigeon, PCR

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with Chlamydia psittaci infections in psittacine birds and bird handlers in Egypt.
Abstract: Aims The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with Chlamydia psittaci infections in psittacine birds and bird handlers in Egypt. Methods and results A total of 190 swabs were collected from psittacine birds (n = 120) and bird handlers (n = 70) and were tested by polymerase chain reaction to detect the C. psittaci ompA gene. Chlamydia psittaci DNA was detected in 63 (52·5%) of 120 samples collected from psittacine birds. The occurrence of C. psittaci infections was high in Cockatiel birds (60%), followed by Fischer's lovebird (51%) and Rosy-faced lovebird (47·5%). Bird age, location (pet markets and households), housing (caged and aviary), and sampling season were considered significant risk factors for C. psittaci infections in psittacine birds. Of the 70 sputum swabs collected from bird handlers, only 4 (6%) were positive for C. psittaci. Positive cases were closely associated with older persons (≥30 years) who had respiratory signs and handled birds in pet markets. Further, wearing protective gloves and washing hands when handling psittacine birds decreased the frequency of C. psittaci infections in bird handlers. Conclusions The prevalence of C. psittaci infections in psittacine birds in Egypt is high, which has a potential threat to human health in this area. Thus, dissemination of effective prevention and control measures is essential to prevent the spread of C. psittaci among psittacine birds, as well as among humans in contact with birds. Significance and impact of the study Results from this study highlighted the risk factors associated with C. psittaci infections in psittacine birds and bird handlers in Egypt and will aid in developing prevention and control measures to reduce the risk of C. psittaci infection.

14 citations


Cites methods or result from "Determination of the Prevalence of ..."

  • ...The ompA region of the extracted DNA was amplified by PCR using the primers: CPsitt-F (50-GCTACGGGTTCCGCTCT-30) and CPsitt-R (50TTTGTTGATYTGAATCGAAGC-30) (Doosti and Arshi 2011)....

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  • ...psittaci infections in birds and human in the present study and other studies (Magnino et al. 2009; Doosti and Arshi 2011)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of chlamydial infections in wild avian populations is presented in this paper, where the authors focus on C. psittaci but also consider other Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-related bacteria that have been identified in wild birds.
Abstract: The Chlamydia are a globally distributed genus of bacteria that can infect and cause disease in a range of hosts. Birds are the primary host for multiple chlamydial species. The most well-known of these is Chlamydia psittaci, a zoonotic bacterium that has been identified in a range of wild and domesticated birds. Wild birds are often proposed as a reservoir of Chlamydia psittaci and potentially other chlamydial species. The aim of this review is to present the current knowledge of chlamydial infections in wild avian populations. We focus on C. psittaci but also consider other Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-related bacteria that have been identified in wild birds. We summarise the diversity, host range, and clinical signs of infection in wild birds and consider the potential implications of these infections for zoonotic transmission and avian conservation. Chlamydial bacteria have been found in more than 70 species of wild birds, with the greatest chlamydial diversity identified in Europe. The Corvidae and Accipitridae families are emerging as significant chlamydial hosts, in addition to established wild hosts such as the Columbidae. Clarifying the effects of these bacteria on avian host fitness and the zoonotic potential of emerging Chlamydiales will help us to understand the implications of these infections for avian and human health.

11 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The results suggest that Cp.
Abstract: Background and Objective : Chlamydophila psittaci is a lethal bacterium that causes endemic avian chlamydiosis, and respiratory psittacosis. Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydophila psittaci is difficult by culture. This study was design to investigate the presence of Chlamydophila psittaci in collected pharyngeal swabs from asyptomatic pigeons by PCR. Materials and Methods : Pharyngeal samples from pigeons with no symptoms of disease (n=280) were collected during hot and cold seasons in different parts of Ahvaz. DNA was extracted from specimens and subjected to PCR targeting pmp genes and 16s-23s rRNA intergenic spacer of Cp. psittaci and chlamydiales specific primers. Results : Of 280 samples 2 (0.7%) harbor were positive for chlamydiales (16s-23s intergenic spacer) and Cp. psittaci specific genes (pmp gene). Conclusions : In this research the pigeons were asymptomatic carriers for Cp. psittaci in their respiratory discharges. These results suggest that Cp. psittaci infection of human can occur in very close and continuous contact with pigeons.

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results revealed that DNA of zoonotic microorganisms such as C. psittaci, C. abortus and the emerging pathogen Parachlamydia acanthamoebae are present in Sardinian ticks.
Abstract: Ticks are well known to be important vectors for a wide range of bacteria, viruses and protozoa affecting human and animal health. Ixodid ticks are widely distributed in Sardinia, and an increasing number of tick-borne bacteria have been documented in the island. A growing number of evidence are supporting the hypothesis of alternative transmission routes for chlamydial bacteria such as the involvement of vectors. This study was conducted to provide possible molecular detection of members belonging to the Chlamydiales order in Sardinian ticks and to update information concerning the presence of new ectoparasite-borne bacteria in ticks collected from domestic and wild hosts in a typical Mediterranean environment. A total of 378 ticks were individually screened with a pan-Chlamydiales specific primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Chlamydiales DNA was detected in 28% of the total ticks analyzed. The analyses of sequences highlighted that Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus annulatus, Haemaphysalis sulcata, Haemaphysalis punctata and Dermacentor marginatus ticks exhibited DNA of Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydiaceae members. Our results revealed that DNA of zoonotic microorganisms such as C. psittaci, C. abortus and the emerging pathogen Parachlamydia acanthamoebae are present in Sardinian ticks. Since routes of Chlamydia transmission are yet to be fully defined, the role of ticks as possible vectors for Chlamydiales remains the most challenging and interesting question to be addressed in future research. Continued monitoring of these pathogens in tick vectors is needed to provide strategies for controlling of possible chlamydial infections and disease outbreaks in the island.

8 citations


Cites methods from "Determination of the Prevalence of ..."

  • ...…gave a positive signal with the 16S-rRNA PCR were additionally tested with a set of oligonucleotide primers based on the outer membrane protein genes (pmp and ompA) used for the molecular identification of C. abortus and C. psittaci , respectively (Doosti and Arshi 2011; Longbottom et al. 1998)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings revealed the importance of monitoring imported asymptomatic birds in developing countries, especially the Middle East, where there is no systematic monitoring and the first report regarding the detection of C psittaci provisional genotype I in cockatiels.
Abstract: We determined the prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci genotypes in asymptomatic and symptomatic birds in northeast Iran. Samples were collected from 11 species of Psittaciformes and 1 species of Columbiformes from 2015 to 2016. Choanal cleft and cloacal swab samples, fresh fecal samples, and/or tissue samples of 70 symptomatic and 130 asymptomatic birds were collected and tested by molecular detection (nested polymerase chain reaction [PCR] testing specific for C psittaci). Results showed C psittaci was detected in 37 (18.5%) of 200 birds (18/37 symptomatic and 19/37 asymptomatic birds) by nested PCR assay. Of the PCR-positive samples, 14 products were positive for oligonucleotide sets CTU/CTL by a second PCR assay and genotyped by outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene sequencing. Of the 10 samples positive for genotype A (cockatiels [Nymphicus hollandicus, n = 5], ring-necked parakeet [Psittacula krameri, n = 2], African gray parrot [Psittacus erithacus, n = 3]), 6 samples were from asymptomatic and 4 from symptomatic birds. Genotype B was observed in 3 samples from symptomatic birds (P krameri [n = 2], pigeon [Columba livia, n = 1]), and provisional genotype I was detected in one symptomatic cockatiel. These findings revealed the importance of monitoring imported asymptomatic birds in developing countries, especially the Middle East, where there is no systematic monitoring. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the detection of C psittaci provisional genotype I in cockatiels.

7 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The C. pecorum strains were distinguished from C. psittaci strains by the results of immunological assays, including an immunofluorescence antibody assay performed with monoclonal antibodies and an immunoblot analysis of the immunological specificity of the major outer membrane protein.
Abstract: Chlamydia pecorum sp. nov. is proposed as the fourth species of the genus Chlamydia on the basis of the results of a genetic analysis of Chlamydia strains that were isolated from cattle and sheep which had various diseases, including sporadic encephalitis, infectious polyarthritis, pneumonia, and diarrhea. The levels of DNA-DNA homology between C. pecorum and strains of C. psittaci, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Chlamydia trachomatis were less than 10%. Several DNA probes were used to identify C. pecorum. The C. pecorum strains were distinguished from C. psittaci strains by the results of immunological assays, including an immunofluorescence antibody assay performed with monoclonal antibodies and an immunoblot analysis of the immunological specificity of the major outer membrane protein. Species identification was based on results obtained from DNA analyses and serology. The type strain of C. pecorum is strain ATCC VR628.

192 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Recently, a fourth species, C. pecorum, has been proposed (Fukushi & Hirai, 1992)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although feral pigeons pose sporadic health risks to humans, the risk is very low, even for humans involved in occupations that bring them into close contact with nesting sites, and the immunocompromised patient may have a nearly 1000-fold greater risk of acquiring mycotic disease from feral pigeon and their excreta than does the general population.

177 citations


"Determination of the Prevalence of ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...From 1941 to 2003, 78 cases in ISSN 1916-9671 E-ISSN 1916-968X 80 humans were reported (Haag-Wackernagel & Moch, 2004), due to contact with feral pigeons....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Trees for all five coding genes supported the current organization of the family Chlamydiaceae, and the distribution of virulence traits could not be explained by lateral transfer of the genes the authors studied, since they found no evidence for lateral gene transfer above the species level.
Abstract: Phylogenetic analyses of surface antigens and other chlamydial proteins were used to reconstruct the evolution of the Chlamydiaceae. Trees for all five coding genes [the major outer-membrane protein (MOMP), GroEL chaperonin, KDO-transferase, small cysteine-rich lipoprotein and 60 kDa cysteine-rich protein] supported the current organization of the family Chlamydiaceae, which is based on ribosomal, biochemical, serological, ecological and DNA-DNA hybridization data. Genetic distances between some species were quite large, so phylogenies were evaluated for robustness by comparing analyses of both nucleotide and protein sequences using a variety of algorithms (neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood, maximum-parsimony with bootstrapping, and quartet puzzling). Saturation plots identified areas of the trees in which factors other than relatedness may have determined branch attachments. All nine species were clearly differentiated by distinctness ratios calculated for each gene. The distribution of virulence traits such as host and tissue tropism were mapped onto the consensus phylogeny. Closely related species were no more likely to share virulence characters than were more distantly related species. This phylogenetically disjunct distribution of virulence traits could not be explained by lateral transfer of the genes we studied, since we found no evidence for lateral gene transfer above the species level. One interpretation of this observation is that when chlamydiae gain access to a new niche, such as a new host or tissue, significant adaptation ensues and the virulence phenotype of the new species reflects adaptation to its environment more strongly than it reflects its ancestry.

151 citations


"Determination of the Prevalence of ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Formerly called Chlamydia, with only two recognized species 25 years ago (C. trachomatis and C. psittaci), the family now contains nine species divided into two genera, Chlamydia and Chlamydophila (Bush & Everett, 2001)....

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  • ...Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci), an obligate intracellular, gram negative bacterium, has 7 known genotypes (A-F and E/B) (Geens et al., 2005)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This compendium provides information about psittacosis and avian chlamydiosis to public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, the pet bird industry, and others concerned with controlling these diseases and protecting public health.
Abstract: Psittacosis, also known as parrot fever and ornithosis, is a bacterial infection that can cause severe pneumonia and other serious health problems in humans. It is caused by Chlamydia psittaci. Reclassification of the order Chlamydiales in 1999 into 2 genera (Chlamydia and Chlamydophila) was not wholly accepted or adopted. This resulted in a reversion to the single, original genus Chlamydia, which now encompasses all 9 species including Chlamydia psittaci. During 2003–2014, 112 human cases of psittacosis were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the Nationally Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. While many types of birds can be infected by C psittaci, in general, the literature suggests that human cases can most often occur after exposure to infected parrot-type birds kept as pets, especially cockatiels, parakeets, and conures. In birds, C psittaci infection is referred to as avian chlamydiosis. Infected birds shed the bacteria through feces and nasal discharges, and humans become infected from exposure to these materials. This compendium provides information about psittacosis and avian chlamydiosis to public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, the pet bird industry, and others concerned with controlling these diseases and protecting public health. The recommendations in this compendium provide standardized procedures to control C psittaci infections. This document will be reviewed and revised as necessary, and the most current version replaces all previous versions. This document was last revised in 2010. Major changes in this version include a recommendation for a shorter treatment time for birds with avian chlamydiosis, additional information about diagnostic testing, including genotyping, clearer language associated with personal protective equipment recommended for those caring for confirmed or exposed birds, and incorporating a grading scale with recommendations generally based on the United States Preventive Services Task Force's methods.

146 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Zoonotic transmission of Chlamydophila psittaci in 39 breeding facilities for Psittaciformes (cockatoos, parrots, parakeets, lories) that frequently used antimicrobial drugs is studied.
Abstract: We studied zoonotic transmission of Chlamydophila psittaci in 39 breeding facilities for Psittaciformes (cockatoos, parrots, parakeets, lories) that frequently used antimicrobial drugs. Genotypes A or E/B were detected in 14.9% of humans at these facilities. Information on antimicrobial drug use in Psittaciformes and a C. psittaci vaccine are urgently required.

131 citations


"Determination of the Prevalence of ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...C. psittaci can infect 465 avian species in 30 avian orders, with at least 153 species in the order Psittaciformes (Vanrompay et al., 2007)....

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  • ...psittaci can infect 465 avian species in 30 avian orders, with at least 153 species in the order Psittaciformes (Vanrompay et al., 2007)....

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  • ...According to these findings it's suggested a vaccine and information on sensible use of antimicrobial drugs in Psittaciformes for prevent to psittacosis in humans and development of drug-resistant bacterial strains....

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