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Journal ArticleDOI

Determination of the Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci by PCR in Iranian Pigeons

28 Sep 2011-International Journal of Biology (Canadian Center of Science and Education)-Vol. 3, Iss: 4, pp 79

TL;DR: The results indicate that pigeon feces are a source of several zoonotic agents for humans, bird and animals and it is suggested that continuous surveys can estimate, and thus help to minimize the risk of humans contracting diseases from pigeons.

AbstractMany areas in Iran such as parks and gardens can be highly contaminated with pigeon feces. Chlamydia psittaci is a lethal bacterial that causes endemic avian chlamydiosis, epizootic outbreaks in mammals, and respiratory psittacosis in humans. Chlamydia psittaci strains in birds infect mucosal epithelial cells and macrophages of the respiratory tract. The aim of this study was to determination of prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci in feces of pigeons in Iran using PCR assay. DNA was extracted from 445 fecal samples of pigeons. The prevalence of this pathogen was 14.3% in region of this study. These results indicate that pigeon feces are a source of several zoonotic agents for humans, bird and animals. We suggested that continuous surveys can estimate, and thus help to minimize the risk of humans contracting diseases from pigeons. Keywords: Chlamydia psittaci, pigeon, PCR

Topics: Chlamydia psittaci (73%), Psittacosis (56%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with Chlamydia psittaci infections in psittacine birds and bird handlers in Egypt.
Abstract: Aims The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with Chlamydia psittaci infections in psittacine birds and bird handlers in Egypt. Methods and results A total of 190 swabs were collected from psittacine birds (n = 120) and bird handlers (n = 70) and were tested by polymerase chain reaction to detect the C. psittaci ompA gene. Chlamydia psittaci DNA was detected in 63 (52·5%) of 120 samples collected from psittacine birds. The occurrence of C. psittaci infections was high in Cockatiel birds (60%), followed by Fischer's lovebird (51%) and Rosy-faced lovebird (47·5%). Bird age, location (pet markets and households), housing (caged and aviary), and sampling season were considered significant risk factors for C. psittaci infections in psittacine birds. Of the 70 sputum swabs collected from bird handlers, only 4 (6%) were positive for C. psittaci. Positive cases were closely associated with older persons (≥30 years) who had respiratory signs and handled birds in pet markets. Further, wearing protective gloves and washing hands when handling psittacine birds decreased the frequency of C. psittaci infections in bird handlers. Conclusions The prevalence of C. psittaci infections in psittacine birds in Egypt is high, which has a potential threat to human health in this area. Thus, dissemination of effective prevention and control measures is essential to prevent the spread of C. psittaci among psittacine birds, as well as among humans in contact with birds. Significance and impact of the study Results from this study highlighted the risk factors associated with C. psittaci infections in psittacine birds and bird handlers in Egypt and will aid in developing prevention and control measures to reduce the risk of C. psittaci infection.

7 citations


Cites methods or result from "Determination of the Prevalence of ..."

  • ...The ompA region of the extracted DNA was amplified by PCR using the primers: CPsitt-F (50-GCTACGGGTTCCGCTCT-30) and CPsitt-R (50TTTGTTGATYTGAATCGAAGC-30) (Doosti and Arshi 2011)....

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  • ...psittaci infections in birds and human in the present study and other studies (Magnino et al. 2009; Doosti and Arshi 2011)....

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Journal Article
TL;DR: The results suggest that Cp.
Abstract: Background and Objective : Chlamydophila psittaci is a lethal bacterium that causes endemic avian chlamydiosis, and respiratory psittacosis. Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydophila psittaci is difficult by culture. This study was design to investigate the presence of Chlamydophila psittaci in collected pharyngeal swabs from asyptomatic pigeons by PCR. Materials and Methods : Pharyngeal samples from pigeons with no symptoms of disease (n=280) were collected during hot and cold seasons in different parts of Ahvaz. DNA was extracted from specimens and subjected to PCR targeting pmp genes and 16s-23s rRNA intergenic spacer of Cp. psittaci and chlamydiales specific primers. Results : Of 280 samples 2 (0.7%) harbor were positive for chlamydiales (16s-23s intergenic spacer) and Cp. psittaci specific genes (pmp gene). Conclusions : In this research the pigeons were asymptomatic carriers for Cp. psittaci in their respiratory discharges. These results suggest that Cp. psittaci infection of human can occur in very close and continuous contact with pigeons.

6 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The fact that pigeons serve as carriers of C. psittaci in the blood, liver and muscle tissue of urban pigeons in Iran supports the fact that this bacterium is a widespread pathogenic bacterium in pigeons.
Abstract: Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) is a widespread pathogenic bacterium in pigeons. These animals are mostly infected without any clinical signs. Pigeons are probably the most commonly reported chlamydia-infected avian species. Shedding of Chlamydia from infected birds has been widely reported. This study was conducted to detect and to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in the blood, liver and muscle tissue of urban pigeons in Iran using conventional polymerase chain reaction. In this study, authors used 90 pigeons from different retail shops across Iran. The study was including 26 female and 64 male pigeons with suspected Chlamydiosis based on clinical signs. During examination of the corpses we took 270 samples in total, including blood, liver and muscle tissue from each animal. C. psittaci was detected in 16 (17.78%) blood samples, 14 (15.56%) liver samples and 5 (5.56%) samples of muscle tissue. This study supports the fact that pigeons serve as carriers of C. psittaci. Therefore, continuous surveillance of this bacterium will go along way in understanding the distribution and risks associated with Chlamydia infected pigeons. This will be beneficial in prevention and control risks of infection in humans.

5 citations


Cites background from "Determination of the Prevalence of ..."

  • ...[27] and Doosti and Arshi [23] but, lower than 23....

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  • ...%) were closely similar to that reported by Hedemma et al.[14], Doosti et al.[27] and Doosti and Arshi [23] but, lower than 23.5% reported by Madani et al.[24] in Iran....

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  • ...[27], Doosti and Arshi [23] and Madani et al....

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  • ...Available reports such as Doosti et al.[27], Doosti and Arshi [23] and Madani et al.[24], have all worked on the detection from cloacal swabs and fecal droppings....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results revealed that DNA of zoonotic microorganisms such as C. psittaci, C. abortus and the emerging pathogen Parachlamydia acanthamoebae are present in Sardinian ticks.
Abstract: Ticks are well known to be important vectors for a wide range of bacteria, viruses and protozoa affecting human and animal health. Ixodid ticks are widely distributed in Sardinia, and an increasing number of tick-borne bacteria have been documented in the island. A growing number of evidence are supporting the hypothesis of alternative transmission routes for chlamydial bacteria such as the involvement of vectors. This study was conducted to provide possible molecular detection of members belonging to the Chlamydiales order in Sardinian ticks and to update information concerning the presence of new ectoparasite-borne bacteria in ticks collected from domestic and wild hosts in a typical Mediterranean environment. A total of 378 ticks were individually screened with a pan-Chlamydiales specific primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Chlamydiales DNA was detected in 28% of the total ticks analyzed. The analyses of sequences highlighted that Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus annulatus, Haemaphysalis sulcata, Haemaphysalis punctata and Dermacentor marginatus ticks exhibited DNA of Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydiaceae members. Our results revealed that DNA of zoonotic microorganisms such as C. psittaci, C. abortus and the emerging pathogen Parachlamydia acanthamoebae are present in Sardinian ticks. Since routes of Chlamydia transmission are yet to be fully defined, the role of ticks as possible vectors for Chlamydiales remains the most challenging and interesting question to be addressed in future research. Continued monitoring of these pathogens in tick vectors is needed to provide strategies for controlling of possible chlamydial infections and disease outbreaks in the island.

5 citations


Cites methods from "Determination of the Prevalence of ..."

  • ...…gave a positive signal with the 16S-rRNA PCR were additionally tested with a set of oligonucleotide primers based on the outer membrane protein genes (pmp and ompA) used for the molecular identification of C. abortus and C. psittaci , respectively (Doosti and Arshi 2011; Longbottom et al. 1998)....

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24 Nov 2018
TL;DR: The PCR assay clearly outperforms the inoculation tests and hence holds better promise for routine use in surveillance programs for psittacosis.
Abstract: Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) remains a significant threat to the health of farming communities in close contact with psittacine birds yet its infection burden remains poorly understood owing to the low accuracy of available diagnostic tests. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of chicken embryo (CEI) and mice inoculation (MI) tests and a PCR assay for the detection of C. psittaci in humans. Sputum specimens from 70 Egyptian individuals in contact with psittacine birds were screened for the presence of the pathogen using the three tests. A Bayesian latent class model was used to estimate the Se and Sp of the three tests. The PCR assay had a higher Se (85%; PCI 42.4% - 99.4%) than CEI (68.5%; PCI 24.6% - 95.6%) and MI (47.0%; PCI 12.3% - 85.1%) tests together with a higher Sp (98.9%; PCI 94.1% - 100%) than CEI (98.6%; PCI 93.8% - 99.9%) and MI (98.6%; PCI 93.8% - 99.9%) tests. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at evaluating the accuracy of these tests for the detection of C. psittaci in humans. The PCR assay clearly outperforms the inoculation tests and hence holds better promise for routine use in surveillance programs for psittacosis.

3 citations


Cites methods from "Determination of the Prevalence of ..."

  • ...3) (Doosti and Arshi, 2011)....

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  • ...The ompA region of the extracted DNA was amplified by PCR using the primers: CPsitt-F (5 ́GCTACGGGTTCCGCTCT-3 ́) and CPsitt-R (5 ́TTTGTTGATYTGAATCGAAGC-3 ́) (Doosti and Arshi, 2011)....

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  • ...The ompA region of the extracted DNA was amplified by PCR using the primers: CPsitt-F (5΄- GCTACGGGTTCCGCTCT-3΄) and CPsitt-R (5΄TTTGTTGATYTGAATCGAAGC-3΄) (Doosti and Arshi, 2011)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The C. pecorum strains were distinguished from C. psittaci strains by the results of immunological assays, including an immunofluorescence antibody assay performed with monoclonal antibodies and an immunoblot analysis of the immunological specificity of the major outer membrane protein.
Abstract: Chlamydia pecorum sp. nov. is proposed as the fourth species of the genus Chlamydia on the basis of the results of a genetic analysis of Chlamydia strains that were isolated from cattle and sheep which had various diseases, including sporadic encephalitis, infectious polyarthritis, pneumonia, and diarrhea. The levels of DNA-DNA homology between C. pecorum and strains of C. psittaci, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Chlamydia trachomatis were less than 10%. Several DNA probes were used to identify C. pecorum. The C. pecorum strains were distinguished from C. psittaci strains by the results of immunological assays, including an immunofluorescence antibody assay performed with monoclonal antibodies and an immunoblot analysis of the immunological specificity of the major outer membrane protein. Species identification was based on results obtained from DNA analyses and serology. The type strain of C. pecorum is strain ATCC VR628.

191 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Recently, a fourth species, C. pecorum, has been proposed (Fukushi & Hirai, 1992)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although feral pigeons pose sporadic health risks to humans, the risk is very low, even for humans involved in occupations that bring them into close contact with nesting sites, and the immunocompromised patient may have a nearly 1000-fold greater risk of acquiring mycotic disease from feral pigeon and their excreta than does the general population.
Abstract: A comprehensive literature search of epidemiological studies and reports of transmissions of disease from feral pigeons to humans was performed. There were 176 documented transmissions of illness from feral pigeons to humans reported between 1941 and 2003. Feral pigeons harbored 60 different human pathogenic organisms, but only seven were transmitted to humans. Aerosol transmission accounted for 99.4% of incidents. There was a single report of transmission of Salmonella enterica serotype Kiambu to humans from feral pigeons, and no reports of transmission of Campylobacter spp. The most commonly transmitted pathogens continue to be Chlamydophila psittaci and Cryptococcus neoformans. Although feral pigeons pose sporadic health risks to humans, the risk is very low, even for humans involved in occupations that bring them into close contact with nesting sites. In sharp contrast, the immunocompromised patient may have a nearly 1000-fold greater risk of acquiring mycotic disease from feral pigeons and their excreta than does the general population.

163 citations


"Determination of the Prevalence of ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...From 1941 to 2003, 78 cases in ISSN 1916-9671 E-ISSN 1916-968X 80 humans were reported (Haag-Wackernagel & Moch, 2004), due to contact with feral pigeons....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Trees for all five coding genes supported the current organization of the family Chlamydiaceae, and the distribution of virulence traits could not be explained by lateral transfer of the genes the authors studied, since they found no evidence for lateral gene transfer above the species level.
Abstract: Phylogenetic analyses of surface antigens and other chlamydial proteins were used to reconstruct the evolution of the Chlamydiaceae. Trees for all five coding genes [the major outer-membrane protein (MOMP), GroEL chaperonin, KDO-transferase, small cysteine-rich lipoprotein and 60 kDa cysteine-rich protein] supported the current organization of the family Chlamydiaceae, which is based on ribosomal, biochemical, serological, ecological and DNA-DNA hybridization data. Genetic distances between some species were quite large, so phylogenies were evaluated for robustness by comparing analyses of both nucleotide and protein sequences using a variety of algorithms (neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood, maximum-parsimony with bootstrapping, and quartet puzzling). Saturation plots identified areas of the trees in which factors other than relatedness may have determined branch attachments. All nine species were clearly differentiated by distinctness ratios calculated for each gene. The distribution of virulence traits such as host and tissue tropism were mapped onto the consensus phylogeny. Closely related species were no more likely to share virulence characters than were more distantly related species. This phylogenetically disjunct distribution of virulence traits could not be explained by lateral transfer of the genes we studied, since we found no evidence for lateral gene transfer above the species level. One interpretation of this observation is that when chlamydiae gain access to a new niche, such as a new host or tissue, significant adaptation ensues and the virulence phenotype of the new species reflects adaptation to its environment more strongly than it reflects its ancestry.

148 citations


"Determination of the Prevalence of ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Formerly called Chlamydia, with only two recognized species 25 years ago (C. trachomatis and C. psittaci), the family now contains nine species divided into two genera, Chlamydia and Chlamydophila (Bush & Everett, 2001)....

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  • ...Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci), an obligate intracellular, gram negative bacterium, has 7 known genotypes (A-F and E/B) (Geens et al., 2005)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This compendium provides standardized procedures for controlling avian chlamydiosis in birds and public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, the pet bird industry, and others concerned with controlling these diseases and protecting public health.
Abstract: Psittacosis, also known as parrot fever and ornithosis, is a bacterial infection of humans that can cause severe pneumonia and other serious health problems. It is caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, formerly known as Chlamydia psittaci. From 1988 through 2003, 935 human cases of psittacosis were reported to the CDC and most resulted from exposure to infected pet birds, usually cockatiels, parakeets, parrots, and macaws. In birds, C. psittaci infection is referred to as avian chlamydiosis. Infected birds shed the bacteria through feces and nasal discharges, and humans become infected from exposure to these materials. This compendium provides information about psittacosis and avian chlamydiosis to public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, the pet bird industry, and others concerned with controlling these diseases and protecting public health. The recommendations in this compendium provide standardized procedures for controlling avian chlamydiosis in birds, a vital step to protecting human health. This document will be reviewed and revised as necessary.

115 citations


"Determination of the Prevalence of ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Human infection can result from even brief exposure to the contaminated excretions or secretions of infected birds (Smith et al., 2005)....

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  • ...Transmission of this atypical respiratory pathogen can occur through direct contact with infected birds, bird feces, nasal discharges, and aerosols, causing respiratory disease in both mammals and birds (Smith et al., 2005)....

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  • ...From 2005 to 2009, 66 human cases of psittacosis were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (Smith et al., 2005)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Zoonotic transmission of Chlamydophila psittaci in 39 breeding facilities for Psittaciformes (cockatoos, parrots, parakeets, lories) that frequently used antimicrobial drugs is studied.
Abstract: We studied zoonotic transmission of Chlamydophila psittaci in 39 breeding facilities for Psittaciformes (cockatoos, parrots, parakeets, lories) that frequently used antimicrobial drugs. Genotypes A or E/B were detected in 14.9% of humans at these facilities. Information on antimicrobial drug use in Psittaciformes and a C. psittaci vaccine are urgently required.

113 citations


"Determination of the Prevalence of ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...C. psittaci can infect 465 avian species in 30 avian orders, with at least 153 species in the order Psittaciformes (Vanrompay et al., 2007)....

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  • ...psittaci can infect 465 avian species in 30 avian orders, with at least 153 species in the order Psittaciformes (Vanrompay et al., 2007)....

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  • ...According to these findings it's suggested a vaccine and information on sensible use of antimicrobial drugs in Psittaciformes for prevent to psittacosis in humans and development of drug-resistant bacterial strains....

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