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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2021.0987

Effect of Blinatumomab vs Chemotherapy on Event-Free Survival Among Children With High-risk First-Relapse B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

02 Mar 2021-JAMA (American Medical Association)-Vol. 325, Iss: 9, pp 843-854
Abstract: Importance Blinatumomab is a CD3/CD19-directed bispecific T-cell engager molecule with efficacy in children with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Objective To evaluate event-free survival in children with high-risk first-relapse B-ALL after a third consolidation course with blinatumomab vs consolidation chemotherapy before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Design, setting, and participants In this randomized phase 3 clinical trial, patients were enrolled November 2015 to July 2019 (data cutoff, July 17, 2019). Investigators at 47 centers in 13 countries enrolled children older than 28 days and younger than 18 years with high-risk first-relapse B-ALL in morphologic complete remission (M1 marrow, Intervention Patients were randomized to receive 1 cycle of blinatumomab (n = 54; 15 μg/m2/d for 4 weeks, continuous intravenous infusion) or chemotherapy (n = 54) for the third consolidation. Main outcomes and measures The primary end point was event-free survival (events: relapse, death, second malignancy, or failure to achieve complete remission). The key secondary efficacy end point was overall survival. Other secondary end points included minimal residual disease remission and incidence of adverse events. Results A total of 108 patients were randomized (median age, 5.0 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 4.0-10.5]; 51.9% girls; 97.2% M1 marrow) and all patients were included in the analysis. Enrollment was terminated early for benefit of blinatumomab in accordance with a prespecified stopping rule. After a median of 22.4 months of follow-up (IQR, 8.1-34.2), the incidence of events in the blinatumomab vs consolidation chemotherapy groups was 31% vs 57% (log-rank P Conclusions and relevance Among children with high-risk first-relapse B-ALL, treatment with 1 cycle of blinatumomab compared with standard intensive multidrug chemotherapy before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant resulted in an improved event-free survival at a median of 22.4 months of follow-up. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02393859.

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Topics: Blinatumomab (65%), Consolidation Chemotherapy (55%), Survival rate (54%) ... show more
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29 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JCM10091926
Hiroto Inaba1, Ching-Hon Pui2, Ching-Hon Pui1Institutions (2)
Abstract: The outcomes of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have improved remarkably during the last five decades. Such improvements were made possible by the incorporation of new diagnostic technologies, the effective administration of conventional chemotherapeutic agents, and the provision of better supportive care. With the 5-year survival rates now exceeding 90% in high-income countries, the goal for the next decade is to improve survival further toward 100% and to minimize treatment-related adverse effects. Based on genome-wide analyses, especially RNA-sequencing analyses, ALL can be classified into more than 20 B-lineage subtypes and more than 10 T-lineage subtypes with prognostic and therapeutic implications. Response to treatment is another critical prognostic factor, and detailed analysis of minimal residual disease can detect levels as low as one ALL cell among 1 million total cells. Such detailed analysis can facilitate the rational use of molecular targeted therapy and immunotherapy, which have emerged as new treatment strategies that can replace or reduce the use of conventional chemotherapy.

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7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EJCA.2021.03.034
Abstract: Aim Outcomes of children with high-risk (HR) relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (N = 393), recruited to ALLR3 and ALL-REZ BFM 2002 trials, were analysed. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was assessed after induction and at predetermined time points until haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Methods Genetic analyses included karyotype, copy-number alterations and mutation analyses. Ten-year survivals were analysed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox models for multivariable analyses. Results Outcomes of patients were comparable in ALLR3 and ALL-REZ BFM 2002. The event-free survival of B-cell precursor (BCP) and T-cell ALL (T-ALL) was 22.6% and 26.2% (P = 0.94), respectively, and the overall survival (OS) was 32.6% and 28.2% (P = 0.11), respectively. Induction failures (38%) were associated with deletions of NR3C1 (P = 0.002) and BTG1 (P = 0.03) in BCP-ALL. The disease-free survival (DFS) and OS in patients with good vs poor MRD responses were 57.4% vs 22.6% (P Conclusion Improvements in outcomes for HR ALL relapses require novel compounds in induction therapy to improve remission rates and immune targeted therapy after induction to maintain remission after SCT. Trial registration ALLR3: NCT00967057 ; ALL REZ-BFM 2002: NCT00114348

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2 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JCM10122544
Manon Queudeville1, Martin Ebinger1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is by far the most common malignancy in children, and new immunotherapeutic approaches will clearly change the way we treat our patients in future years. Blinatumomab is a bispecific T-cell-engaging antibody indicated for the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (R/R-ALL). The use of blinatumomab in R/R ALL has shown promising effects, especially as a bridging tool to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. For heavily pretreated patients, the response to one or two cycles of blinatumomab ranges from 34% to 66%. Two randomized controlled trials have very recently demonstrated an improved reduction in minimal residual disease as well as an increased survival for patients treated with blinatumomab compared to standard consolidation treatment in first relapse. Current trials using blinatumomab frontline for high-risk patients or as a consolidation treatment post-transplant will show whether efficacy is even higher in less heavily pretreated patients. Due to the distinct pattern of adverse events compared to high-dose conventional chemotherapy, blinatumomab could play an important role for patients with a risk for severe chemotherapy-associated toxicities. This systematic review discusses all published results for blinatumomab in children as well as all ongoing clinical trials.

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Topics: Blinatumomab (77%), Minimal residual disease (52%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JPM11080715
Ross Salvaris, Pasquale L. Fedele1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The last decade has seen a significant leap in our understanding of the wide range of genetic lesions underpinning acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Next generation sequencing has led to the identification of driver mutations with significant implications on prognosis and has defined entities such as BCR-ABL-like ALL, where targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and JAK inhibitors may play a role in its treatment. In Philadelphia positive ALL, the introduction of TKIs into frontline treatment regimens has already transformed patient outcomes. In B-ALL, agents targeting surface receptors CD19, CD20 and CD22, including monoclonal antibodies, bispecific T cell engagers, antibody drug conjugates and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, have shown significant activity but come with unique toxicities and have implications for how treatment is sequenced. Advances in T-ALL have lagged behind those seen in B-ALL. However, agents such as nelarabine, bortezomib and CAR T cell therapy targeting T cell antigens have been examined with promising results seen. As our understanding of disease biology in ALL grows, as does our ability to target pathways such as apoptosis, through BH3 mimetics, chemokines and epigenetic regulators. This review aims to highlight a range of available and emerging targeted therapeutics in ALL, to explore their mechanisms of action and to discuss the current evidence for their use.

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Topics: Targeted therapy (57%), Chimeric antigen receptor (55%), Nelarabine (52%) ... show more

1 Citations


References
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40 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/01621459.1999.10474144
Jason P. Fine1, Robert Gray2Institutions (2)
Abstract: With explanatory covariates, the standard analysis for competing risks data involves modeling the cause-specific hazard functions via a proportional hazards assumption Unfortunately, the cause-specific hazard function does not have a direct interpretation in terms of survival probabilities for the particular failure type In recent years many clinicians have begun using the cumulative incidence function, the marginal failure probabilities for a particular cause, which is intuitively appealing and more easily explained to the nonstatistician The cumulative incidence is especially relevant in cost-effectiveness analyses in which the survival probabilities are needed to determine treatment utility Previously, authors have considered methods for combining estimates of the cause-specific hazard functions under the proportional hazards formulation However, these methods do not allow the analyst to directly assess the effect of a covariate on the marginal probability function In this article we pro

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Topics: Proportional hazards model (63%), Covariate (51%)

9,221 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1407222
Shannon L. Maude, Noelle Frey1, Pamela A. Shaw, Richard Aplenc  +15 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A total of 30 children and adults received CTL019. Complete remission was achieved in 27 patients (90%), including 2 patients with blinatumomab-refractory disease and 15 who had undergone stem-cell transplantation. CTL019 cells proliferated in vivo and were detectable in the blood, bone marrow, and cerebrospinal fluid of patients who had a response. Sustained remission was achieved with a 6-month event-free survival rate of 67% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51 to 88) and an overall survival rate of 78% (95% CI, 65 to 95). At 6 months, the probability that a patient would have persistence of CTL019 was 68% (95% CI, 50 to 92) and the probability that a patient would have relapse-free B-cell aplasia was 73% (95% CI, 57 to 94). All the patients had the cytokine-release syndrome. Severe cytokine-release syndrome, which developed in 27% of the patients, was associated with a higher disease burden before infusion and was effectively treated with the anti–interleukin-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab. CONCLUSIONS Chimeric antigen receptor–modified T-cell therapy against CD19 was effective in treating relapsed and refractory ALL. CTL019 was associated with a high remission rate, even among patients for whom stem-cell transplantation had failed, and durable remissions up to 24 months were observed. (Funded by Novartis and others; CART19 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01626495 and NCT01029366.)

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Topics: Transplantation (55%), Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy (54%), Survival rate (53%) ... show more

3,414 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/2530245
Peter C. O'Brien1, Thomas R. Fleming1Institutions (1)
01 Sep 1979-Biometrics
Abstract: A multiple testing procedure is proposed for comparing two treatments when response to treatment is both dichotomous (i.e., success or failure) and immediate. The proposed test statistic for each test is the usual (Pearson) chi-square statistic based on all data collected to that point. The maximum number (N) of tests and the number (m1 + m2) of observations collected between successive tests is fixed in advance. The overall size of the procedure is shown to be controlled with virtually the same accuracy as the single sample chi-square test based on N(m1 + m2) observations. The power is also found to be virtually the same. However, by affording the opportunity to terminate early when one treatment performs markedly better than the other, the multiple testing procedure may eliminate the ethical dilemmas that often accompany clinical trials.

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Topics: Test statistic (56%), Statistic (51%), Pocock boundary (51%)

2,778 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOMET/70.3.659
01 Dec 1983-Biometrika
Abstract: SUMMARY Pocock (1977), O'Brien & Fleming (1979) and Slud & Wei (1982) have proposed different methods to construct discrete sequential boundaries for clinical trials. These methods require that the total number of decision times be specified in advance. In the present paper, we propose a more flexible way to construct discrete sequential boundaries. The method is based on the choice of a function, a*(t), which characterizes the rate at which the error level ac is spent. The boundary at a decision time is determined by a*(t), and by past and current decision times, but does not depend on the future decision times or the total number of decision times.

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1,840 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1200/JCO.1984.2.3.187
Abstract: Little research has been conducted documenting the reliability and validity of the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) scale, and guidelines based on empirical data do not exist to govern its use. Two hundred ninety-three cancer patients completed a questionnaire that assesses their physical and psychosocial difficulties. Physicians rated patients on the KPS and a subsample of 75 patients was used to evaluate interrater reliability. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the interrater reliability and construct validity of the KPS. The KPS was shown to have good reliability and validity. Detailed examination of the reliability data suggested areas in which physicians err in their judgments. Multiple regression techniques were used to empirically identify seven behaviorally based questions that would be helpful in predicting KPS scores. The seven variables included weight loss, weight gain, reduced energy, difficulty walking, driving, grooming, and working part time. An interview approach with behaviorally based guidelines is presented using these variables to obtain relevant data and make more accurate KPS ratings. With the approach suggested and the guidelines presented, oncologists may train themselves to use the KPS in a standard way, which should increase reliability and validity of the KPS and has implications for patients and research studies that use KPS as a stratifying variable.

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1,162 Citations