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Journal ArticleDOI

Multiresidue analysis of 18 organochlorine pesticides in traditional chinese medicine.

01 Sep 2006-Journal of Chromatographic Science (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 44, Iss: 8, pp 518-522
TL;DR: A simple and efficient method for simultaneous gas chromatographic (GC) determination of 18 organochlorine pesticide determination in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is described and may be used to routinely determine organoch chlorine pesticides in TCM.
Abstract: A simple and efficient method for simultaneous gas chromatographic (GC) determination of 18 organochlorine pesticides [tecnazene, hexachlorobenzene, alpha-benzenehexachloride (BHC), pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), gamma-BHC, heptachlor, aldrin, methyl pentachlorophenyl sulfide, beta-BHC, delta-BHC, heptachlor epoxide, alpha-endosulfan, trans-chlorodane, cis-chlorodane, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDT] in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is described. The procedure involves ultrasonic extraction and sulphuric acid treatment as the cleanup method. Detection of the sample is performed by GC-electron capture detection. A series of experiments are conducted to optimize the final pretreatment conditions [acetone-petroleum ether (1:1) as the extract solvent, ultrasonication for 15 min, three steps, concentrated sulphuric acid with 10% water for sulphuric acid treatment]. Recovery studies are performed at 10, 50, and 100 parts-per-billion (ppb) fortification levels of each organochlorine pesticide, except for alpha-endosulfan, which are 20, 100, and 200 ppb. The percentage recoveries range from 77.9% +/- 6.4% to 114.0% +/- 8.1% (average +/- standard deviation). The simple and rapid method may be used to routinely determine organochlorine pesticides in TCM.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that contamination of TCMs with OCPs is widespread and the most common contaminants among the 280 samples were alpha-BHC, PCNB, hexachlorobenzene, and tecnazene.

45 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: MSPD proves to be a simple, fast and very useful multiresidue method and can be recommended for routine pesticide monitoring studies in various herbs.
Abstract: In this study two analytical methods, one based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) and the other on liquid–solid extraction (LSE), coupled with gas chromatography, were evaluated and used to determine the presence of 163 pesticides (6 acaricides, 62 fungicides, 18 herbicides and 77 insecticides) in various herbs. Both methods were optimized considering different parameters (sample to sorbent mass ratio, extracting solvent, sorbents for clean-up step, etc.). The results of these validated sample preparation procedures were compared. Under optimum conditions, the mean recoveries obtained were in the range of 70–119 % for MSPD for most pesticides and 70–118 % for LSE, but with several exceptions. Precision values, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were ≤16 % for MSPD and <18 % for LSE. Correlation coefficients were higher than 0.99254 for both methods. LODs (limits of detection) and LOQs (limits of quantification) for MSPD were within the ranges of 0.003–0.03 and 0.005–0.04 mg/kg, respectively. The data demonstrate that the MSPD method was successfully used for the analysis of 163 pesticides in the following herbs: chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), linden (Tilia), lungwort (Pulmonaria L.), melissa (Melissa L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). This paper indicates the potential of MSPD for qualitative and quantitative analysis of pesticide residues. This method was therefore validated at three spiking levels (the first ranging from 0.005 to 0.05 mg/kg, the second from 0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg and the third from 0.25 to 2.5 mg/kg) and applied to real samples (n = 15). MSPD proves to be a simple, fast and very useful multiresidue method and can be recommended for routine pesticide monitoring studies in various herbs.

43 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Soil concentrations of pesticides were extremely heterogeneous at the Vakhsh and Konibodam disposal sites with many soil samples greater than 10 ppm, indicating minimal transfer from the pesticide sites into local food chains.

41 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The verified QuEChERS method was successfully applied to the analysis of 65 actual samples from eight different types of roots and rhizomes of CHMs, and the most frequently detected pesticide was carbendazim with levels below MRLs.

26 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed “iVarious” quality standard system highlighted a holistic strategy for effectiveness, security, integrity and systematization of quality and safety control standards of TCMs, integrating multi-disciplinary technologies and progressive methods, basis elements and key points of standard construction.

21 citations


Cites background from "Multiresidue analysis of 18 organoc..."

  • ...The residues of heavy metals and harmful elements [62], pesticide residues [63], mycotoxins [64], and pigment residues [65] are considered to be the most primary exogenous toxic residues and seriously affect the safety of TCMs [66]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The importance of matrix pretreatment, sample extraction and clean-up in multiresidue methods for pesticide analyses is discussed, with emphasis on alternative new techniques attempted worldwide such as accelerated solvent extraction, microwave assisted extraction, solid phase extraction, micro-extraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, supercritical fluid chromatography, ultrasonic extraction and gel permeation chromatography.
Abstract: The importance of matrix pretreatment, sample extraction and clean-up in multiresidue methods for pesticide analyses is discussed, with emphasis on alternative new techniques attempted worldwide such as accelerated solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase extraction, solid-phase micro-extraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, supercritical fluid chromatography, ultrasonic extraction and gel permeation chromatography. Detection employing capillary gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis, immunoassay techniques and others is summarized.

234 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of gas chromatography as an analytical tool in combination with currently used or recently developed sample preparation techniques is described.

228 citations

01 Jan 1993
TL;DR: Proven agroindustrial technologies should be applied to the cultivation and processing of medicinal plants and the manufacture of herbal medicines.
Abstract: Plant-derived drugs have an important place in both traditional and modern medicine. For this reason a special effort to maintain the great diversity of plant species would undoubtedly help to alleviate human suffering in the long term. Proven agroindustrial technologies should be applied to the cultivation and processing of medicinal plants and the manufacture of herbal medicines.

222 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used thin-layer chromatography on RP-18 plates to extract atrazine, propham, chlorpropham and diflubenzuron from soil.

148 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper deals with the analysis of pesticide residues by chromatographic methods in samples of plant origin by focusing on the isolation and clean-up steps of the sample preparation for GC or LC determination.

114 citations