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Journal ArticleDOI

Multiresidue analysis of 18 organochlorine pesticides in traditional chinese medicine.

01 Sep 2006-Journal of Chromatographic Science (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 44, Iss: 8, pp 518-522

TL;DR: A simple and efficient method for simultaneous gas chromatographic (GC) determination of 18 organochlorine pesticide determination in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is described and may be used to routinely determine organoch chlorine pesticides in TCM.

AbstractA simple and efficient method for simultaneous gas chromatographic (GC) determination of 18 organochlorine pesticides [tecnazene, hexachlorobenzene, alpha-benzenehexachloride (BHC), pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), gamma-BHC, heptachlor, aldrin, methyl pentachlorophenyl sulfide, beta-BHC, delta-BHC, heptachlor epoxide, alpha-endosulfan, trans-chlorodane, cis-chlorodane, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDT] in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is described. The procedure involves ultrasonic extraction and sulphuric acid treatment as the cleanup method. Detection of the sample is performed by GC-electron capture detection. A series of experiments are conducted to optimize the final pretreatment conditions [acetone-petroleum ether (1:1) as the extract solvent, ultrasonication for 15 min, three steps, concentrated sulphuric acid with 10% water for sulphuric acid treatment]. Recovery studies are performed at 10, 50, and 100 parts-per-billion (ppb) fortification levels of each organochlorine pesticide, except for alpha-endosulfan, which are 20, 100, and 200 ppb. The percentage recoveries range from 77.9% +/- 6.4% to 114.0% +/- 8.1% (average +/- standard deviation). The simple and rapid method may be used to routinely determine organochlorine pesticides in TCM.

Topics: Heptachlor (54%), Aldrin (52%), Pentachloronitrobenzene (52%), Heptachlor Epoxide (51%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that contamination of TCMs with OCPs is widespread and the most common contaminants among the 280 samples were alpha-BHC, PCNB, hexachlorobenzene, and tecnazene.
Abstract: We analyzed 30 different traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) to determine levels of contamination with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). We tested for 18 pesticides: benzene hexachloride (BHC, including α-BHC, β-BHC, γ-BHC, δ-BHC), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, tecnazene, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, methyl pentachlorophenyl sulphide (MPCPS), α-endosulfan, trans-chlorodane, cis-chlorodane, p,p′-DDE, o,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDD, and p,p′-DDT. The sample extracts were analyzed by GC-ECD. A total of 280 samples of 30 different TCMs were analyzed. Our results showed that 75.8% of samples contained at least one of the above pesticides. The pesticides detected were tecnazene, hexachlorobenzene, PCNB, heptachlor, aldrin, α-BHC, β-BHC, γ-BHC, δ-BHC, p,p′-DDE, o,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDD p,p′-DDT. More than 50% of samples contained α-BHC (55.8%) and PCNB (55.8%); hexachlorobenzene was detected in 40.9% of samples, tecnazene in 19.5%, γ-BHC in 16.7% and p,p′-DDE in 16.0%. Less than 10% of samples contained β-BHC, δ-BHC, heptachlor, aldrin, o,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDT and p,p′-DDD. None of the 280 samples contained heptachlor epoxide, MPCPS, α-endosulfan, trans-chlorodane, or cis-chlorodane. Concentrations of OCPs in four samples exceeded the maximum allowable residue limits (MRLs) specified in the PRC Pharmacopoeia 2005. The results indicate that the most common contaminants among the 280 samples were α-BHC, PCNB, hexachlorobenzene, and tecnazene. Our results suggest that contamination of TCMs with OCPs is widespread. The MRLs for other OCPs commonly found in TCMs (e.g. hexachlorobenzene and tecnazene) should be set as quickly as possible, and the MRLs of OCPs in other TCMs should be established.

39 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: MSPD proves to be a simple, fast and very useful multiresidue method and can be recommended for routine pesticide monitoring studies in various herbs.
Abstract: In this study two analytical methods, one based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) and the other on liquid–solid extraction (LSE), coupled with gas chromatography, were evaluated and used to determine the presence of 163 pesticides (6 acaricides, 62 fungicides, 18 herbicides and 77 insecticides) in various herbs. Both methods were optimized considering different parameters (sample to sorbent mass ratio, extracting solvent, sorbents for clean-up step, etc.). The results of these validated sample preparation procedures were compared. Under optimum conditions, the mean recoveries obtained were in the range of 70–119 % for MSPD for most pesticides and 70–118 % for LSE, but with several exceptions. Precision values, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were ≤16 % for MSPD and <18 % for LSE. Correlation coefficients were higher than 0.99254 for both methods. LODs (limits of detection) and LOQs (limits of quantification) for MSPD were within the ranges of 0.003–0.03 and 0.005–0.04 mg/kg, respectively. The data demonstrate that the MSPD method was successfully used for the analysis of 163 pesticides in the following herbs: chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), linden (Tilia), lungwort (Pulmonaria L.), melissa (Melissa L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). This paper indicates the potential of MSPD for qualitative and quantitative analysis of pesticide residues. This method was therefore validated at three spiking levels (the first ranging from 0.005 to 0.05 mg/kg, the second from 0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg and the third from 0.25 to 2.5 mg/kg) and applied to real samples (n = 15). MSPD proves to be a simple, fast and very useful multiresidue method and can be recommended for routine pesticide monitoring studies in various herbs.

32 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Soil concentrations of pesticides were extremely heterogeneous at the Vakhsh and Konibodam disposal sites with many soil samples greater than 10 ppm, indicating minimal transfer from the pesticide sites into local food chains.
Abstract: The central Asian Republic of Tajikistan has been an area of extensive historical agricultural pesticide use as well as large scale burials of banned chlorinated insecticides. The current investigation was a four year study of legacy organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods in four rural areas of Tajikistan. Study areas included the pesticide burial sites of Konibodom and Vakhsh, and family farms of Garm and Chimbuloq villages. These areas were selected to represent a diversity of pesticide disposal histories and to allow assessment of local pesticide contamination in Tajikistan. Each site was visited multiple times and over 500 samples of surface soil and raw foods were collected and analyzed for twenty legacy organochlorine pesticides. Various local food products were sampled to represent the range of raw foods potentially containing residues of banned pesticides, including dairy products, meat, edible plant and cotton seed products. The pesticide analytes included DDTs (DDT, DDD, DDE), lindane isomers (α, β, γ, δ BHC), endosulfan isomers (endosulfan I, II, sulfate), other cyclodienes (aldrin, α and γ chlordanes, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde and ketone, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide), and methoxychlor. Pesticide analytes were selected based on availability of commercial standards and known or suspected historical pesticide use and burial. Pesticide contamination was highest in soil and generally low in meat, dairy, and plant products. DDT was consistently the highest measured individual pesticide at each of the four sampling areas, along with BHC isomers and endosulfan II. Soil concentrations of pesticides were extremely heterogeneous at the Vakhsh and Konibodam disposal sites with many soil samples greater than 10 ppm. In contrast, samples from farms in Chimbuloq and Garm had low concentrations of pesticides. Pesticide contamination in raw foods was generally low, indicating minimal transfer from the pesticide sites into local food chains.

31 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The verified QuEChERS method was successfully applied to the analysis of 65 actual samples from eight different types of roots and rhizomes of CHMs, and the most frequently detected pesticide was carbendazim with levels below MRLs.
Abstract: In this study, two simple pretreatment methods were comprehensively evaluated for the determination of 135 pesticide residues in roots and rhizomes of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs). The studied methodologies are (a) solid-phase extraction (SPE) and (b) Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS). For SPE, extraction solvents, SPE cartridges and types and volume of eluent were accessed and optimized. For QuEChERS, different versions, acetic acid concentration and dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) sorbent materials were tested. SPE and QuEChERS were estimated in recovery range, the number of pesticides that were recovered ranging from 90% to 110% and expenses in Corydalis Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Angelicae Sinensis Radix. QuEChERS method showed better performance than SPE. The method showed good linearity over the range assayed 0.9986-0.9999 (1-80ng/mL for 124 pesticides, 1-50ng/mL for 10 pesticides, 1-20ng/mL for satisfar). The matrix effect was compensated by matrix-based calibration curves with internal standard. The average recoveries of all pesticides were ranging from 70% to 120% at three levels of 10, 50 and 100ng/g with relative standard deviations less than 20%. The limits of quantification of the 135 pesticides in three matrices were 1-5ng/g, which were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by the European Union. The verified QuEChERS method was successfully applied to the analysis of 65 actual samples from eight different types of roots and rhizomes of CHMs. Angelicae Sinensis Radix was the most susceptible to pesticides among these samples, and the most frequently detected pesticide was carbendazim with levels below MRLs. Metalaxyl, phorate, atrazine, diniconazole, coumaphos and paclobutrazol were also detected in some samples.

19 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed “iVarious” quality standard system highlighted a holistic strategy for effectiveness, security, integrity and systematization of quality and safety control standards of TCMs, integrating multi-disciplinary technologies and progressive methods, basis elements and key points of standard construction.
Abstract: An effective quality control system is the key to ensuring the quality, safety and efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). However, the current quality standard research lacks the top-design and systematic design, mostly based on specific technologies or evaluation methods. To resolve the challenges and questions of quality control of TCMs, a brand-new quality standard system, named "iVarious", was proposed. The system comprises eight elements in a modular format. Meaning of every element was specifically illustrated via corresponding research instances. Furthermore, frankincense study was taken as an example for demonstrating standards and research process, based on the "iVarious" system. This system highlighted a holistic strategy for effectiveness, security, integrity and systematization of quality and safety control standards of TCMs. The establishment of "iVarious" integrates multi-disciplinary technologies and progressive methods, basis elements and key points of standard construction. The system provides a novel idea and technological demonstration for regulation establishment of TCMs quality standards.

16 citations


Cites background from "Multiresidue analysis of 18 organoc..."

  • ...The residues of heavy metals and harmful elements [62], pesticide residues [63], mycotoxins [64], and pigment residues [65] are considered to be the most primary exogenous toxic residues and seriously affect the safety of TCMs [66]....

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References
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113 citations