scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Pattern of cercarial emergence of Schistosoma curassoni from Niger and comparison with three sympatric species of schistosomes.

01 Feb 1992-Journal of Parasitology (J Parasitol)-Vol. 78, Iss: 1, pp 61-63

AbstractThe emergence pattern of Schistosoma curassoni cercariae from Bulinus umbilicatus, whose adult worms parasitize bovine, caprine, and ovine ungulates in Niger, is of a circadian type with a mean emission time at 0855 hr 1 hr 6 min, characteristic of the schistosome species parasitizing domestic or wild cattle. The comparison of this cercarial emergence pattern with those of the other 3 sympatric species of schistosomes (Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma bovis, and Schistosoma mansoni) shows a significant difference between the chronobiology of the cercariae infective for human and those infective for bovine hosts. This difference may improve epidemiological surveys based on snail prevalences by allowing the distinction between bulinids infected with human and bovine parasites.

Topics: Schistosoma haematobium (54%), Schistosoma mansoni (54%), Trematoda (52%), Bulinus (51%)

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

BookDOI
01 Jan 2003

224 citations


Cites background from "Pattern of cercarial emergence of S..."

  • ...bovis cercariae are timed for early morning, when the definitive hosts of these parasites, the bulls, come to drink water (Pages and Théron, 1990b; Mouchet et al., 1992), those of S....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Cercariae, like miracidia, are non-parasitic larval stages implicated in the life cycle of all trematodes for the host-to-host parasite transmission.
Abstract: Cercariae, like miracidia, are non-parasitic larval stages implicated in the life cycle of all trematodes for the host-to-host parasite transmission. Almost all cercariae are free-living in the external environment. With a few exceptions (cercariae of Halipegus occidualis (Halipegidae) can live several months, Shostak & Esch, 1990a), cercariae have a short active life during which they do not feed, living on accumulated reserves. Most cercariae encyst as metacercariae in second intermediate hosts which are prey of the definitive host; in certain species, the interruption of the active life is achieved by an encystment in the external environment (or a simple immobile waiting strategy in a few species). In some two-host life cycles, the cercariae develop into adults after penetration (this is the case for various species causing human schistosomiasis). Some cercariae do not leave the mollusc which must then be ingested by the definitive host.

161 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Biological factors central to the transmission of schistosomes, including cercarial emergence rhythms and interactions with other parasites and abiotic factors including temperature, rainfall, water velocity, desiccation and salinity are shown to impact on the intermediate host-parasite relationship.
Abstract: Within each of the four species groups of Bulinus there are species that act as intermediate hosts for one or more of the seven species of schistosomes in the Schistosoma haematobium group, which includes the important human pathogens S. haematobium and S. intercalatum. Bulinus species have an extensive distribution throughout much of Africa and some surrounding islands including Madagascar, parts of the Middle East and the Mediterranean region. Considerable variation in intermediate host specificity can be found and differences in compatibility between snail and parasite can be observed over small geographical areas. Molecular studies for detection of genetic variation and the discrimination of Bulinus species are reviewed and two novel assays, allele-specific amplification (ASA) and SNaPshot™, are introduced and shown to be of value for detecting nucleotide changes in characterized genes such as cytochrome oxidase 1. The value and complexity of compatibility studies is illustrated by case studies of S. haematobium transmission. In Senegal, where B. globosus, B. umbilicatus, B. truncatus and B. senegalensis may act as intermediate hosts, distinct differences have been observed in the infectivity of different isolates of S. haematobium. In Zanzibar, molecular characterization studies to discriminate between B. globosus and B. nasutus have been essential to elucidate the roles of snails in transmission. B. globosus is an intermediate host on Unguja and Pemba. Further studies are required to establish the intermediate hosts in the coastal areas of East Africa. Biological factors central to the transmission of schistosomes, including cercarial emergence rhythms and interactions with other parasites and abiotic factors including temperature, rainfall, water velocity, desiccation and salinity are shown to impact on the intermediate host-parasite relationship.

71 citations


Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: This chapter provides an updated and comprehensive review on the main features of cattle schistosomiasis and indicates that suitable drugs are not available for mass treatment in domestic stock and are unlikely to be developed in the near future.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter provides an updated and comprehensive review on the main features of cattle schistosomiasis. The adult worms are obligate parasites of the blood vascular system of vertebrates. They live in the perivesical, nasal or mesenteric, and hepatic veins of the host where they feed on blood and produce nonoperculated eggs with a characteristic terminal or lateral spine. As many as 10 different species of schistosomes have been reported to naturally infect cattle. The geographical distribution of schistosome species infecting cattle is mainly determined by the distribution of their respective intermediate host snails. It is noted that most infections in endemic areas occur at a subclinical level. However, it has been established that high rates of prevalence of subclinical infections cause significant losses due to long-term effects on animal growth and productivity and increased susceptibility to other parasitic or bacterial disease. Despite this, schistosomes of veterinary concern have received relatively little attention. In addition, suitable drugs are not available for mass treatment in domestic stock and are unlikely to be developed in the near future. However, recent progress in identifying potentially protective parasite antigens has opened new perspectives in the control strategy against schistosomiasis.

66 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Together, exogenous and endogenous factors control emergence of trematode cercariae, mitigating the vagaries of an intertidal environment.
Abstract: Trematode parasites in intertidal estuaries ex- perience constantly varying conditions, with the presence or absence of water potentially limiting larval transport be- tween hosts. Given the short life spans (24 h) of cercariae, emergence timing should be optimized to enhance the prob- ability of successful transmission. In the present study, field measurements and laboratory experiments identified pro- cesses that regulate the emergence of cercariae from their first intermediate snail hosts in an intertidal marsh. Larvae emerged over species-specific temperature ranges, exclu- sively during daylight hours, and only when snails were submerged. The three factors operate over different tempo- ral scales: temperature monthly, light diurnally (24-h pe- riod), and water depth tidally (12-h period). Each stimulus creates a necessary condition for the next, forming a hier- archy of environmental cues. Emergence as the tide floods would favor transport within the estuary, and light may trigger direct (downward or upward) swimming toward host habitats. Abbreviated dispersal would retain asexually re- produced cercariae within the marsh, and local mixing would diversify the gene pool of larvae encysting on sub- sequent hosts. In contrast to the timing of cercarial release, emergence duration was under endogenous control. Dura- tion of emergence decreased from sunrise to sunset, perhaps in response to the diminishing lighted interval as the day progresses. Circadian rhythms that control cercarial emer- gence of freshwater species (including schistosomes) are often set by the activity patterns of subsequent hosts. In this estuary, however, the synchronizing agent is the tides. To-

65 citations


References
More filters

Book
01 Jan 1981

4,605 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Viable hybrid parasites were produced in the laboratory and were maintained up until the F4 generation, Comparisons of egg morphology, surface structure of adult male worms and enzyme profiles have been made between experimental hybrid lines and field isolates.
Abstract: Surveys of 332 naturally infected bovines at eight abattoirs in Senegal, The Gambia and Mali were carried out to determine the prevalence of infection with Schistosoma bovis and S. curassoni and to pinpoint areas where the distribution of the species overlap. S. bovis was the commonest schistosome of cattle in Senegal and Mali being found in animals at seven abattoirs, the highest prevalance of 85.1% occurred at Mopti in Mali. S. bovis was the only bovine schistosome observed in The Gambia. S. curassoni was isolated from a cow at Bamako and shown to have similar glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase and acid phosphatase profiles to those described for a Senegalese isolate. Evidence of interaction of S. bovis with S. curassoni was found in cattle from Senegal, at Tambacounda and Kolda, and from Mali, at Bamako and Mopti. A mixed experimental infection of both species in a sheep showed the lack of any specific mate recognition system: identification of the worms was facilitated by analysis of acid phosphatase by isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels. Viable hybrid parasites were produced in the laboratory and were maintained up until the F4 generation. Comparisons of egg morphology, surface structure of adult male worms and enzyme profiles have been made between experimental hybrid lines and field isolates. Possible mechanisms maintaining species integrity are discussed.

53 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Experimental crossbreeding between schistosomes with an early and those with a late cercarial shedding pattern demonstrates that the cercaria emergence rhythms of schistOSomes are genetically determined.
Abstract: Using two chronobiological variants ofSchistosoma mansoni (a blood fluke infecting man) from Guadeloupe (French West Indies), we carried out experimental crossbreeding between schistosomes with an early and those with a late cercarial shedding pattern. The results obtained on the F1 (intermediate shedding patterns) and F2 generations (early, intermediate, and late patterns) demonstrate that the cercarial emergence rhythms of schistosomes are genetically determined. This genetic variability is interpreted as a consequence of the selective pressure exerted by the two different hosts (man and rat) implicated in the life cycle ofS. mansoni from the Guadeloupean focus of schistosomiasis.

52 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: A snail survey in various parts of the Senegal River Basin, including the SenegalRiver Basin, temporary rain-fed pools, swamps, irrigation canals and drains, ricefields and Lac de Guier was carried out, finding Bulinus guernei was the most common, occurring in permanent habitats, and Bulinus senegalensis occurring in laterite pools in the eastern part of the Middle Valley.
Abstract: The results of four field surveys in Senegal are reported. 1. A snail survey in various parts of the Senegal River Basin, including the Senegal River, temporary rain-fed pools, swamps, irrigation canals and drains, ricefields and Lac de Guier was carried out. Three species of snails were commonly found: Bulinus guernei was the most common, occurring in permanent habitats, Bulinus senegalensis occurring in laterite pools in the eastern part of the Middle Valley, and also in the ricefields of Guede Chantier and Lampsar; B. forskalii was found in small numbers in Lac de Guier and Richard Toll. Three B. guernei were found to be naturally infected with S. bovis. Neither B. jousseaumei, B. globosus nor B. umbilicatus were found in our surveys. 2. A survey for urinary schistosomiasis was carried out in 100 villages (walo, near the Senegal River) and 11 villages (diere, away from the river) by delivering questionnaires in schools and by direct examinations of haematuria samples. The prevalence of haematuria varied between 0 and 33%. Generally, walos showed low rates of haematuria with the exception of Lampsar and Guede Chantier, and dieres showed higher rates of haematuria. 3. Examination of 400 cattle at the abattoir St. Louis, revealed a prevalence of 80% of schistosome infection. Two species were present, S. bovis and less commonly S. curassoni. Sometimes high worm burdens were seen, but lesions appeared to be minimal because of high ratio of male to female worms. 4. Examinations of 5722 sheep and 1752 goats in the abattoir, Dakar revealed an overall prevalence of 2.1%. Of the infected animals, 97.3% were infected with S. curassoni and 2.7% with S. curasonni and S. bovis. Laboratory snail infection experiments showed that S. curassoni is marginally compatible with B. senegalensis, but incompatible with B. guernei.

49 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comparative study on the development of Senegalese isolates of Schistosoma curassoni, S. haematobium and S. bovis in hamsters is reported, together with the compatibility of these parasites with Bulinus spp.
Abstract: A comparative study on the development of Senegalese isolates of Schistosoma curassoni, S. haematobium and S. bovis in hamsters is reported, together with the compatibility of these parasites with Bulinus spp. and enzymes of adult worms. The mean worm return from 35 hamsters exposed to 100 cercariae each of S. curassoni was 11·5%, and of these 54% were paired, the remainder were single males. The growth and maturation of the worms were recorded from 40 to 100 days. The cross-over point (when paired females are of the same length as paired males) was reached at 42 days post-infection when the worms averaged 13·7 mm in length. The majority of tissue eggs (84·5%) were recovered from the liver, compared with 11% in the colon, 2·5% in the caecum and 1·6% in the small intestine. Estimates of the fecundity of paired females averaged 167 eggs/day per female worm. Snail-infection experiments showed S. curassoni to be compatible with B. umbilicatus, marginally compatible with B. senegalensis and incompatible with B...

34 citations