# Penalty Function Methods for Constrained Optimization with Genetic Algorithms

##### Citations

901 citations

468 citations

### Cites background from "Penalty Function Methods for Constr..."

...Although the use of penalty functions is very common since its simplicity and directapplicability(SmithandCoit1997;CoelloCoello1999; Yeniay 2005; Parsopoulos and Vrahatis 2002), they have several drawbacks, too....

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251 citations

### Cites background from "Penalty Function Methods for Constr..."

...However, penalty functions have several limitations and problems which are difficult to deal with (Smith and Coit, 1997; Yeniay, 2005), including the difficulty of tuning the penalty parameters....

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237 citations

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### Cites background or methods from "Penalty Function Methods for Constr..."

...A wide range of modifications of this method is known and comprehensive reviews can be found in Coello [11] or Yeniay [35]....

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...adaptive or annealing, see Yeniay [35]) are more powerful and adjustable to a specific problem due to a larger number of parameters....

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...death or static, see Yeniay [35]) do not require a lot of problem specific parameters to be selected, which makes their use and implementation very easy and popular....

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...Sophisticated penalty methods (e.g. adaptive or annealing, see Yeniay [35]) are more powerful and adjustable to a specific problem due to a larger number of parameters....

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...In general it is to note, that simple penalty methods (e.g. death or static, see Yeniay [35]) do not require a lot of problem specific parameters to be selected, which makes their use and implementation very easy and popular....

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##### References

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### "Penalty Function Methods for Constr..." refers background in this paper

...These approaches can be grouped in four major categories [28]: Category 1: Methods based on penalty functions - Death Penalty [2] - Static Penalties [15,20] - Dynamic Penalties [16,17] - Annealing Penalties [5,24] - Adaptive Penalties [10,12,35,37] - Segregated GA [21] - Co-evolutionary Penalties [8] Category 2: Methods based on a search of feasible solutions - Repairing unfeasible individuals [27] - Superiority of feasible points [9,32] - Behavioral memory [34]...

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2,679 citations