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Journal ArticleDOI

Poetic Expressions: Students of Color Express Resiliency Through Metaphors and Similes

Horace R. Hall1
01 Feb 2007-Journal of Advanced Academics (SAGE Publications)-Vol. 18, Iss: 2, pp 216-244
TL;DR: The after-school City School Outreach youth program captured the attention of high school male students by offering them a physically and psychologically safe environment to talk about issues they faced as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The after-school City School Outreach youth program captured the attention of high school male students by offering them a physically and psychologically safe environment to talk about issues they faced. The students of color who attended the program used various forms of creative written expression (i.e., poetry, spoken word, and hip hop) to document and share their lived realities as African American and Latino youth. An analysis of their writings and subsequent interviews revealed a variety of coping strategies and resources that these resilient adolescent males of color used to transcend adversity in their environment. When adolescent males of color have a strong sense of cultural pride and awareness, they are able to construct a healthy self-concept that assists them in acts of agency and resistance against negative psychological forces in their environment. These students used familial and nonfamilial support mechanisms, such as peers, church, and mentors, to assist them in reducing the stressful im...

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Citations
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04 Dec 2000

2 citations

01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: The authors explored the experiences of African-American males with past histories of enrollment in special education who have demonstrated resilience and are successfully attending a community college and examined the protective factors that led to their successful transition to a Community College.
Abstract: African-American males are disappearing at alarming rates before our eyes through racially driven practices that secure their position in the penal system and special education. Though many scholars in the field of education have highlighted alarming rates of incarceration and overrepresentation in special education for African-American males, society has accepted these practices as a normal standard of living for Black males in this country. African-American males who have not become part of the penal system and have successfully matriculated into college are considered to be an exception to the rule rather than a standard to live up to. Though a plethora of research exists depicting a dismal state of affairs for African-American males, as evidenced by their lack of academic achievement and overrepresentation in special education, absent from the literature are stories reflecting resilience in the midst of academic and environmental adversities. The purpose of this inquiry is to explore the experiences of African-American males with past histories of enrollment in special education who have demonstrated resilience and are successfully attending a community college. The focus of this study is to examine protective factors that led to their successful transition to a community college.

1 citations


Cites background from "Poetic Expressions: Students of Col..."

  • ...Based upon a list of ethical considerations proposed by Marshall and Rossman (2011), careful consideration was be given to the areas of informed consent, confidentiality, and data access and ownership....

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  • ...Hall (2007) defined resilience as a focus on the social and psychological factors that have helped individuals rise above obstacles that would otherwise add to a dysfunctional state of being....

    [...]

  • ...In addition to the negative experiences from the elementary setting and the current barriers that exist in schools today, Black males receiving special education services face even greater challenges than their non-disabled and non-minority high school peers. They must navigate through a new set of challenges requiring them to demonstrate traits of resilience to graduate in the midst of discouraging drop-out rates for students of color. Literature regarding the experiences of African-American disabled males in high school settings are often absent from scholarly research; however, a few scholars have contributed to this underrepresented field of study. Murray and Naranjo (2008) contributed to this much needed body of research through their studies with poor, Black, learning-disabled students in urban areas....

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  • ...African-American males are disappearing at alarming rates right before our eyes (Ferguson, 2001; Hall, 2007; hooks, 2004; Lewis & Erskinne, 2008; Majors & Billison; Noguera, 2008)....

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  • ...Hall (2007) defined resilience as a focus on the social and psychological factors that have helped individuals rise above obstacles that would otherwise add to a dysfunctional state of being. In spite of adversity, resilient individuals are able to pursue dreams and obtain positive outcomes. One of the greatest obstacles facing Black males is being raised in single-parent, femaledominant homes. Research conducted by Grant and Grief (2009) suggests that being raised by a single mother contributes to the current plight of African-American males....

    [...]

01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors use techniques such as individual and group counseling, mentoring programs, bibliotherapy, embracing urban youth culture, rap therapy, and poetic expression to empower Black individuals.
Abstract: The Black population is a highly misunderstood culture that experiences various forms of discrimination and racism on a daily basis. Although there has been progress since the Jim Crow Era, discrimination and racism are still expressed through media and other subtle ways. Black individuals continue to face negative experiences at home, in school, and in the community. Counselors are utilizing ways to help Black individuals cope with these life stressors. Through various theories such as Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) and Phenomenological Variant of Ecological Systems Theory (PVEST), counselors are able to utilize techniques such as individual and group counseling, mentoring programs, bibliotherapy, embracing urban youth culture, rap therapy, and poetic expression to empower Black individuals. Ways that counselors can effectively work with Black individuals are by becoming more self-aware of one’s own cultural background, becoming more culturally competent through self-exploration and research, by building rapport and pacing therapeutic sessions appropriately, and by educating other teachers and community members on the struggles this population faces, as well as effective ways these individuals can also enhance learning and growth among the Black population. FACILITATING GROWTH AND EMPOWERMENT iv

1 citations


Cites background from "Poetic Expressions: Students of Col..."

  • ...Like Rap Therapy, poetic expression is easily relatable and provides these individuals develop strategies for working through problems they are experiencing at school and at home (Hall, 2007)....

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  • ...Expressing feelings through poetic expression has helped Black individuals build resiliency in schools and in the community (Hall, 2007)....

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  • ...By writing about issues in their lives such as substance abuse, police, gang involvement, sex, and discrimination, this population is able to express their feelings and vent about these topics that are easily understood by them and others (Hall, 2007)....

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References
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Book
01 Jan 1968
TL;DR: Erikson as mentioned in this paper describes a process that is located both in the core of the individual and in the inner space of the communal culture, and discusses the connection between individual struggles and social order.
Abstract: Identity, Erikson writes, is an unfathomable as it is all-pervasive. It deals with a process that is located both in the core of the individual and in the core of the communal culture. As the culture changes, new kinds of identity questions arise-Erikson comments, for example, on issues of social protest and changing gender roles that were particular to the 1960s. Representing two decades of groundbreaking work, the essays are not so much a systematic formulation of theory as an evolving report that is both clinical and theoretical. The subjects range from "creative confusion" in two famous lives-the dramatist George Bernard Shaw and the philosopher William James-to the connection between individual struggles and social order. "Race and the Wider Identity" and the controversial "Womanhood and the Inner Space" are included in the collection.

14,906 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

5,199 citations


"Poetic Expressions: Students of Col..." refers background in this paper

  • ...From a psychosocial perspective, adolescents are engaged in a conscious and unconscious search for an autonomous identity as they seek to understand their social roles in life (Erikson, 1968; Marcia, 1980)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a framework for understanding how a sense of collective identity enters into the process of schooling and affects academic achievement is proposed, showing how the fear of being accused of "acting white" causes a social and psychological situation which diminishes black students' academic effort and thus leads to underachievement.
Abstract: The authors review their previous explanation of black students' underachievement. They now suggest the importance of considering black people's expressive responses to their historical status and experience in America. “Fictive kinship” is proposed as a framework for understanding how a sense of collective identity enters into the process of schooling and affects academic achievement. The authors support their argument with ethnographic data from a high school in Washington, D.C., showing how the fear of being accused of “acting white” causes a social and psychological situation which diminishes black students' academic effort and thus leads to underachievement. Policy and programmatic implications are discussed.

3,468 citations


"Poetic Expressions: Students of Col..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Even though there is an abundance of work that focuses on why youth of color either fail or succeed academically (Cammarota, 2004; Conchas, 2001; Fordham & Ogbu, 1986; Juarez, 1996; Majors & Billson, 1992; Osborne, 2001), there is little research that concentrates on the dynamics that build…...

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Reference BookDOI
30 Oct 2009
TL;DR: The study of and interest in adolescence in the field of psychology and related fields continues to grow, necessitating an expanded revision of this seminal work as discussed by the authors, with contributions from the leading researchers.
Abstract: The study of and interest in adolescence in the field of psychology and related fields continues to grow, necessitating an expanded revision of this seminal work. This multidisciplinary handbook, edited by the premier scholars in the field, Richard Lerner and Laurence Steinberg, and with contributions from the leading researchers, reflects the latest empirical work and growth in the field.

2,001 citations

Book
24 Jun 1999
TL;DR: A definition of terms Defining Racism can be found in this paper, where the Complexity of Identity and Affirmative Action are defined. But there is more than just Black and White, you know.
Abstract: Introduction A Definition of Terms Defining RacismCan we talk? The Complexity of IdentityWho am I? Understanding Blackness In A White Context The Early YearsIs my skin brown because I drink chocolate milk? Identity Development in AdolescenceWhy are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria? Racial Identity in AdulthoodStill a work in progress Understanding Whiteness In a White Context The Development of White IdentityIm not ethnic, Im just normal. White Identity and Affirmative ActionIm in favor of affirmative action except when it comes to my jobs. Beyond Black and White Critical Issues in Latino, American Indian, and Asian Pacific American Identity DevelopmentTheres more than just Black and White, you know. Identity Development in Multiracial FamiliesBut dont the children suffer? Breaking The Silence Embracing a Cross-Racial DialogueWe were struggling for the words.

1,562 citations