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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41416-020-01199-4

SLFN11 informs on standard of care and novel treatments in a wide range of cancer models

02 Mar 2021-British Journal of Cancer (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)-Vol. 124, Iss: 5, pp 951-962
Abstract: Schlafen 11 (SLFN11) has been linked with response to DNA-damaging agents (DDA) and PARP inhibitors. An in-depth understanding of several aspects of its role as a biomarker in cancer is missing, as is a comprehensive analysis of the clinical significance of SLFN11 as a predictive biomarker to DDA and/or DNA damage-response inhibitor (DDRi) therapies. We used a multidisciplinary effort combining specific immunohistochemistry, pharmacology tests, anticancer combination therapies and mechanistic studies to assess SLFN11 as a potential biomarker for stratification of patients treated with several DDA and/or DDRi in the preclinical and clinical setting. SLFN11 protein associated with both preclinical and patient treatment response to DDA, but not to non-DDA or DDRi therapies, such as WEE1 inhibitor or olaparib in breast cancer. SLFN11-low/absent cancers were identified across different tumour types tested. Combinations of DDA with DDRi targeting the replication-stress response (ATR, CHK1 and WEE1) could re-sensitise SLFN11-absent/low cancer models to the DDA treatment and were effective in upper gastrointestinal and genitourinary malignancies. SLFN11 informs on the standard of care chemotherapy based on DDA and the effect of selected combinations with ATR, WEE1 or CHK1 inhibitor in a wide range of cancer types and models.

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Topics: Olaparib (53%)
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13 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32554-X
Stephanie Lheureux1, Mihaela C. Cristea2, Jeff Bruce1, Swati Garg1  +24 moreInstitutions (8)
23 Jan 2021-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background The Wee1 (WEE1hu) inhibitor adavosertib and gemcitabine have shown preclinical synergy and promising activity in early phase clinical trials. We aimed to determine the efficacy of this combination in patients with ovarian cancer. Methods In this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, women with measurable recurrent platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory high-grade serous ovarian cancer were recruited from 11 academic centres in the USA and Canada. Women were eligible if they were aged 18 years or older, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0–2, a life expectancy of more than 3 months, and normal organ and marrow function. Women with ovarian cancer of non-high-grade serous histology were eligible for enrolment in a non-randomised exploratory cohort. Eligible participants with high-grade serous ovarian cancer were randomly assigned (2:1), using block randomisation (block size of three and six) and no stratification, to receive intravenous gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15) with either oral adavosertib (175 mg) or identical placebo once daily on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16, in 28-day cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients and the team caring for each patient were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The safety and efficacy analysis population comprised all patients who received at least one dose of treatment. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT02151292 , and is closed to accrual. Findings Between Sept 22, 2014, and May 30, 2018, 124 women were enrolled, of whom 99 had high-grade serous ovarian cancer and were randomly assigned to adavosertib plus gemcitabine (65 [66%]) or placebo plus gemcitabine (34 [34%]). 25 women with non-high-grade serous ovarian cancer were enrolled in the exploratory cohort. After randomisation, five patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer were found to be ineligible (four in the experimental group and one in the control group) and did not receive treatment. Median age for all treated patients (n=119) was 62 years (IQR 54–67). Progression-free survival was longer with adavosertib plus gemcitabine (median 4·6 months [95% CI 3·6–6·4] with adavosertib plus gemcitabine vs 3·0 months [1·8–3·8] with placebo plus gemcitabine; hazard ratio 0·55 [95% CI 0·35–0·90]; log-rank p=0·015). The most frequent grade 3 or worse adverse events were haematological (neutropenia in 38 [62%] of 61 participants in the adavosertib plus gemcitabine group vs ten [30%] of 33 in the placebo plus gemcitabine group; thrombocytopenia in 19 [31%] of 61 in the adavosertib plus gemcitabine group vs two [6%] of 33 in the placebo plus gemcitabine group). There were no treatment-related deaths; two patients (one in each group in the high-grade serous ovarian cancer cohort) died while on study medication (from sepsis in the experimental group and from disease progression in the control group). Interpretation The observed clinical efficacy of a Wee1 inhibitor combined with gemcitabine supports ongoing assessment of DNA damage response drugs in high-grade serous ovarian cancer, a TP53-mutated tumour type with high replication stress. This therapeutic approach might be applicable to other tumour types with high replication stress; larger confirmatory studies are required. Funding US National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, US Department of Defense, Princess Margaret Cancer Foundation, and AstraZeneca.

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Topics: Gemcitabine (58%), Cancer (52%), Ovarian cancer (52%) ... show more

24 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41416-020-01202-Y
Abstract: The therapeutic landscape of drugs targeting the DNA damage response (DDR) is rapidly expanding; however, an urgent unmet need remains for validated predictive biomarkers of response. SLFN11 has emerged as a promising predictor of sensitivity to DNA-damaging chemotherapies, and recently, been associated with sensitivity to PARP inhibition. We discuss its use as a predictive biomarker of response for targeting the DDR.

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9 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41416-021-01364-3
Abstract: Although unresectable or recurrent gastric cancers (GC) are frequently treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, response to treatment remains unpredictable Because Schlafen 11 (SLFN11) is recently identified as a critical determinant of platinum sensitivity, we investigated the potential clinical utility of SLFN11 in the treatment of GC We analysed the correlation between SLFN11 expression and overall survival in 169 GC patients by our established immunohistochemical approach The impact of SLFN11 expression on the response to platinum and transition of SLFN11 expression upon long-term treatment with platinum were examined using GC cell lines and organoids GC patients with high-SLFN11 expression exhibited significantly better survival than those with low-SLFN11 expression, and the significance increased when we selected patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy Knockout of SLFN11 and reactivation of SLFN11 in GC cells conferred resistance and sensitivity to platinum, respectively In GC cells and organoids, long-term treatment with oxaliplatin suppressed SLFN11 expression while imparting drug resistance The acquired resistance to oxaliplatin was reversed by reactivation of SLFN11 with epigenetic modifying drugs This is the first report revealing definitive clinical implications of SLFN11 in the treatment of GC patients and providing novel strategies for the drug selection based on SLFN11 expression

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Topics: Oxaliplatin (56%)

6 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-2694
01 Jun 2021-Cancer Research
Abstract: Schlafen11 (SLFN11) inactivation occurs in approximately 50% of cancer cell lines and in a large fraction of patient tumor samples, which leads to chemoresistance. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches are needed to target SLFN11-deficient cancers. To that effect, we conducted a drug screen with the NCATS mechanistic drug library of 1,978 compounds in isogenic SLFN11-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) leukemia cell lines. Here we report that TAK-243, a first-in-class ubiquitin activating enzyme UBA1 inhibitor in clinical development, causes preferential cytotoxicity in SLFN11-KO cells; this effect is associated with claspin-mediated DNA replication inhibition by CHK1 independently of ATR. Additional analyses showed that SLFN11-KO cells exhibit consistently enhanced global protein ubiquitylation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, unfolded protein response (UPR), and protein aggregation. TAK-243 suppressed global protein ubiquitylation and activated the UPR transducers PERK, phosphorylated eIF2α, phosphorylated IRE1, and ATF6 more effectively in SLFN11-KO cells than in WT cells. Proteomic analysis using biotinylated mass spectrometry and RNAi screening also showed physical and functional interactions of SLFN11 with translation initiation complexes and protein folding machinery. These findings uncover a previously unknown function of SLFN11 as a regulator of protein quality control and attenuator of ER stress and UPR. Moreover, they suggest the potential value of TAK-243 in SLFN11-deficient tumors. SIGNIFICANCE: This study uncovers that SLFN11 deficiency induces proteotoxic stress and sensitizes cancer cells to TAK-243, suggesting that profiling SLFN11 status can serve as a therapeutic biomarker for cancer therapy.

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Topics: Unfolded protein response (61%), ATF6 (58%), Cancer cell (57%) ... show more

4 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41416-021-01476-W
Bingnan Zhang1, Kavya Ramkumar1, R. Cardnell1, C. Allison Stewart1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: DNA-damaging agents exploit increased genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer. Recently, inhibitors targeting the DNA damage response (DDR) pathways, such as PARP inhibitors, have also shown promising therapeutic potential. However, not all tumors respond well to these treatments, suggesting additional determinants of response are required. Schlafen 11 (SLFN11), a putative DNA/RNA helicase that induces irreversible replication block, is emerging as an important regulator of cellular response to DNA damage. Preclinical and emerging clinical trial data suggest that SLFN11 is a predictive biomarker of response to a wide range of therapeutics that cause DNA damage including platinum salts and topoisomerase I/II inhibitors, as well as PARP inhibitors, which has raised exciting possibilities for its clinical application. In this article, we review the function, prevalence, and clinical testing of SLFN11 in tumor biopsy samples and circulating tumor cells. We discuss mounting evidence of SLFN11 as a key predictive biomarker for a wide range of cancer therapeutics and as a prognostic marker across several cancer types. Furthermore, we discuss emerging areas of investigation such as epigenetic reactivation of SLFN11 and its role in activating immune response. We then provide perspectives on open questions and future directions in studying this important biomarker.

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Topics: DNA damage (55%), Biomarker (54%), Genome instability (52%) ... show more

3 Citations


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49 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE11003
29 Mar 2012-Nature
Abstract: The systematic translation of cancer genomic data into knowledge of tumour biology and therapeutic possibilities remains challenging. Such efforts should be greatly aided by robust preclinical model systems that reflect the genomic diversity of human cancers and for which detailed genetic and pharmacological annotation is available. Here we describe the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE): a compilation of gene expression, chromosomal copy number and massively parallel sequencing data from 947 human cancer cell lines. When coupled with pharmacological profiles for 24 anticancer drugs across 479 of the cell lines, this collection allowed identification of genetic, lineage, and gene-expression-based predictors of drug sensitivity. In addition to known predictors, we found that plasma cell lineage correlated with sensitivity to IGF1 receptor inhibitors; AHR expression was associated with MEK inhibitor efficacy in NRAS-mutant lines; and SLFN11 expression predicted sensitivity to topoisomerase inhibitors. Together, our results indicate that large, annotated cell-line collections may help to enable preclinical stratification schemata for anticancer agents. The generation of genetic predictions of drug response in the preclinical setting and their incorporation into cancer clinical trial design could speed the emergence of 'personalized' therapeutic regimens.

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Topics: Cancer (52%), Personalized medicine (51%)

5,293 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NAR/GKS1111
Wanjuan Yang1, Jorge Soares1, Patricia Greninger1, Elena J. Edelman1  +13 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Alterations in cancer genomes strongly influence clinical responses to treatment and in many instances are potent biomarkers for response to drugs. The Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC) database (www.cancerRxgene.org) is the largest public resource for information on drug sensitivity in cancer cells and molecular markers of drug response. Data are freely available without restriction. GDSC currently contains drug sensitivity data for almost 75 000 experiments, describing response to 138 anticancer drugs across almost 700 cancer cell lines. To identify molecular markers of drug response, cell line drug sensitivity data are integrated with large genomic datasets obtained from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer database, including information on somatic mutations in cancer genes, gene amplification and deletion, tissue type and transcriptional data. Analysis of GDSC data is through a web portal focused on identifying molecular biomarkers of drug sensitivity based on queries of specific anticancer drugs or cancer genes. Graphical representations of the data are used throughout with links to related resources and all datasets are fully downloadable. GDSC provides a unique resource incorporating large drug sensitivity and genomic datasets to facilitate the discovery of new therapeutic biomarkers for cancer therapies.

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Topics: Biomarker discovery (56%), Cancer (52%)

1,246 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MOLCEL.2015.10.040
Mark J. O'Connor1Institutions (1)
19 Nov 2015-Molecular Cell
Abstract: An underlying hallmark of cancers is their genomic instability, which is associated with a greater propensity to accumulate DNA damage. Historical treatment of cancer by radiotherapy and DNA-damaging chemotherapy is based on this principle, yet it is accompanied by significant collateral damage to normal tissue and unwanted side effects. Targeted therapy based on inhibiting the DNA damage response (DDR) in cancers offers the potential for a greater therapeutic window by tailoring treatment to patients with tumors lacking specific DDR functions. The recent approval of olaparib (Lynparza), the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor for treating tumors harboring BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, represents the first medicine based on this principle, exploiting an underlying cause of tumor formation that also represents an Achilles' heel. This review highlights the different concepts behind targeting DDR in cancer and how this can provide significant opportunities for DDR-based therapies in the future.

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Topics: Olaparib (59%), Targeted therapy (55%), Cancer (53%) ... show more

748 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRC3916
Abstract: Genome instability is a hallmark of cancer, and DNA replication is the most vulnerable cellular process that can lead to it. Any condition leading to high levels of DNA damage will result in replication stress, which is a source of genome instability and a feature of pre-cancerous and cancerous cells. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of replication stress is crucial to the understanding of tumorigenesis. Although a negative aspect of replication stress is its prominent role in tumorigenesis, a positive aspect is that it provides a potential target for cancer therapy. In this Review, we discuss the link between persistent replication stress and tumorigenesis, with the goal of shedding light on the mechanisms underlying the initiation of an oncogenic process, which should open up new possibilities for cancer diagnostics and treatment.

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Topics: DNA replication (56%), Genome instability (54%), Carcinogenesis (50%)

514 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/1087057106292763
Andrea Ivascu1, Manfred Kubbies1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Spheroids are widely used in biology because they provide an in vitro 3-dimensional (3D) model to study proliferation, cell death, differentiation, and metabolism of cells in tumors and the response of tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The methods of generating spheroids are limited by size heterogeneity, long cultivation time, or mechanical accessibility for higher throughput fashion. The authors present a rapid method to generate single spheroids in suspension culture in individual wells. A defined number of cells ranging from 1000 to 20,000 were seeded into wells of poly-HEMA-coated, 96-well, round-or conical-bottom plates in standard medium and centrifuged for 10 min at 1000 g. This procedure generates single spheroids in each well within a 24-h culture time with homogeneous sizes, morphologies, and stratification of proliferating cells in the rim and dying cells in the core region. Because a large number of tumor cell lines form only loose aggregates when cultured in 3D, the authors also performed a screen for medium additives to achieve a switch from aggregate to spheroid morphology. Small quantities of the basement membrane extract Matrigel, added to the culture medium prior to centrifugation, most effectively induced compact spheroid formation. The compact spheroid morphology is evident as early as 24 h after centrifugation in a true suspension culture. Twenty tumor cell lines of different lineages have been used to successfully generate compact, single spheroids with homogenous size in 96-well plates and are easily accessible for subsequent functional analysis.

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Topics: Cell aggregation (56%), Spheroid (54%)

464 Citations


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