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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18052544

Use of Starter Cultures in Foods from Animal Origin to Improve Their Safety

04 Mar 2021-International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (MDPI AG)-Vol. 18, Iss: 5, pp 2544
Abstract: Starter cultures can be defined as preparations with a large number of cells that include a single type or a mixture of two or more microorganisms that are added to foods in order to take advantage of the compounds or products derived from their metabolism or enzymatic activity. In foods from animal origin, starter cultures are widely used in the dairy industry for cheese, yogurt and other fermented dairy products, in the meat industry, mainly for sausage manufacture, and in the fishery industry for fermented fish products. Usually, microorganisms selected as starter culture are isolated from the native microbiota of traditional products since they are well adapted to the environmental conditions of food processing and are responsible to confer specific appearance, texture, aroma and flavour characteristics. The main function of starter cultures used in food from animal origin, mainly represented by lactic acid bacteria, consists in the rapid production of lactic acid, which causes a reduction in pH, inhibiting the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, increasing the shelf-life of fermented foods. Also, production of other metabolites (e.g., lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, benzoic acid, hydrogen peroxide or bacteriocins) improves the safety of foods. Since starter cultures have become the predominant microbiota, it allows food processors to control the fermentation processes, excluding the undesirable flora and decreasing hygienic and manufacturing risks due to deficiencies of microbial origin. Also, stater cultures play an important role in the chemical safety of fermented foods by reduction of biogenic amine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contents. The present review discusses how starter cultures contribute to improve the microbiological and chemical safety in products of animal origin, namely meat, dairy and fishery products.

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Topics: Fermented fish (54%), Starter (51%), Fermentation (51%) ... show more

11 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/FOODS10051106
17 May 2021-Foods
Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes has been referred to as a concern microorganism in cheese making due to its ability to survive and grow in a wide range of environmental conditions, such as refrigeration temperatures, low pH and high salt concentration at the end of the production process. Since cheese may be a potential hazard for consumers, especially high-risk consumers (e.g., pregnant, young children, the elderly, people with medical conditions), efforts of the dairy industry have been aimed at investigating new conservation techniques based on natural additives to meet consumers' demands on less processed foods without compromising the food safety. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Myrtus communis L. (myrtle) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) essential oils (EO) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 679 spiked in sheep cheese before ripening. After the cheesemaking process, the samples were stored at 8 °C for 2 h, 1 d, 3 d, 14 d and 28 d. The composition of EO was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Constituents such as 1,8-cineole, limonene, methyl-eugenol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, α-terpinolene and β-pinene were present in both EO, accounting for 44.61% and 39.76% from the total of chemical compounds identified for myrtle and rosemary EO, respectively. According to the chemical classification, both EO were mainly composed of monoterpenes. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against L. monocytogenes was obtained at 31.25 μL/mL to myrtle EO and at 0.40 μL/mL to rosemary EO. Then, cheeses were inoculated with L. monocytogenes (Ca. 6 log CFU/mL) and EO was added at MIC value. The addition of rosemary and myrtle EO displayed lower counts of L. monocytogenes (p 0.05), their use as natural antimicrobial additives in cheese demonstrated a potential for dairy processors to assure safety against L. monocytogenes.

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Topics: Myrtus communis (61%), Cheesemaking (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.21608/BVMJ.2021.67405.1364
01 Jul 2021-
Abstract: One hundred random samples of fesiekh, sardine,smoked herring and canned tuna (25 of each) obtained from various fish markets in Menoufia governorate, Egypt. All collected samples were investigated for their harmful biogenic amines residues (histamine, putrescine cadaverine & tyramine). Additionally, trials to control such serious residues using biological techniques were applied. The mean values of biogenic amines in the examined samples of fesiekh , sardine, smoked herring and canned tuna were 26.48 ± 0.52 , 21.93 ± 0.40 , 18.07 ± 0.29 & 12.61 ± 0.23 mg % for histamine, 17.69 ± 0.31, 14.45 ± 0.26, 12.78 ± 0.22 & 9.10 ± 0.15 mg% for putrescine, 13.56 ± 0.23, 9.81 ± 0.20, 8.93 ± 0.19 & 5.47 ± 0.15 mg% for cadaverine, respectively. On the other hand, the average concentrations of tyramine were 8.92 ± 0.21 mg % for fesiekh, 6.08 ± 0.15mg % for sardine, 3.74 ± 0.14mg % for smoked herring and 2.95 ± 0.09 mg % for canned tuna. The effect of B. polymyxa culture (2x107) on the levels of histamine experimentally inoculated to sardine fillets (40 mg/Kg) was excellent where its level was decreased to 22.1mg/kg after 8 hours, 14.2 mg/kg after12 hours and 8.9mg/kg after 24 hours with reduction percentages of 44.7%, 64.5% and 77.8%, respectively. Keywords: biogenic amines; fish products; histamine.

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Topics: Sardine (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PR9091582
03 Sep 2021-
Abstract: The biopreservation of meat products is of great interest due to the demand for products with low or minimal chemical additives. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as protective cultures for many centuries. The objective of this work was to characterize 10 native LAB isolated from meat masses with biopreservative potential for meat products. The isolates were subjected to viability tests with different concentrations of NaCl, nitrite, and nitrate salts, pHs, and temperature conditions. Antibiotic resistance and type of lactic acid isomer were tested. In addition, the isolates were tested against seven pathogens, and inhibitory substances were identified by diffusion in agar wells. Finally, two isolates, Lb. plantarum (SB17) and Lb. sakei (SB3) were tested as protective cultures of chorizo in a model. As a result, the viability at different concentrations of NaCl and nitrate and nitrate salts were obtained. pH and temperature exerted a negative effect on the growth of some of the isolates. Pathogens were inhibited mainly by the presence of organic acids; P. aurius was the most susceptible, and S. typhimurium and S. marcescens were the most resistant. The strains SB17 and SB3 had similar effects on chorizo, and time exerted a deleterious effect on microbiological quality and pH. The results indicated that the 10 isolates show promising characteristics for the preservation of cooked meat products, with the strain Lb. plantarum (SB17) being the most promising.

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Topics: Biopreservation (54%), Lactic acid (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.FOODRES.2021.110814
Abstract: Food fermentation is a food processing technology that utilizes the growth and metabolic activity of microorganisms for the stabilization and transformation of food materials. Notwithstanding, the technology has evolved beyond food preservation into a tool for creating desirable organoleptic, nutritional, and functional attributes in food products. This narrative review outlines a compilation of traditional fermented foods which available in the South East Asia (SEA) regions as a source vehicle for non-dairy probiotics. The nutritional values of traditional fermented foods are well-appreciated, especially in the resource-poor regions. The sensory and organoleptic preferences of traditional fermented foods as means of dietary routine variations were demonstrated. Furthermore, the evidence underlying its potent impacts on public health promotion and disease prevention is outlined. Lastly, the challenges and future prospects for the integration of traditional fermented foods practice are elucidated.

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Topics: Food processing (55%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MICROORGANISMS9091900
07 Sep 2021-
Abstract: Enterococcus spp. are Gram-positive, facultative, anaerobic cocci, which are found in the intestinal flora and, less frequently, in the vagina or mouth. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the most common species found in humans. As commensals, enterococci colonize the digestive system and participate in the modulation of the immune system in humans and animals. For many years reference enterococcal strains have been used as probiotic food additives or have been recommended as supplements for the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis and other conditions. The use of Enterococcus strains as probiotics has recently become controversial due to the ease of acquiring different virulence factors and resistance to various classes of antibiotics. Enterococci are also seen as opportunistic pathogens. This problem is especially relevant in hospital environments, where enterococcal outbreaks often occur. Their ability to translocate from the gastro-intestinal tract to various tissues and organs as well as their virulence and antibiotic resistance are risk factors that hinder eradication. Due to numerous reports on the plasticity of the enterococcal genome and the acquisition of pathogenic microbial features, we ask ourselves, how far is this commensal genus from acquiring pathogenicity? This paper discusses both the beneficial properties of these microorganisms and the risk factors related to their evolution towards pathogenicity.

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Topics: Enterococcus faecium (60%), Enterococcus (59%), Enterococcus faecalis (56%) ... show more


189 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1099/IJSEM.0.004107
Abstract: The genus Lactobacillus comprises 261 species (at March 2020) that are extremely diverse at phenotypic, ecological and genotypic levels. This study evaluated the taxonomy of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae on the basis of whole genome sequences. Parameters that were evaluated included core genome phylogeny, (conserved) pairwise average amino acid identity, clade-specific signature genes, physiological criteria and the ecology of the organisms. Based on this polyphasic approach, we propose reclassification of the genus Lactobacillus into 25 genera including the emended genus Lactobacillus, which includes host-adapted organisms that have been referred to as the Lactobacillus delbrueckii group, Paralactobacillus and 23 novel genera for which the names Holzapfelia, Amylolactobacillus, Bombilactobacillus, Companilactobacillus, Lapidilactobacillus, Agrilactobacillus, Schleiferilactobacillus, Loigolactobacilus, Lacticaseibacillus, Latilactobacillus, Dellaglioa, Liquorilactobacillus, Ligilactobacillus, Lactiplantibacillus, Furfurilactobacillus, Paucilactobacillus, Limosilactobacillus, Fructilactobacillus, Acetilactobacillus, Apilactobacillus, Levilactobacillus, Secundilactobacillus and Lentilactobacillus are proposed. We also propose to emend the description of the family Lactobacillaceae to include all genera that were previously included in families Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae. The generic term 'lactobacilli' will remain useful to designate all organisms that were classified as Lactobacillaceae until 2020. This reclassification reflects the phylogenetic position of the micro-organisms, and groups lactobacilli into robust clades with shared ecological and metabolic properties, as exemplified for the emended genus Lactobacillus encompassing species adapted to vertebrates (such as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensensii, Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus acidophilus) or invertebrates (such as Lactobacillus apis and Lactobacillus bombicola).

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Topics: Lactobacillus crispatus (65%), Lactobacillus iners (64%), Lactobacillus johnsonii (63%) ... show more

623 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1574-6968.1997.TB10238.X
Abstract: The enteric microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri prefer to grow in neutral pH environments. They nevertheless experience dramatic pH fluctuations in nature and during pathogenesis. In response to environmental encounters with acid, these organisms have evolved complex, inducible acid survival strategies. Regulatory features include an alternative sigma factor (σS), 2-component signal transduction systems (PhoP/Q; MviA/?) and the major iron regulatory protein Fur. Specific survival mechanisms include emergency pH homeostasis by inducible amino acid decarboxylases and probable roles for DNA repair, chaparonins, membrane biogenesis as well as others that remain poorly defined. Continued study of acid survival in these organisms will provide general insights regarding stress management and will have a direct impact on our understanding of pathogenesis.

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Topics: Membrane biogenesis (56%), Shigella flexneri (51%)

473 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10408699991279204
Abstract: Several chemical changes occur during the ripening of dry-fermented sausages that determine the flavor and odor of the end product The phenomena that take place during fermentation, that is, both acidification of the sugars by lactic acid bacteria and reduction of nitrates and nitrites to nitric oxide by micrococci have been known for several years However, the chemical changes involved in this process, and, particularly, the agents responsible have not yet been established, although they have been attributed to changes in the majority components (proteins and lipids) and to the ingredients added (spices and condiments) in the preparation of the original mixture The typical flavor and odor of dry-fermented sausages cannot be attributed to volatile substances alone, but to a large number of volatile and nonvolatile compounds present in the product in suitable proportions Microbial growth in the sausage together with activity of the meat endogenous enzymes are undoubtedly partially responsible for the development of a number of aromatic and sapid compounds However, lipid autooxidation reactions are also an important source of these substances, and it is not yet known which of these processes is more important in sausage ripening Much research has focused on the break up of triglycerides into free fatty acids, diglycerides, and monoglycerides during ripening and the progressive increase in the amounts of different carbonyl oxidation products Carbonyl compounds probably play a significant role in determining the flavor because, in general, these have very low perception thresholds, in the ppm and ppb range Similarly, the protein breakdown to yield peptides and amino acids has been studied extensively, the latter being substrates of several microbial and chemical reactions that generate many flavor compounds

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Topics: Flavor (53%)

410 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.FCT.2007.10.008
S. Fuchs1, Gerhard Sontag1, Reinhard Stidl1, Veronika Ehrlich2  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Aim of the present study was to investigate the detoxification of two abundant mycotoxins, namely ochratoxin A (OTA) and patulin (PAT) which are frequently found in human foods, by lactic acid bacteria. The removal of the two mycotoxins from liquid medium by thirty different LAB strains was analyzed in a screening trial by the use of HPLC coupled with UV- or fluorescence detection. Two highly effective strains were identified; Lactobacillus acidophilus VM 20 caused a decrease of OTA by > or = 95% and Bifidobacterium animalis VM 12 reduced PAT levels by 80%. Subsequently experiments showed that the binding of these compounds depends on different parameters, i.e. the concentration of toxins, the cell density, the pH-value and on the viability of the bacteria. To proof that the decrease of the toxins by LAB from liquid medium results in a reduction of their toxic properties, micronucleus (MCN) assays were conducted with a human derived hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Indeed, a substantial decrease (39-59%) of OTA and PAT induced MCN formation was observed with the most effective strains detected in the chemical analyses. Furthermore, also the inhibition of the cell division rates by the toxins was significantly reduced. These findings indicate that certain LAB strains are able to detoxify the two toxins and may be useful to protect humans and/or animals against the adverse health effects of these compounds.

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Topics: Ochratoxin (57%), Patulin (56%), Ochratoxin A (54%) ... show more

278 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0168-1605(00)00526-2
Abstract: The occurrence of amino acid-decarboxylase activity in 92 strains of lactic acid bacteria, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Spanish fermented pork sausages was investigated. The presence of biogenic amines in a decarboxylase synthetic broth was determined by ion-pair high performance liquid chromatography with o-phtalaldehyde post-column derivatization. Among the 66 lactic acid bacteria strains tested, 21 lactobacilli (in particular, Lactobacillus curvatus) and all 16 enterococci were amine producers. Tyramine was the main amine produced by these bacteria, although they also produced phenylethylamine, tryptamine, and/or the diamines putrescine and cadaverine. None of the lactic acid bacteria produced histamine. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were found to be negative amine-producers. Aromatic monoamines, apart from histamine, were not formed by Enterobacteriaceae. This family was responsible for cadaverine and putrescine production. The results obtained for biogenic amine production by bacteria in a synthetic medium suggest that amino acid-decarboxylase activity is strain dependent rather than being related to specific species.

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Topics: Cadaverine (62%), Putrescine (55%), Lactic acid (55%) ... show more

267 Citations

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