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Institution

Salisbury University

EducationSalisbury, Maryland, United States
About: Salisbury University is a education organization based out in Salisbury, Maryland, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Virus. The organization has 7749 authors who have published 9018 publications receiving 260741 citations. The organization is also known as: SU & Salisbury.
Topics: Population, Virus, Poison control, Antigen, Gene


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The 2017 McDonald criteria continue to apply primarily to patients experiencing a typical clinically isolated syndrome, define what is needed to fulfil dissemination in time and space of lesions in the CNS, and stress the need for no better explanation for the presentation.
Abstract: The 2010 McDonald criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis are widely used in research and clinical practice. Scientific advances in the past 7 years suggest that they might no longer provide the most up-to-date guidance for clinicians and researchers. The International Panel on Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis reviewed the 2010 McDonald criteria and recommended revisions. The 2017 McDonald criteria continue to apply primarily to patients experiencing a typical clinically isolated syndrome, define what is needed to fulfil dissemination in time and space of lesions in the CNS, and stress the need for no better explanation for the presentation. The following changes were made: in patients with a typical clinically isolated syndrome and clinical or MRI demonstration of dissemination in space, the presence of CSF-specific oligoclonal bands allows a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis; symptomatic lesions can be used to demonstrate dissemination in space or time in patients with supratentorial, infratentorial, or spinal cord syndrome; and cortical lesions can be used to demonstrate dissemination in space. Research to further refine the criteria should focus on optic nerve involvement, validation in diverse populations, and incorporation of advanced imaging, neurophysiological, and body fluid markers.

3,945 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is increasingly utilized for genetic testing of individuals with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA).
Abstract: Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is increasingly utilized for genetic testing of individuals with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Performing CMA and G-banded karyotyping on every patient substantially increases the total cost of genetic testing. The International Standard Cytogenomic Array (ISCA) Consortium held two international workshops and conducted a literature review of 33 studies, including 21,698 patients tested by CMA. We provide an evidence-based summary of clinical cytogenetic testing comparing CMA to G-banded karyotyping with respect to technical advantages and limitations, diagnostic yield for various types of chromosomal aberrations, and issues that affect test interpretation. CMA offers a much higher diagnostic yield (15%–20%) for genetic testing of individuals with unexplained DD/ID, ASD, or MCA than a G-banded karyotype (~3%, excluding Down syndrome and other recognizable chromosomal syndromes), primarily because of its higher sensitivity for submicroscopic deletions and duplications. Truly balanced rearrangements and low-level mosaicism are generally not detectable by arrays, but these are relatively infrequent causes of abnormal phenotypes in this population (<1%). Available evidence strongly supports the use of CMA in place of G-banded karyotyping as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for patients with DD/ID, ASD, or MCA. G-banded karyotype analysis should be reserved for patients with obvious chromosomal syndromes (e.g., Down syndrome), a family history of chromosomal rearrangement, or a history of multiple miscarriages.

2,294 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a reorientation of emergency management systems away from simple post-event response is discussed, and a noticeable change in the focus of disaster management systems is observed.
Abstract: Losses from environmental hazards have escalated in the past decade, prompting a reorientation of emergency management systems away from simple postevent response. There is a noticeable change in p...

1,305 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: This chapter discusses the chemical analysis of microbial cells and wet- and dry-weight determinations of bacterial samples and assay of total cell numbers are described, because analytical results must refer to one or other of these values.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the chemical analysis of microbial cells. The preparation of material for analysis is discussed, because changes in the chemical composition of cells may occur as a result of the washing and storage conditions used. Wet- and dry-weight determinations of bacterial samples and assay of total cell numbers are described, because analytical results must refer to one or other of these values. Selection of an analytical procedure is a subjective process, because the number of suitable methods is large and each will have different merits and defects. Primary considerations are sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and absolute accuracy. Automatic methods for performing biochemical analyses, already widely accepted in hospitals and in industry, are beginning to make their way into the research laboratory. All automatic analyzers developed so far may be classified as either “continuous-flow” or “discrete” types. All of them use colorimetric methods exclusively and contain some form of automatic colorimeter for final read-out. The first and best-known is the Technicon “AutoAnalyzer,” which is of the continuous-flow type.

1,193 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
04 Oct 2001-Nature
TL;DR: The evidence of ongoing genome fluidity, expansion and decay suggests Y. pestis is a pathogen that has undergone large-scale genetic flux and provides a unique insight into the ways in which new and highly virulent pathogens evolve.
Abstract: The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the systemic invasive infectious disease classically referred to as plague, and has been responsible for three human pandemics: the Justinian plague (sixth to eighth centuries), the Black Death (fourteenth to nineteenth centuries) and modern plague (nineteenth century to the present day). The recent identification of strains resistant to multiple drugs and the potential use of Y. pestis as an agent of biological warfare mean that plague still poses a threat to human health. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Y. pestis strain CO92, consisting of a 4.65-megabase (Mb) chromosome and three plasmids of 96.2 kilobases (kb), 70.3 kb and 9.6 kb. The genome is unusually rich in insertion sequences and displays anomalies in GC base-composition bias, indicating frequent intragenomic recombination. Many genes seem to have been acquired from other bacteria and viruses (including adhesins, secretion systems and insecticidal toxins). The genome contains around 150 pseudogenes, many of which are remnants of a redundant enteropathogenic lifestyle. The evidence of ongoing genome fluidity, expansion and decay suggests Y. pestis is a pathogen that has undergone large-scale genetic flux and provides a unique insight into the ways in which new and highly virulent pathogens evolve.

1,184 citations


Authors

Showing all 7768 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
David W. Johnson1602714140778
Peng Shi137137165195
Nancy R. Cook12448767049
Martin E. P. Seligman120342103748
James M. Robins11038458847
Gareth J. Morgan109101952957
David J. Hill107136457746
Chris M. Wood10279543076
Peter R. Mueller9761334457
Nicholas C.P. Cross9547836465
Roger G. Pertwee9330039476
David Lloyd90101737691
James L. Boyer9043225432
David H. Evans8943028093
Ravi Naidu8983034739
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
20237
202227
2021252
2020217
2019229
2018191