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University of Oxford

EducationOxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom
About: University of Oxford is a(n) education organization based out in Oxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Galaxy. The organization has 99713 authors who have published 258108 publication(s) receiving 12972806 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Oxford University & Oxon..
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Journal ArticleDOI
16 Oct 2007-PLOS Medicine
TL;DR: The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study, resulting in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles.
Abstract: Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.

12,675 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The state-of-the-art in evaluated methods for both classification and detection are reviewed, whether the methods are statistically different, what they are learning from the images, and what the methods find easy or confuse.
Abstract: The Pascal Visual Object Classes (VOC) challenge is a benchmark in visual object category recognition and detection, providing the vision and machine learning communities with a standard dataset of images and annotation, and standard evaluation procedures. Organised annually from 2005 to present, the challenge and its associated dataset has become accepted as the benchmark for object detection. This paper describes the dataset and evaluation procedure. We review the state-of-the-art in evaluated methods for both classification and detection, analyse whether the methods are statistically different, what they are learning from the images (e.g. the object or its context), and what the methods find easy or confuse. The paper concludes with lessons learnt in the three year history of the challenge, and proposes directions for future improvement and extension.

11,545 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
13 Jan 1996-BMJ
Abstract: It's about integrating individual clinical expertise and the best external evidence Evidence based medicine, whose philosophical origins extend back to mid-19th century Paris and earlier, remains a hot topic for clinicians, public health practitioners, purchasers, planners, and the public. There are now frequent workshops in how to practice and teach it (one sponsored by the BMJ will be held in London on 24 April); undergraduate1 and postgraduate2 training programmes are incorporating it3 (or pondering how to do so); British centres for evidence based practice have been established or planned in adult medicine, child health, surgery, pathology, pharmacotherapy, nursing, general practice, and dentistry; the Cochrane Collaboration and Britain's Centre for Review and Dissemination in York are providing systematic reviews of the effects of health care; new evidence based practice journals are being launched; and it has become a common topic in the lay media. But enthusiasm has been mixed with some negative reaction.4 5 6 Criticism has ranged from evidence based medicine being old hat to it being a dangerous innovation, perpetrated by the arrogant to serve cost cutters and suppress clinical freedom. As evidence based medicine continues to evolve and adapt, now is a useful time to refine the discussion of what it is and what it is not. Evidence based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The …

11,270 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Claude Amsler1, Michael Doser2, Mario Antonelli, D. M. Asner3, K. S. Babu4, Howard Baer5, H. R. Band6, R. M. Barnett7, E. Bergren, J. Beringer7, G. Bernardi8, Willi Bertl9, H. Bichsel10, Otmar Biebel11, Philippe Bloch2, E. Blucher12, S. Blusk13, Robert N. Cahn7, Marcela Carena14, Marcela Carena12, C. Caso15, Augusto Ceccucci2, Debadi Chakraborty16, Mingshui Chen17, R. S. Chivukula18, G. A. Cowan19, O. I. Dahl7, Giancarlo D'Ambrosio, Thibault Damour20, A. de Gouvêa21, Thomas DeGrand22, Bogdan A. Dobrescu14, Manuel Drees23, D. A. Edwards, Semen Eidelman24, Victor Daniel Elvira14, Jens Erler25, V. V. Ezhela, Jonathan L. Feng17, W. Fetscher26, Brian D. Fields27, B. Foster28, Thomas K. Gaisser29, L. A. Garren14, H.-J. Gerber26, G. Gerbier, Tony Gherghetta30, Gian F. Giudice2, Maury Goodman31, Christoph Grab26, Andrei Gritsan32, Jean-Francois Grivaz33, D. E. Groom7, Martin Grunewald34, Atul Gurtu2, Atul Gurtu35, Th. Gutsche36, Howard E. Haber37, K. Hagiwara, C. A. Hagmann38, K. G. Hayes39, J.J. Hernández-Rey40, Ken Ichi Hikasa41, Ian Hinchliffe7, A Höcker2, Joey Huston18, P. Igo-Kemenes42, John David Jackson7, Kurtis F Johnson5, T. Junk14, D. Karlen43, B. Kayser14, D. Kirkby17, S. R. Klein7, I.G. Knowles44, Christopher Kolda45, R. Kowalewski43, P. Kreitz46, B. Krusche47, Yu V. Kuyanov, Younghoon Kwon48, Ofer Lahav49, Paul Langacker, Andrew R. Liddle50, Zoltan Ligeti7, Chi Lin7, Tony Liss27, L. S. Littenberg51, Jeff C. Liu46, K. S. Lugovsky, S. B. Lugovsky, H. Mahlke52, Michelangelo L. Mangano2, T Mannel53, Aneesh V. Manohar54, William J. Marciano51, Alan D. Martin55, A. Masoni, David Milstead56, Ramon Miquel, Klaus Mönig, Hitoshi Murayama57, Hitoshi Murayama58, Hitoshi Murayama7, Koji Nakamura, Meenakshi Narain59, Paolo Nason, S. Sánchez Navas60, P. Nevski51, Yosef Nir61, Keith A. Olive62, Luc Pape26, C. Patrignani15, John A. Peacock44, A. Piepke63, G. Punzi64, Arnulf Quadt65, Stuart Raby66, Georg G. Raffelt67, B. N. Ratcliff46, B. Renk68, Paul William Richardson55, S. Roesler2, S. Rolli69, Anatoli Romaniouk70, L. J. Rosenberg10, Jonathan L. Rosner12, C.T. Sachrajda71, Y. Sakai, Subir Sarkar28, Fabio Sauli2, O. Schneider72, Douglas Scott73, W. G. Seligman74, Michael H. Shaevitz74, Torbjörn Sjöstrand75, J. G. Smith22, George F. Smoot7, Stefan M Spanier46, H. Spieler7, Achim Stahl76, Todor Stanev29, Sophia L. Stone13, T. Sumiyoshi77, Masaharu Tanabashi78, John Terning79, Maksym Titov20, N. P. Tkachenko, Nils A. Tornqvist80, Daniel Tovey81, G.H. Trilling7, T. G. Trippe7, German Valencia82, K. van Bibber38, Manuella Vincter3, Petr Vogel83, D. R. Ward84, Taizan Watari58, Bryan R. Webber84, Georg Weiglein55, James D. Wells, M R Whalley55, A. Wheeler46, C. G. Wohl7, Lincoln Wolfenstein85, J. Womersley86, C. L. Woody51, Ron L. Workman, A. Yamamoto, W-M. Yao7, Oleg Zenin, Jie Zhang, Ren-Yuan Zhu83, P A Zyla7, G. Harper7, V. S. Lugovsky, P. Schaffner7 
University of Zurich1, CERN2, Carleton University3, Oklahoma State University–Stillwater4, Florida State University5, University of Wisconsin-Madison6, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory7, Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University8, Paul Scherrer Institute9, University of Washington10, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich11, University of Chicago12, Syracuse University13, Fermilab14, University of Genoa15, Northern Illinois University16, University of California, Irvine17, Michigan State University18, Royal Holloway, University of London19, Université Paris-Saclay20, Northwestern University21, University of Colorado Boulder22, University of Bonn23, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics24, National Autonomous University of Mexico25, ETH Zurich26, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign27, University of Oxford28, University of Delaware29, University of Melbourne30, Argonne National Laboratory31, Johns Hopkins University32, University of Paris-Sud33, Ghent University34, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research35, University of Tübingen36, University of California, Santa Cruz37, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory38, Hillsdale College39, Spanish National Research Council40, Tohoku University41, Heidelberg University42, University of Victoria43, University of Edinburgh44, University of Notre Dame45, Stanford University46, University of Basel47, Yonsei University48, University College London49, University of Sussex50, Brookhaven National Laboratory51, Cornell University52, University of Siegen53, University of California, San Diego54, Durham University55, Stockholm University56, University of California, Berkeley57, University of Tokyo58, Brown University59, University of Granada60, Weizmann Institute of Science61, University of Minnesota62, University of Alabama63, University of Pisa64, University of Göttingen65, Ohio State University66, Max Planck Society67, University of Mainz68, Tufts University69, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI70, University of Southampton71, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne72, University of British Columbia73, Columbia University74, Lund University75, RWTH Aachen University76, Tokyo Metropolitan University77, Nagoya University78, University of California, Davis79, University of Helsinki80, University of Sheffield81, Iowa State University82, California Institute of Technology83, University of Cambridge84, Carnegie Mellon University85, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory86
01 Jul 1996-Physics Letters B
TL;DR: This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics, using data from previous editions.
Abstract: This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions., plus 2778 new measurements from 645 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors., probability, and statistics. Among the 108 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on CKM quark-mixing matrix, V-ud & V-us, V-cb & V-ub, top quark, muon anomalous magnetic moment, extra dimensions, particle detectors, cosmic background radiation, dark matter, cosmological parameters, and big bang cosmology.

11,048 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The combination of seven-year data from WMAP and improved astrophysical data rigorously tests the standard cosmological model and places new constraints on its basic parameters and extensions. By combining the WMAP data with the latest distance measurements from the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the distribution of galaxies and the Hubble constant (H0) measurement, we determine the parameters of the simplest six-parameter ΛCDM model. The power-law index of the primordial power spectrum is ns = 0.968 ± 0.012 (68% CL) for this data combination, a measurement that excludes the Harrison–Zel’dovich–Peebles spectrum by 99.5% CL. The other parameters, including those beyond the minimal set, are also consistent with, and improved from, the five-year results. We find no convincing deviations from the minimal model. The seven-year temperature power spectrum gives a better determination of the third acoustic peak, which results in a better determination of the redshift of the matter-radiation equality epoch. Notable examples of improved parameters are the total mass of neutrinos, � mν < 0.58 eV (95% CL), and the effective number of neutrino species, Neff = 4.34 +0.86 −0.88 (68% CL), which benefit from better determinations of the third peak and H0. The limit on a constant dark energy equation of state parameter from WMAP+BAO+H0, without high-redshift Type Ia supernovae, is w =− 1.10 ± 0.14 (68% CL). We detect the effect of primordial helium on the temperature power spectrum and provide a new test of big bang nucleosynthesis by measuring Yp = 0.326 ± 0.075 (68% CL). We detect, and show on the map for the first time, the tangential and radial polarization patterns around hot and cold spots of temperature fluctuations, an important test of physical processes at z = 1090 and the dominance of adiabatic scalar fluctuations. The seven-year polarization data have significantly improved: we now detect the temperature–E-mode polarization cross power spectrum at 21σ , compared with 13σ from the five-year data. With the seven-year temperature–B-mode cross power spectrum, the limit on a rotation of the polarization plane due to potential parity-violating effects has improved by 38% to Δα =− 1. 1 ± 1. 4(statistical) ± 1. 5(systematic) (68% CL). We report significant detections of the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) effect at the locations of known clusters of galaxies. The measured SZ signal agrees well with the expected signal from the X-ray data on a cluster-by-cluster basis. However, it is a factor of 0.5–0.7 times the predictions from “universal profile” of Arnaud et al., analytical models, and hydrodynamical simulations. We find, for the first time in the SZ effect, a significant difference between the cooling-flow and non-cooling-flow clusters (or relaxed and non-relaxed clusters), which can explain some of the discrepancy. This lower amplitude is consistent with the lower-than-theoretically expected SZ power spectrum recently measured by the South Pole Telescope Collaboration.

10,928 citations



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