About: Education 3-13 is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Curriculum & Teaching method. It has an ISSN identifier of 0013-1172. Over the lifetime, 5074 publication(s) have been published receiving 52621 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
22 Dec 1997-Education 3-13
TL;DR: In the field of qualitative research, the concept of "validity" has been used to describe the ability of a qualitative researcher to provide evidence about causes and effects of qualitative data.
Abstract: Discussions of the term "validity" have traditionally been attached to the quantitative research tradition. Not surprisingly, reactions by qualitative researchers have been mixed regarding whether or not this concept should be applied to qualitative research. At the extreme, some qualitative researchers have suggested that the traditional quantitative criteria of reliability and validity are not relevant to qualitative research (e.g., Smith, 1984). Smith contends that the basic epistemological and ontological assumptions of quantitative and qualitative research are incompatible, and, therefore, the concepts of reliability and validity should be abandoned. Most qualitative researchers, however, probably hold a more moderate viewpoint. Most qualitative researchers argue that some qualitative research studies are better than others, and they frequently use the term validity to refer to this difference. When qualitative researchers speak of research validity, they are usually referring to qualitative research that is plausible, credible, trustworthy, and, therefore, defensible. We believe it is important to think about the issue of validity in qualitative research and to examine some strategies that have been developed to maximize validity (Kirk & Miller, 1986; LeCompte & Preissle, 1993; Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Maxwell, 1996). A list of these strategies is provided in Table 1. Table 1 Strategies Used to Promote Qualitive Research Validity Strategy Description Researcher as "Detective" A metaphor characterizing the qualitive researcher as he or she searches for evidence about causes and effects. The researcher develops an understanding of the data through careful consideration of potential causes and effects and by systematically eliminating "rival" explanations or hypotheses until the final "case" is made "beyond a reasonable doubt." The "detective" can utilize any of the strategies listed here. Extended fieldwork When possible, qualitive researchers should collect data in the field over an extended period of time. Low inference descriptors The use of description phrased very close to the participants' accounts and researchers' field notes. Verbatims (i.e., direct quotations) are a commonly used type of low inference descriptors. Triangulation "Cross-checking" information and conclusions through the use of multiple procedures of sources. When the different procedures or sources are in agreement you have "corroboration." Data triangulation The use of multiple data sources to help understand a phenomenon. Methods triangulation The use of multiple research methods to study a phenomenon. Investigator triangulation The use of multiple investigators (i.e., multiple researchers) in collecting and interpreting the data. Theory triangulation The use of multiple theories and perspectives to help interpret and explain the data. Participant feedback The feedback and discussion of the researcher's interpretations and conclusions with the actual participants and other members of the participant community for verification and insight. …
22 Sep 2003-Education 3-13
TL;DR: Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences requires teachers to adjust their instructional strategies in order to meet students' individual needs as discussed by the authors, which can be seen as a form of reinforcement learning.
Abstract: In order to address the need for different teaching strategies, we must first realize there are different learning styles. Howard Gardner was aware of this when he developed his theory of multiple intelligences. According to Gardner, there are eight kinds of intelligences. Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences requires teachers to adjust their instructional strategies in order to meet students' individual needs. The first of Gardner's intelligences is linguistic or verbal. Verbal intelligence involves the mastery of language. People with verbal intelligence tend to think in words and have highly developed auditory skills. They are frequently reading or writing. Their ability to manipulate language lends them to fields such as teaching, journalism, writing, law, and translation. Language enables them to be better at memorizing information. Verbal students are often great storytellers and joke tellers. Linguistic intelligence enables one to pay special attention to grammar and vocabulary. They have great ability to use words with clarity. These people can use this to their own benefit either to explain, persuade, or entertain. Those with linguistic intelligence memorize best using words. Another advantage is that they tend to be great at explaining, hence the amount of people with linguistic intelligence that are teachers. Additionally, there is their ability to analyze language and to create a better understanding of what people mean when using words. In order for teachers to help linguistic learners progress, they need to use language that the student can relate to and fully comprehend. If used correctly, language can provide a bridge between the material and the learner. Having children write, read, and give oral reports about an element in their own lives such as sports, television, or popular bands develops their linguistic intelligence. Music and language can be considered a common medium. Yet, they have evolved on separate courses. Musical intelligence, therefore, is the next of the multiple intelligences. Musical intelligence makes use of sound to the greatest extent possible. Those with musical intelligence have a firm understanding of pitch, rhythm, and timbre. Through music, they are able to convey their emotions. Often, this intelligence is discovered at an early age. The individual differences between those with musical intelligence and those without are apparent from the day a child learns to sing. These students are usually able to read music, critique performances, and to use musical-critical categories. Our culture is known to minimize the importance of music and music education. Teachers should foster musical intelligence by introducing "formal musical analysis and representation" (Gardner, 1983, p. 111). Music can act as a way of capturing feelings, of knowing and understanding feelings, which is an important part of educating children. Another reason musical intelligence should be valued is that it can be tied to other intelligences. For example, it relates to the logical-mathematical intelligence in that music also contains ratio and regularity, as well as mathematical patterns. Mathematical-logical intelligence consists of the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively, and think logically. Children first explore this intelligence by ordering and re-ordering objects. They begin math using material objects such as marbles or M&Ms. After time passes, children are able to do math in their heads without the use of manipulatives. As this intelligence grows, the love of abstraction separates those with mathematical intelligence from the rest. They are able to follow long chains of reasoning very skillfully. These are usually the children who do well in the traditional classroom because they are able to follow the logical sequencing behind the teaching and are, therefore, able to conform to the role of model student. …
22 Dec 2009-Education 3-13
TL;DR: Constructivism is a vague concept, but is currently discussed in many schools as the best method for teaching and learning as mentioned in this paper, and teachers have the potential to teach constructively, if they understand constructivism.
Abstract: Introduction Constructivism is a vague concept, but is currently discussed in many schools as the best method for teaching and learning. For many educators or teachers, it has a variety of meanings. In order for teachers to use it effectively, they have to know where the student is at a given learning point or the current stage in their knowledge of a subject so that students can create personal meaning when new information is given to them. When in the classroom, teachers have the potential to teach constructively, if they understand constructivism. Constructivist teaching strategies and practices are the next important step in educational reform. Constructivist teaching strategies have a great effect in the classroom both cognitively and socially for the student. A teacher must understand and use methods of both cognitive and social constructivism, if he or she is to run an effective constructivist classroom. In cognitive constructivism, ideas are constructed in individuals through a personal process, as opposed to social constructivism where ideas are constructed through interaction with the teacher and other students. While they are fundamentally different both types will ultimately form overall constructivism or constructed learning elements for students to easily grasp; the main concept being that ideas are constructed from experience to have a personal meaning for the student. To be effective, both theories of constructivism need to be explicit in communicating concepts so that students can connect to them. Teachers need to understand these theories, as well as, know how to incorporate constructivist teaching methods, strategies, tools and practices to develop an effective learning environment. Cognitive Constructivism Many educators in schools throughout America are required to teach constructively in their classrooms. The term cognitive constructivism can connote ambiguous or puzzled reactions from teachers who are told that they should be using teaching strategies to promote this form of learning approach for their students. Substantial individual thought needs to be acquired in content or subject areas for students to actually understand the material instead of just being able to recite it. Providing classroom situations and activities that promote individual learning is required. Jean Piaget, a well-known French Swiss developmental psychologist, who wrote many books and articles on learning, construed this process. Piaget was originally a biologist and theorists state that he thought in terms of students becoming "little scientists," who learn voraciously as individuals who build conceptual structures in memory to store information. Initially, he built his theories observing his own children as they learned and played together. Piaget's main focus of constructivism has to do with the individual and how the individual constructs knowledge. Cognitive constructivism came directly from Piaget's work. Piaget's theory of cognitive development proposes that humans cannot be given information, which they immediately understand and use; instead, humans must construct their own knowledge (Piaget, 1953). He stated that children's schemas are constructed through the process of assimilation and accommodation, when going through four different stages of development (Wadsworth, 2004). Piaget's (1953) four stages of development are: Sensorimotor stage, which a child goes through from ages zero to two; preoperational stage (two to seven years old), concrete operational stage (seven to eleven years old), and the formal operational stage (eleven years old to adulthood). In Piaget's sensorimotor stage children begin to discover their environment around them through their own senses and physical activity and then language, as they get older within this stage. Children in his next stage of preoperational develop their own language skills but still cannot grasp the thoughts of others. …
22 Sep 2003-Education 3-13
TL;DR: Terenzini, et al. as mentioned in this paper found that college students who drop out usually do so by the time they finish their first year (Noel, Levitz, and Saluri, 1985); however, the student retention rate usually includes students who were also transferred to other colleges.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION Since the 1980s, American institutions have experienced a major problem retaining students, particularly under-represented minorities. The loss of students returning to campus for another year usually results in greater financial loss and a lower graduation rate for the institution, and might also affect the way that stakeholders, legislators, parents, and students view the institution. Further, college administrators can attest to the high cost of recruiting in-coming students. Student retention is also an enormous problem in the United Kingdom, where the administrators of academic institutions now focus most of their efforts on decreasing student attrition, because the ability to retain students has become a determining factor in obtaining outside funding (Nash, 1996). In this country, in 1995 the national average four-year graduation rate was only 38%, compared to the five-year and six-year graduation rates of 50% and 54% respectively (Money, 1997). While the average freshman retention rate for 1996 was 75%, studies indicate that colleges with high freshman retention rates tend to have a higher percentage of students graduating within four years; thus, saving the cost of an extra year or more of schooling. Student retention has become a challenging problem for the academic community; therefore, an effective program for student retention must be implemented in order to increase the retention of qualified students. Institutions must work towards providing students with a meaningful learning environment, so that these students will become connected to the institution by developing a sense of belonging within the student body. Therefore, every effort must be made to retain students while they are on campus. REASONS FOR DROP-OUT Research consistently indicates that college students who drop out usually do so by the time they finish their first year (Noel, Levitz, and Saluri, 1985). Unfortunately, the student retention rate usually includes students who were also transferred to other colleges. Therefore, the retention rate does not provide an accurate account of the number of students who actually dropped out of college. Nevertheless, there are several reasons why freshmen do not return to colleges for their sophomore year (Terenzini, et al. 1996). First, some students leave for reasons that may be beyond institutional control, such as lack of finances, poor student-institution fit, changing academic or career goals, or unrelated personal circumstances. Secondly, many more students leave because the institution has failed to create an environment, inside or outside the classroom, that is conducive to their learning and educational needs. These students do not return to their college because they are unhappy with the education that they are receiving. Thirdly, the inability to manage normal school work or to assimilate within the student population could discourage some students from returning for another year of torture. Students who lack the basic and fundamental skills, especially in mathematics and writing, are finding it difficult to cope with the normal course workload. Therefore, it is extremely important for institutional administrators to ensure that students fulfill their prerequisite requirements before taking upper level courses, especially in the areas of writing and computer applications. Fourthly, freshmen might lack the motivation to do well in school, because they do not understand the importance of education, and/or do not know how to apply classroom-learned theories to real life problems. Further, the lack of appropriate role models or mentors in the academic environment could complicate this problem. Finally, during their first year at an academic institution of higher learning, freshmen might be overwhelmed with the transition from high school to college life, and they might become overly stressed by the dramatic changes even before they finish their first year of college. …
22 Sep 2005-Education 3-13
TL;DR: Waters, Marzano, and McNulty as discussed by the authors investigated the relationship between selected dimensions of leadership and measures of school climate and found that strong leadership, a climate of expectation, an orderly but not rigid atmosphere, and effective communication are significantly related to higher levels of student achievement.
Abstract: Introduction Education leadership is possibly the most important single determinant of an effective learning environment. Change leaders must understand procedures and processes that create the conditions necessary for organizational improvement. Skilled leaders correctly envision future needs and empower others to share and implement that vision. Building principals must be able to assess and evaluate the impact and perceptions of their leadership styles. Fullan (2002) points out that "Only principals who are equipped to handle a complex, rapidly changing environment can implement the reforms that lead to sustained improvement in student achievement" (p. 16). Indeed, principals must deal with the various levels of skills and abilities of their faculty and a continuity of divergent situations within today's complex school environment. Bolman and Deal (1991) describe the balance between leadership and management. Organizations which are overmanaged but underled eventually lose any sense of spirit or purpose. Poorly managed organizations with strong charismatic leaders may soar temporarily only to crash shortly thereafter. The challenges of modern organizations require the objective perspective of the manager as well as the brilliant flashes of vision and commitment that wise leadership provides. (pp. xiii-xiv) Because schools have become very complex organizations, principals must move beyond occasional brilliant flashes to methods of continuous improvement. The variables associated with improved student achievement have been a focus of researchers for many years. Now, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has significantly increased the pressure to improve student achievement. Waters, Marzano, and McNulty (2004) reported that effective school leadership substantially boosts student achievement. School climate, leadership, and quality instruction are frequently associated with effective schools. In this study, we investigated the relationships between selected dimensions of leadership and measures of school climate. In addition, principals' perceptions of their own leadership styles were compared with teachers' perceptions of their principals' leadership styles. Leadership Researchers have attempted to quantify the leadership process and establish relationships between dimensions of leadership, school climate, teacher effectiveness, and student learning (Deal & Peterson, 1990; Maehr, 1990; Waters, et al. 2004). Early research by Brookover (1979), Edmonds (1979), and Rutter, Maughn, Mortimore, and Ouston (1979) found that correlates of effective schools include strong leadership, a climate of expectation, an orderly but not rigid atmosphere, and effective communication. These researchers and others suggest that the presence or absence of a strong educational leader, the climate of the school, and attitudes of the teaching staff can directly influence student achievement. Research has related effective school leadership to significant increases in student achievement. Waters, Marzano, and McNulty (2004) conducted a meta analysis of 70 studies on education leadership and established 21 leadership responsibilities that are significantly related to higher levels of student achievement. Blake and Mouton (1985) indicated that leaders who fully understand leadership theory and improve their ability to lead are able to reduce employee frustration and negative attitudes in the work environment. As instructional leaders, principals can foster an understanding of the school vision, facilitate implementation of the mission, and establish the school climate. Ubben and Hughes (1992) stated that principals could create a school climate that improves the productivity of both staff and students and that the leadership style of the principal can foster or restrict teacher effectiveness. Hersey and Blanchard (1988) discussed leadership in relationship to several factors: preferred style of leadership, maturity of followers, expectations of followers, and task at hand. …
Related Journals (5)
Early Child Development and Care
4.2K papers, 47.5K citations
College student journal
2.1K papers, 44.7K citations
Teaching and Teacher Education
3.5K papers, 232.2K citations
2.1K papers, 47.7K citations
British Educational Research Journal
1.7K papers, 79.1K citations