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Journal ArticleDOI

A review of recent developments in membrane separators for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

12 Nov 2014-Energy and Environmental Science (The Royal Society of Chemistry)-Vol. 7, Iss: 12, pp 3857-3886

Abstract: In this paper, the recent developments and the characteristics of membrane separators for lithium-ion batteries are reviewed. In recent years, there have been intensive efforts to develop advanced battery separators for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries for different applications such as portable electronics, electric vehicles, and energy storage for power grids. The separator is a critical component of lithium-ion batteries since it provides a physical barrier between the positive and negative electrodes in order to prevent electrical short circuits. The separator also serves as the electrolyte reservoir for the transport of ions during the charging and discharging cycles of a battery. The performance of lithium-ion batteries is greatly affected by the materials and structure of the separators. This paper introduces the requirements of battery separators and the structure and properties of five important types of membrane separators which are microporous membranes, modified microporous membranes, non-woven mats, composite membranes and electrolyte membranes. Each separator type has inherent advantages and disadvantages which influence the performance of lithium-ion batteries. The structures, characteristics, manufacturing, modification, and performance of separators are described in this review paper. The outlook and future directions in this research field are also given.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Richard Schmuch1, Ralf Wagner1, Gerhard Hörpel, Tobias Placke1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Apr 2018-Nature Energy
Abstract: It is widely accepted that for electric vehicles to be accepted by consumers and to achieve wide market penetration, ranges of at least 500 km at an affordable cost are required. Therefore, significant improvements to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in terms of energy density and cost along the battery value chain are required, while other key performance indicators, such as lifetime, safety, fast-charging ability and low-temperature performance, need to be enhanced or at least sustained. Here, we review advances and challenges in LIB materials for automotive applications, in particular with respect to cost and performance parameters. The production processes of anode and cathode materials are discussed, focusing on material abundance and cost. Advantages and challenges of different types of electrolyte for automotive batteries are examined. Finally, energy densities and costs of promising battery chemistries are critically evaluated along with an assessment of the potential to fulfil the ambitious targets of electric vehicle propulsion. Electrification is seen as the future of automotive industry, and deployment of electric vehicles largely depends on the development of rechargeable batteries. Here, the authors survey the state-of-the-art advances in active materials, electrolytes and cell chemistries for automotive batteries.

1,097 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Owing to high specific energy, low cost, and environmental friendliness, lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries hold great promise to meet the increasing demand for advanced energy storage beyond portable electronics, and to mitigate environmental problems. However, the application of Li–S batteries is challenged by several obstacles, including their short life and low sulfur utilization, which become more serious when sulfur loading is increased to the practically accepted level above 3–5 mg cm−2. More and more efforts have been made recently to overcome the barriers toward commercially viable Li–S batteries with a high sulfur loading. This review highlights the recent progress in high-sulfur-loading Li–S batteries enabled by hierarchical design principles at multiscale. Particularly, basic insights into the interfacial reactions, strategies for mesoscale assembly, unique architectures, and configurational innovation in the cathode, anode, and separator are under specific concerns. Hierarchy in the multiscale design is proposed to guide the future development of high-sulfur-loading Li–S batteries.

1,013 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Zhigang Xue1, Dan He2, Xiaolin Xie1Institutions (2)
Abstract: Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) based materials are widely considered as promising candidates of polymer hosts in solid-state electrolytes for high energy density secondary lithium batteries. They have several specific advantages such as high safety, easy fabrication, low cost, high energy density, good electrochemical stability, and excellent compatibility with lithium salts. However, the typical linear PEO does not meet the production requirement because of its insufficient ionic conductivity due to the high crystallinity of the ethylene oxide (EO) chains, which can restrain the ionic transition due to the stiff structure especially at low temperature. Scientists have explored different approaches to reduce the crystallinity and hence to improve the ionic conductivity of PEO-based electrolytes, including blending, modifying and making PEO derivatives. This review is focused on surveying the recent developments and issues concerning PEO-based electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

962 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Jing Fu1, Zachary P. Cano1, Moon Gyu Park1, Aiping Yu1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Feb 2017-Advanced Materials
TL;DR: The reaction mechanism of electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries is discussed, different battery configurations are compared, and an in depth discussion is offered of the major issues that affect individual cellular components, along with respective strategies to alleviate these issues to enhance battery performance.
Abstract: Zinc-air batteries have attracted much attention and received revived research efforts recently due to their high energy density, which makes them a promising candidate for emerging mobile and electronic applications. Besides their high energy density, they also demonstrate other desirable characteristics, such as abundant raw materials, environmental friendliness, safety, and low cost. Here, the reaction mechanism of electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries is discussed, different battery configurations are compared, and an in depth discussion is offered of the major issues that affect individual cellular components, along with respective strategies to alleviate these issues to enhance battery performance. Additionally, a section dedicated to battery-testing techniques and corresponding recommendations for best practices are included. Finally, a general perspective on the current limitations, recent application-targeted developments, and recommended future research directions to prolong the lifespan of electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries is provided.

744 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Maher F. El-Kady1, Maher F. El-Kady2, Yuanlong Shao2, Yuanlong Shao3  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Graphene has recently enabled the dramatic improvement of portable electronics and electric vehicles by providing better means for storing electricity. In this Review, we discuss the current status of graphene in energy storage and highlight ongoing research activities, with specific emphasis placed on the processing of graphene into electrodes, which is an essential step in the production of devices. We calculate the maximum energy density of graphene supercapacitors and outline ways for future improvements. We also discuss the synthesis and assembly of graphene into macrostructures, ranging from 0D quantum dots, 1D wires, 2D sheets and 3D frameworks, to potentially 4D self-folding materials that allow the design of batteries and supercapacitors with many new features that do not exist in current technology. Graphene has now enabled the development of faster and more powerful batteries and supercapacitors. In this Review, we discuss the current status of graphene in energy storage, highlight ongoing research activities and present some solutions for existing challenges.

640 citations

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Journal ArticleDOI
Sheng S. Zhang1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This paper reviews the separators used in liquid electrolyte Li-ion batteries. According to the structure and composition of the membranes, the battery separators can be broadly divided as three groups: (1) microporous polymer membranes, (2) non-woven fabric mats and (3) inorganic composite membranes. The microporous polymer membranes are characterised by their thinness and thermal shutdown properties. The nonwoven mats have high porosity and a low cost, while the composite membranes have excellent wettability and exceptional thermal stability. The manufacture, characteristics, performance and modifications of these separators are introduced and discussed. Among numerous battery separators, the thermal shutdown and ceramic separators are of special importance in enhancing the safety of Li-ion batteries. The former consists of either a polyethylene (PE)–polypropylene (PP) multilayer structure or a PE–PP blend which increases safety by allowing meltdown of the PE to close the ionic conduction pathways at a temperature below that at which thermal runway occurs. Whereas the latter comprises nano-size ceramic materials coated on two sides of a flexible and highly porous non-woven matrix which enhances the safety by retaining extremely stable dimensions even at very high temperatures to prevent the direct contact of the electrodes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

1,230 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Xin Su1, Qingliu Wu2, Juchuan Li3, Xingcheng Xiao4  +4 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: There are growing concerns over the environmental, climate, and health impacts caused by using non-renewable fossil fuels. The utilization of green energy, including solar and wind power, is believed to be one of the most promising alternatives to support more sustainable economic growth. In this regard, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) can play a critically important role. To further increase the energy and power densities of LIBs, silicon anodes have been intensively explored due to their high capacity, low operation potential, environmental friendliness, and high abundance. The main challenges for the practical implementation of silicon anodes, however, are the huge volume variation during lithiation and delithiation processes and the unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films. Recently, significant breakthroughs have been achieved utilizing advanced nanotechnologies in terms of increasing cycle life and enhancing charging rate performance due partially to the excellent mechanical properties of nanomaterials, high surface area, and fast lithium and electron transportation. Here, the most recent advance in the applications of 0D (nanoparticles), 1D (nanowires and nanotubes), and 2D (thin film) silicon nanomaterials in LIBs are summarized. The synthetic routes and electrochemical performance of these Si nanomaterials, and the underlying reaction mechanisms are systematically described.

1,152 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
M. Rosa Palacín1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: In this tutorial review, the most recent and significant scientific advances in the field of rechargeable batteries, whose performance is dependent on their underlying chemistry, are covered and special emphasis is given to progress in lithium-based technologies.
Abstract: The constant increase in global energy demand, together with the awareness of the finite supply of fossil fuels, has brought about an imperious need to take advantage of renewable energy sources. At the same time, concern over CO2 emissions and future rises in the cost of gasoline has boosted technological efforts to make hybrid and electric vehicles available to the general public. Energy storage is a vital issue to be addressed within this scenario, and batteries are certainly a key player. In this tutorial review, the most recent and significant scientific advances in the field of rechargeable batteries, whose performance is dependent on their underlying chemistry, are covered. In view of its utmost current significance and future prospects, special emphasis is given to progress in lithium-based technologies.

1,108 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
M. Rosa Palacín1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1979-

914 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The limitation of hot spot cooling in microchips represents an important hurdle for the electronics industry to overcome with coolers yet to exceed the efficiencies required. Nanotechnology-enabled heat sinks that can be magnetophoretically formed onto the hot spots within a microfluidic environment are presented. CrO2 nanoparticles, which are dynamically chained and docked onto the hot spots, establish tuneable high-aspect-ratio nanofins for the heat exchange between these hot spots and the liquid coolant. These nanofins can also be grown and released on demand, absorbing and releasing the heat from the hot spots into the microfluidic system. It is shown that both high aspect ratio and flexibility of the fins have a dramatic effect on increasing the heat sinking efficiency. The system has the potential to offer a practical cooling solution for future electronics.

854 citations

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