Abstract: This study explored the fate of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in anaerobic digestion (AD) system with four nanoparticles (NPs) added, including carbon NPs, Al2O3 NPs, ZnO NPs, and CuO NPs. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCR to investigate the microbial community, MGEs abundance and the potential host in the AD process. The results of high-throughput sequencing showed that ZnO NPs and CuO NPs significantly reduced the microbial diversity and significantly changed the microbial community structure. Simultaneously, the absolute abundance of MGEs increased by 145.01%, 159.67%, 354.70%, and 132.80% on the carbon NPs, Al2O3 NPs, ZnO NPs, and CuO NPs. The enrichment rate of tnpA-03 in ZnO NPs group was the highest, which could reach up to 2854.80%. Co-occurrence analysis revealed that Proteobacteria harbored the vast majority of MGEs followed by Firmicutes. Redundancy analysis and variation partitioning analysis showed that metabolites were the main factors that shifted the succession of bacterial communities. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between metabolites and part MGEs (such as tnpA-01, tnpA-02, tnpA-03, tnpA-04, tnpA-05, tnpA-07 and ISCR1). This study provides a new perspective that NPs increase the risk of antibiotic resistance through MGEs during AD process.
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