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Northwest A&F University

Education
About: Northwest A&F University is a based out in . It is known for research contribution in the topics: Soil water & Population. The organization has 30317 authors who have published 23262 publications receiving 378053 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The particular strengths of TCMSP are the composition of the large number of herbal entries, and the ability to identify drug-target networks and drug-disease networks, which will help revealing the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbs, uncovering the nature ofTCM theory and developing new herb-oriented drugs.
Abstract: Modern medicine often clashes with traditional medicine such as Chinese herbal medicine because of the little understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action of the herbs. In an effort to promote integration of both sides and to accelerate the drug discovery from herbal medicines, an efficient systems pharmacology platform that represents ideal information convergence of pharmacochemistry, ADME properties, drug-likeness, drug targets, associated diseases and interaction networks, are urgently needed. The traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP) was built based on the framework of systems pharmacology for herbal medicines. It consists of all the 499 Chinese herbs registered in the Chinese pharmacopoeia with 29,384 ingredients, 3,311 targets and 837 associated diseases. Twelve important ADME-related properties like human oral bioavailability, half-life, drug-likeness, Caco-2 permeability, blood-brain barrier and Lipinski’s rule of five are provided for drug screening and evaluation. TCMSP also provides drug targets and diseases of each active compound, which can automatically establish the compound-target and target-disease networks that let users view and analyze the drug action mechanisms. It is designed to fuel the development of herbal medicines and to promote integration of modern medicine and traditional medicine for drug discovery and development. The particular strengths of TCMSP are the composition of the large number of herbal entries, and the ability to identify drug-target networks and drug-disease networks, which will help revealing the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbs, uncovering the nature of TCM theory and developing new herb-oriented drugs. TCMSP is freely available at http://sm.nwsuaf.edu.cn/lsp/tcmsp.php .

2,451 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Rudi Appels1, Rudi Appels2, Kellye Eversole, Nils Stein3  +204 moreInstitutions (45)
17 Aug 2018-Science
TL;DR: This annotated reference sequence of wheat is a resource that can now drive disruptive innovation in wheat improvement, as this community resource establishes the foundation for accelerating wheat research and application through improved understanding of wheat biology and genomics-assisted breeding.
Abstract: An annotated reference sequence representing the hexaploid bread wheat genome in 21 pseudomolecules has been analyzed to identify the distribution and genomic context of coding and noncoding elements across the A, B, and D subgenomes. With an estimated coverage of 94% of the genome and containing 107,891 high-confidence gene models, this assembly enabled the discovery of tissue- and developmental stage-related coexpression networks by providing a transcriptome atlas representing major stages of wheat development. Dynamics of complex gene families involved in environmental adaptation and end-use quality were revealed at subgenome resolution and contextualized to known agronomic single-gene or quantitative trait loci. This community resource establishes the foundation for accelerating wheat research and application through improved understanding of wheat biology and genomics-assisted breeding.

2,118 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The spectral characteristics of vegetation are introduced and the development of VIs are summarized, discussing their specific applicability and representativeness according to the vegetation of interest, environment, and implementation precision.
Abstract: Vegetation Indices (VIs) obtained from remote sensing based canopies are quite simple and effective algorithms for quantitative and qualitative evaluations of vegetation cover, vigor, and growth dynamics, among other applications These indices have been widely implemented within RS applications using different airborne and satellite platforms with recent advances using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Up to date, there is no unified mathematical expression that defines all VIs due to the complexity of different light spectra combinations, instrumentation, platforms, and resolutions used Therefore, customized algorithms have been developed and tested against a variety of applications according to specific mathematical expressions that combine visible light radiation, mainly green spectra region, from vegetation, and nonvisible spectra to obtain proxy quantifications of the vegetation surface In the real-world applications, optimization VIs are usually tailored to the specific application requirements coupled with appropriate validation tools and methodologies in the ground The present study introduces the spectral characteristics of vegetation and summarizes the development of VIs and the advantages and disadvantages from different indices developed This paper reviews more than 100 VIs, discussing their specific applicability and representativeness according to the vegetation of interest, environment, and implementation precision Predictably, research, and development of VIs, which are based on hyperspectral and UAV platforms, would have a wide applicability in different areas

1,190 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of research achievements on anaerobic digestion developments for biogas production is presented in this article, which includes a discussion of factors affecting efficiency (temperature, pH, C/N ratio, OLR and retention time).
Abstract: With the rising demand for renewable energy and environmental protection, anaerobic digestion of biogas technology has attracted considerable attention within the scientific community. This paper presents a comprehensive review of research achievements on anaerobic digestion developments for biogas production. The review includes a discussion of factors affecting efficiency (temperature, pH, C/N ratio, OLR and retention time), accelerants (greenery biomass, biological pure culture and inorganic additives), reactors (conventional anaerobic reactors, sludge retention reactors and anaerobic membrane reactors) and biogas AD processes (lignocellulose waste, municipal solid waste, food waste, livestock manure and waste activated sludge) based on substrate characteristics and discusses the application of each forementioned aspect. The factors affecting efficiency are crucial to anaerobic digestion, because they play a major role in biogas production and determine the metabolic conditions for microorganism growth. As an additive, an accelerant is not only regarded as a nutrient resource, but can also improve biodegradability. The focus of reactor design is the sufficient utilization of a substrate by changing the feeding method and enhancing the attachment to biomass. The optimal digestion process balances the optimal digest conditions with the cost-optimal input/output ratio. Additionally, establishment of theoretical and technological studies should emphasize practicality based on laboratory-scale experiments because further development of biogas plants would allow for a transition from household to medium- and large-scale projects; therefore, improving stability and efficiency are recommended for advancing AD research.

1,149 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Marielle Saunois1, Philippe Bousquet1, Ben Poulter2, Anna Peregon1, Philippe Ciais1, Josep G. Canadell3, Edward J. Dlugokencky4, Giuseppe Etiope5, David Bastviken6, Sander Houweling7, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello8, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson9, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling10, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake11, Gordon Brailsford12, Victor Brovkin13, Lori Bruhwiler4, Cyril Crevoisier14, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer R. Covey15, Charles L. Curry16, Christian Frankenberg17, Nicola Gedney18, Lena Höglund-Isaksson19, Misa Ishizawa20, Akihiko Ito20, Fortunat Joos21, Heon Sook Kim20, Thomas Kleinen13, Paul B. Krummel3, Jean-Francois Lamarque22, Ray L. Langenfelds3, Robin Locatelli1, Toshinobu Machida20, Shamil Maksyutov20, Kyle C. McDonald23, Julia Marshall13, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino18, Vaishali Naik24, Simon O'Doherty25, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier26, Prabir K. Patra27, Changhui Peng28, Shushi Peng1, Glen P. Peters29, Isabelle Pison1, Catherine Prigent30, Ronald G. Prinn31, Michel Ramonet1, William J. Riley32, Makoto Saito20, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder23, Ronny Schroeder33, Isobel J. Simpson11, Renato Spahni21, P. Steele3, Atsushi Takizawa34, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian35, Yasunori Tohjima20, Nicolas Viovy1, Apostolos Voulgarakis36, Michiel van Weele37, Guido R. van der Werf38, Ray F. Weiss39, Christine Wiedinmyer22, David J. Wilton10, Andy Wiltshire18, Doug Worthy40, Debra Wunch41, Xiyan Xu32, Yukio Yoshida20, Bowen Zhang35, Zhen Zhang2, Qiuan Zhu42 
TL;DR: The Global Carbon Project (GCP) as discussed by the authors is a consortium of multi-disciplinary scientists, including atmospheric physicists and chemists, biogeochemists of surface and marine emissions, and socio-economists who study anthropogenic emissions.
Abstract: . The global methane (CH4) budget is becoming an increasingly important component for managing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. This relevance, due to a shorter atmospheric lifetime and a stronger warming potential than carbon dioxide, is challenged by the still unexplained changes of atmospheric CH4 over the past decade. Emissions and concentrations of CH4 are continuing to increase, making CH4 the second most important human-induced greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Two major difficulties in reducing uncertainties come from the large variety of diffusive CH4 sources that overlap geographically, and from the destruction of CH4 by the very short-lived hydroxyl radical (OH). To address these difficulties, we have established a consortium of multi-disciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate research on the methane cycle, and producing regular (∼ biennial) updates of the global methane budget. This consortium includes atmospheric physicists and chemists, biogeochemists of surface and marine emissions, and socio-economists who study anthropogenic emissions. Following Kirschke et al. (2013), we propose here the first version of a living review paper that integrates results of top-down studies (exploiting atmospheric observations within an atmospheric inverse-modelling framework) and bottom-up models, inventories and data-driven approaches (including process-based models for estimating land surface emissions and atmospheric chemistry, and inventories for anthropogenic emissions, data-driven extrapolations). For the 2003–2012 decade, global methane emissions are estimated by top-down inversions at 558 Tg CH4 yr−1, range 540–568. About 60 % of global emissions are anthropogenic (range 50–65 %). Since 2010, the bottom-up global emission inventories have been closer to methane emissions in the most carbon-intensive Representative Concentrations Pathway (RCP8.5) and higher than all other RCP scenarios. Bottom-up approaches suggest larger global emissions (736 Tg CH4 yr−1, range 596–884) mostly because of larger natural emissions from individual sources such as inland waters, natural wetlands and geological sources. Considering the atmospheric constraints on the top-down budget, it is likely that some of the individual emissions reported by the bottom-up approaches are overestimated, leading to too large global emissions. Latitudinal data from top-down emissions indicate a predominance of tropical emissions (∼ 64 % of the global budget, The most important source of uncertainty on the methane budget is attributable to emissions from wetland and other inland waters. We show that the wetland extent could contribute 30–40 % on the estimated range for wetland emissions. Other priorities for improving the methane budget include the following: (i) the development of process-based models for inland-water emissions, (ii) the intensification of methane observations at local scale (flux measurements) to constrain bottom-up land surface models, and at regional scale (surface networks and satellites) to constrain top-down inversions, (iii) improvements in the estimation of atmospheric loss by OH, and (iv) improvements of the transport models integrated in top-down inversions. The data presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center ( http://doi.org/10.3334/CDIAC/GLOBAL_METHANE_BUDGET_2016_V1.1 ) and the Global Carbon Project.

771 citations


Authors

Showing all 30474 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Frank B. Hu2501675253464
Yang Yang1712644153049
James M. Tiedje150688102287
Bin Wang126222674364
Bo Wang119290584863
Jian Liu117209073156
Shaojun Guo11440044905
Fei Wang107182453587
Jun Liu100116573692
Sandy P. Harrison9632934004
Xiaodong Xu94112250817
Muhammad Farooq92134137533
Rong Wang9095032172
Xiaoping Hu8545024291
Zhenyu Li8163827711
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202350
2022529
20213,248
20202,739
20192,525
20182,184