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Journal ArticleDOI

Convergent evolution of 'creepers' in the Hawaiian honeycreeper radiation

TL;DR: The morphological, ecological and behavioural similarities between the evolutionarily distant Hawaii and Kauai creepers represent an extreme example of convergent evolution and demonstrate how natural selection can lead to repeatable evolutionary outcomes.
Abstract: Natural selection plays a fundamental role in the ecological theory of adaptive radiation. A prediction of this theory is the convergent evolution of traits in lineages experiencing similar environments. The Hawaiian honeycreepers are a spectacular example of adaptive radiation and may demonstrate convergence, but uncertainty about phylogenetic relationships within the group has made it difficult to assess such evolutionary patterns. We examine the phylogenetic relationships of the Hawaii creeper (Oreomystis mana), a bird that in a suite of morphological, ecological and behavioural traits closely resembles the Kauai creeper (Oreomystis bairdi), but whose mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and osteology suggest a relationship with the amakihis (Hemignathus in part) and akepas (Loxops). We analysed nuclear DNA sequence data from 11 relevant honeycreeper taxa and one outgroup to test whether the character contradiction results from historical hybridization and mtDNA introgression, or convergent evolution. We found no evidence of past hybridization, a phenomenon that remains undocumented in Hawaiian honeycreepers, and confirmed mtDNA and osteological evidence that the Hawaii creeper is most closely related to the amakihis and akepas. Thus, the morphological, ecological and behavioural similarities between the evolutionarily distant Hawaii and Kauai creepers represent an extreme example of convergent evolution and demonstrate how natural selection can lead to repeatable evolutionary outcomes.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new data set of 13 nuclear loci and pyrosequencing of mitochondrial genomes is analyzed that resolves the Hawaiian honeycreeper phylogeny and shows that they are a sister taxon to Eurasian rosefinches and probably came to Hawaii from Asia.
Abstract: Summary Evolutionary theory has gained tremendous insight from studies of adaptive radiations. High rates of speciation, morphological divergence, and hybridization, combined with low sequence variability, however, have prevented phylogenetic reconstruction for many radiations. The Hawaiian honeycreepers are an exceptional adaptive radiation, with high phenotypic diversity and speciation that occurred within the geologically constrained setting of the Hawaiian Islands. Here we analyze a new data set of 13 nuclear loci and pyrosequencing of mitochondrial genomes that resolves the Hawaiian honeycreeper phylogeny. We show that they are a sister taxon to Eurasian rosefinches ( Carpodacus ) and probably came to Hawaii from Asia. We use island ages to calibrate DNA substitution rates, which vary substantially among gene regions, and calculate divergence times, showing that the radiation began roughly when the oldest of the current large Hawaiian Islands (Kauai and Niihau) formed, ∼5.7 million years ago (mya). We show that most of the lineages that gave rise to distinctive morphologies diverged after Oahu emerged (4.0–3.7 mya) but before the formation of Maui and adjacent islands (2.4–1.9 mya). Thus, the formation of Oahu, and subsequent cycles of colonization and speciation between Kauai and Oahu, played key roles in generating the morphological diversity of the extant honeycreepers.

425 citations


Additional excerpts

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The history of the subspecies concept and the major debates and issues surrounding its use are summarized, with an emphasis on ornithology, in which the concept originated.
Abstract: in this review i summarize the history of the subspecies concept and the major debates and issues surrounding its use, with an emphasis on ornithology, in which the concept originated. The study of subspecific variation in birds has been an important driving force in the development of evolutionary biology. Subspecific study has also been essential in the description and preservation of biodiversity. Although controversy has surrounded the concept of subspecies since its inception, it continues to play an important role in both basic and applied science. i cover 10 relevant issues that have been largely resolved during this 150-year controversy, although not all are widely appreciated or universally accepted. These include nomenclature, sampling theory, evolutionary biology, and the heterogeneity of named subspecies. i also address three big unresolved questions and some of the philosophy of science related to them: What are subspecies, how do we diagnose them, and what does subspecific variation mean? discordance between genotypic and phenotypic data at these shallow evolutionary levels should be expected. The process of diagnosing states that exist along a continuum of differentiation can be difficult and contentious and necessarily has some arbitrariness; professional standards can be developed so that such diagnoses are objective. Taxonomies will change as standards do and as more data accrue. Given present evidence, our null hypothesis should be that subspecific variation probably reflects local adaptation. in looking forward, it seems assured that geographically partitioned variation— and the convenient label "subspecies"—will continue to play an integral role in zoology.

97 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Comparison three-dimensional geometric morphometric analyses based on X-ray microcomputed tomography scanning of dried cranial skeletons show that cranial shapes in both Hawaiian honeycreepers and Coerebinae (Darwin's finches and their close relatives) are much more diverse than in their respective outgroups, but Hawaiian honeyCreepers as a group display the highest diversity and disparity of all other bird groups studied.
Abstract: Adaptive radiation is the rapid evolution of morphologically and ecologically diverse species from a single ancestor. The two classic examples of adaptive radiation are Darwin's finches and the Haw...

91 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that community structure evolution has a tendency to follow one of only a few distinct paths within the context of a multispecies ecosystem.
Abstract: Experiments to date probing adaptive evolution have predominantly focused on studying a single species or a pair of species in isolation. In nature, on the other hand, species evolve within complex communities, interacting and competing with many other species. It is unclear how reproducible or predictable adaptive evolution is within the context of a multispecies ecosystem. To explore this problem, we let 96 replicates of a multispecies laboratory bacterial ecosystem evolve in parallel for hundreds of generations. Here we find that relative abundances of individual species vary greatly across the evolved ecosystems and that the final profile of species frequencies within replicates clusters into several distinct types, as opposed to being randomly dispersed across the frequency space or converging fully. Our results suggest that community structure evolution has a tendency to follow one of only a few distinct paths.

59 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of carnivorous murids of the IAA demonstrates that carnivory evolved independently four times after overwater colonization, including in situ origins on the Philippines, Sulawesi, and Sahul.
Abstract: Convergent evolution, often observed in island archipelagos, provides compelling evidence for the importance of natural selection as a generator of species and ecological diversity. The Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) is the world's largest island system and encompasses distinct biogeographic units, including the Asian (Sunda) and Australian (Sahul) continental shelves, which together bracket the oceanic archipelagos of the Philippines and Wallacea. Each of these biogeographic units houses numerous endemic rodents in the family Muridae. Carnivorous murids, that is those that feed on animals, have evolved independently in Sunda, Sulawesi (part of Wallacea), the Philippines, and Sahul, but the number of origins of carnivory among IAA murids is unknown. We conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of carnivorous murids of the IAA, combined with estimates of ancestral states for broad diet categories (herbivore, omnivore, and carnivore) and geographic ranges. These analyses demonstrate that carnivory evolved independently four times after overwater colonization, including in situ origins on the Philippines, Sulawesi, and Sahul. In each biogeographic unit the origin of carnivory was followed by evolution of more specialized carnivorous ecomorphs such as vermivores, insectivores, and amphibious rats.

49 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The program MODELTEST uses log likelihood scores to establish the model of DNA evolution that best fits the data.
Abstract: Summary: The program MODELTEST uses log likelihood scores to establish the model of DNA evolution that best fits the data. Availability: The MODELTEST package, including the source code and some documentation is available at http://bioag.byu.edu/zoology/crandall―lab/modeltest.html. Contact: dp47@email.byu.edu.

20,105 citations


"Convergent evolution of 'creepers' ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...All sequences have been deposited in GenBank (FJ266094–FJ266312)....

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01 Jan 2002

16,957 citations


"Convergent evolution of 'creepers' ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...We conducted a homogeneity partition test (ILD, Farris et al. 1995) with heuristic search, as implemented in the program PAUP v. 4.0.b10 (Swofford 2002), to evaluate the congruence of phylogenetic signal between the two sequence sets....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A modification of the KH test to take into account a multiplicity of testings is presented, which shows how the test was designed for comparing two topologies but is often used for comparing many topologies.
Abstract: The maximum-likelihood method for inferring mo-lecular phylogeny (Felsenstein 1981) is being widelyused. The probabilistic model for generating the molec-ular sequences is specified by the substitution processand the tree topology. The parameters for the substitu-tion process and the branch lengths are estimated bymaximizing the likelihood, and then the tree topology isestimated by maximizing the maximized likelihood. Toobtain the confidence limit of the topology, the test ofKishino and Hasegawa (1989), referred to as the KHtest, is often used in practice. The same idea that is thebasis for the KH test is also found in the statistical lit-erature (Linhart 1988; Vuong 1989). The KH test wasdesigned for comparing two topologies but is often usedfor comparing many topologies. This use of the KH testleads to overconfidence for a wrong tree, because thesampling error due to the selection of the topology isoverlooked in it. In this note, we present a modificationof the KH test to take into account a multiplicity oftestings.Let a index the topologies and L

4,049 citations