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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CLNU.2021.02.020

Early caloric deficit is associated with a higher risk of death in invasive ventilated COVID-19 patients.

02 Mar 2021-Clinical Nutrition (Churchill Livingstone)-
Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional support management in mechanically ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and explore the association between early caloric deficit and mortality, taking possible confounders (i.e. obesity) into consideration. METHODS: This was a prospective study carried out during the first pandemic wave in the intensive care units (ICUs) of two referral University Hospitals in Lombardy, Italy. Two hundred twenty-two consecutive mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients were evaluated during the ICU stay. In addition to major demographic and clinical data, we recorded information on the route and amount of nutritional support provided on a daily basis. RESULTS: Among patients still in the ICUs and alive on day 4 (N = 198), 129 (65.2%) and 72 (36.4%) reached a satisfactory caloric and protein intake, respectively, mainly by enteral route. In multivariable analysis, a satisfactory caloric intake on day 4 was associated with lower mortality (HR = 0.46 [95%CI, 0.42-0.50], P < 0.001). Mild obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 and < 35 kg/m2) was associated with higher mortality (HR = 1.99 [95%CI, 1.07-3.68], P = 0.029), while patients with moderate-severe obesity (BMI≥35 kg/m2) were less likely to be weaned from invasive mechanical ventilation (HR = 0.71 [95%CI, 0.62-0.82], P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the negative prognostic and clinical role of obesity in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients and suggested that early caloric deficit may independently contribute to worsen survival in this patients' population. Therefore, any effort should be made to implement an adequate timely nutritional support in all COVID-19 patients during the ICU stay.

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Topics: Intensive care (53%), Population (51%)
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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CLNU.2021.05.006
11 May 2021-Clinical Nutrition
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemics has created unprecedented challenges and threats to patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Acute respiratory complications that require intensive care unit (ICU) management are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Among other important risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes, obesity has emerged along with undernutrition-malnutrition as a strong predictor of disease risk and severity. Obesity-related excessive body fat may lead to respiratory, metabolic and immune derangements potentially favoring the onset of COVID-19 complications. In addition, patients with obesity may be at risk for loss of skeletal muscle mass, reflecting a state of hidden malnutrition with a strong negative health impact in all clinical settings. Also importantly, obesity is commonly associated with micronutrient deficiencies that directly influence immune function and infection risk. Finally, the pandemic-related lockdown, deleterious lifestyle changes and other numerous psychosocial consequences may worsen eating behaviors, sedentarity, body weight regulation, ultimately leading to further increments of obesity-associated metabolic complications with loss of skeletal muscle mass and higher non-communicable disease risk. Therefore, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies should be routinely included in the management of COVID-19 patients in the presence of obesity; lockdown-induced health risks should also be specifically monitored and prevented in this population. In the current document, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) aims at providing clinical practice guidance for nutritional management of COVID-19 patients with obesity in various clinical settings.

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Topics: Malnutrition (54%), Clinical nutrition (52%), Population (51%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMED.2021.671714
Abstract: In late December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) quickly spread worldwide, and the syndrome it causes, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has reached pandemic proportions. Around 30% of patients with COVID-19 experience severe respiratory distress and are admitted to the intensive care unit for comprehensive critical care. Patients with COVID-19 often present an enhanced immune response with a hyperinflammatory state characterized by a "cytokine storm," which may reflect changes in the microbiota composition. Moreover, the evolution to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may increase the severity of COVID-19 and related dysbiosis. During critical illness, the multitude of therapies administered, including antibiotics, sedatives, analgesics, body position, invasive mechanical ventilation, and nutritional support, may enhance the inflammatory response and alter the balance of patients' microbiota. This status of dysbiosis may lead to hyper vulnerability in patients and an inappropriate response to critical circumstances. In this context, the aim of our narrative review is to provide an overview of possible interaction between patients' microbiota dysbiosis and clinical status of severe COVID-19 with ARDS, taking into consideration the characteristic hyperinflammatory state of this condition, respiratory distress, and provide an overview on possible nutritional strategies for critically ill patients with COVID-19-ARDS.

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Topics: Respiratory distress (60%), ARDS (57%), Dysbiosis (57%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13093293
21 Sep 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: Targeted nutritional therapy should be started early in severe illness and sustained through to recovery if clinical and patient-centred outcomes are to be optimised. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has shone a light on this need. The literature on nutrition and COVID-19 mainly focuses on the importance of nutrition to preserve life and prevent clinical deterioration during the acute phase of illness. However, there is a lack of information guiding practice across the whole patient journey (e.g., hospital to home) with a focus on targeting recovery (e.g., long COVID). This review paper is of relevance to doctors and other healthcare professionals in acute care and primary care worldwide, since it addresses early, multi-modal individualised nutrition interventions across the continuum of care to improve COVID-19 patient outcomes. It is of relevance to nutrition experts and non-nutrition experts and can be used to promote inter-professional and inter-organisational knowledge transfer on the topic. The primary goal is to prevent complications and support recovery to enable COVID-19 patients to achieve the best possible nutritional, physical, functional and mental health status and to apply the learning to date from the COVID-19 pandemic to other patient groups experiencing acute severe illness.

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Topics: Acute care (60%), Medical nutrition therapy (50%), Mental health (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CLNU.2021.06.020
25 Jun 2021-Clinical Nutrition
Abstract: Summary Background & aims To investigate the association between the parameters used in nutritional screening assessment (body mass index [BMI], unintentional weight loss [WL] and reduced food intake) and clinical outcomes in non-critically ill, hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods This was a prospective multicenter real-life study carried out during the first pandemic wave in 11 Italian Hospitals. In total, 1391 patients were included. The primary end-point was a composite of in-hospital mortality or admission to ICU, whichever came first. The key secondary end-point was in-hospital mortality. Results Multivariable models were based on 1183 patients with complete data. Reduced self-reported food intake before hospitalization and/or expected by physicians in the next days since admission was found to have a negative prognostic impact for both the primary and secondary end-point (P 21 mg/dL) and LDH (>430 mU/mL) levels yielded consistent findings. Conclusions Reduced self-reported food intake before hospitalization and/or expected by physicians in the next days since admission was associated with negative clinical outcomes in non-critically ill, hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This simple and easily obtainable parameter may be useful to identify patients at highest risk of poor prognosis, who may benefit from prompt nutritional support. The presence of comorbidities could be the key factor, which may determine the protective or harmful role of a high body mass index in COVID-19.

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Topics: Body mass index (52%), Weight loss (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CLNESP.2021.05.003
Abstract: Summary Introduction The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has overwhelmed hospital systems globally, resulting in less experienced staff caring for critically ill patients within the intensive care unit (ICU). Many guidelines have been developed to guide nutrition care. Aim To identify key guidelines or practice recommendations for nutrition support practices in critically ill adults admitted with COVID-19, to describe similarities and differences between recommendations, and to discuss implications for clinical practice. Methods A literature review was conducted to identify guidelines affiliated with or endorsed by international nutrition societies or dietetic associations which included recommendations for the nutritional management of critically ill adult patients with COVID-19. Data were extracted on pre-defined key aspects of nutritional care including nutrition prescription, delivery, monitoring and workforce recommendations, and key similarities and discrepancies, as well as implications for clinical practice were summarized. Results Ten clinical practice guidelines were identified. Similar recommendations included: the use of high protein, volume restricted enteral formula delivered gastrically and commenced early in ICU and introduced gradually, while taking into consideration non-nutritional calories to avoid overfeeding. Specific advice for patients in the prone position was common, and non-intubated patients were highlighted as a population at high nutritional risk. Major discrepancies included the use of indirect calorimetry to guide energy targets and advice around using gastric residual volumes (GRVs) to monitor feeding tolerance. Conclusion Overall, common recommendations around formula type and route of feeding exist, with major discrepancies being around the use of indirect calorimetry and GRVs, which reflect international ICU nutrition guidelines.

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Topics: Population (51%)

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CLNU.2018.08.037
01 Feb 2019-Clinical Nutrition
Abstract: Following the new ESPEN Standard Operating Procedures, the previous guidelines to provide best medical nutritional therapy to critically ill patients have been updated. These guidelines define who are the patients at risk, how to assess nutritional status of an ICU patient, how to define the amount of energy to provide, the route to choose and how to adapt according to various clinical conditions. When to start and how to progress in the administration of adequate provision of nutrients is also described. The best determination of amount and nature of carbohydrates, fat and protein are suggested. Special attention is given to glutamine and omega-3 fatty acids. Particular conditions frequently observed in intensive care such as patients with dysphagia, frail patients, multiple trauma patients, abdominal surgery, sepsis, and obesity are discussed to guide the practitioner toward the best evidence based therapy. Monitoring of this nutritional therapy is discussed in a separate document.

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Topics: Intensive care (60%), Intensive care unit (52%), Guideline (52%) ... show more

798 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMAINTERNMED.2020.3539
Abstract: Importance Many patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are critically ill and require care in the intensive care unit (ICU). Objective To evaluate the independent risk factors associated with mortality of patients with COVID-19 requiring treatment in ICUs in the Lombardy region of Italy. Design, Setting, and Participants This retrospective, observational cohort study included 3988 consecutive critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 referred for ICU admission to the coordinating center (Fondazione IRCCS [Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico] Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy) of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network from February 20 to April 22, 2020. Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction assay of nasopharyngeal swabs. Follow-up was completed on May 30, 2020. Exposures Baseline characteristics, comorbidities, long-term medications, and ventilatory support at ICU admission. Main Outcomes and Measures Time to death in days from ICU admission to hospital discharge. The independent risk factors associated with mortality were evaluated with a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Of the 3988 patients included in this cohort study, the median age was 63 (interquartile range [IQR] 56-69) years; 3188 (79.9%; 95% CI, 78.7%-81.1%) were men, and 1998 of 3300 (60.5%; 95% CI, 58.9%-62.2%) had at least 1 comorbidity. At ICU admission, 2929 patients (87.3%; 95% CI, 86.1%-88.4%) required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The median follow-up was 44 (95% CI, 40-47; IQR, 11-69; range, 0-100) days; median time from symptoms onset to ICU admission was 10 (95% CI, 9-10; IQR, 6-14) days; median length of ICU stay was 12 (95% CI, 12-13; IQR, 6-21) days; and median length of IMV was 10 (95% CI, 10-11; IQR, 6-17) days. Cumulative observation time was 164 305 patient-days. Hospital and ICU mortality rates were 12 (95% CI, 11-12) and 27 (95% CI, 26-29) per 1000 patients-days, respectively. In the subgroup of the first 1715 patients, as of May 30, 2020, 865 (50.4%) had been discharged from the ICU, 836 (48.7%) had died in the ICU, and 14 (0.8%) were still in the ICU; overall, 915 patients (53.4%) died in the hospital. Independent risk factors associated with mortality included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.60-1.92), male sex (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.31-1.88), high fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), high positive end-expiratory pressure (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06) or low Pao2:Fio2ratio (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74-0.87) on ICU admission, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.28-2.19), hypercholesterolemia (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), and type 2 diabetes (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.39). No medication was independently associated with mortality (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.97-1.42; angiotensin receptor blockers HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.85-1.29). Conclusions and Relevance In this retrospective cohort study of critically ill patients admitted to ICUs in Lombardy, Italy, with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, most patients required IMV. The mortality rate and absolute mortality were high.

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Topics: Intensive care (53%), Interquartile range (51%)

489 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S13054-016-1538-4
Oren Zusman1, Miriam Theilla1, Miriam Theilla2, Jonathan Cohen2  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
10 Nov 2016-Critical Care
Abstract: Intense debate exists regarding the optimal energy and protein intake for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, most studies use predictive equations, demonstrated to be inaccurate to target energy intake. We sought to examine the outcome of a large cohort of ICU patients in relation to the percent of administered calories divided by resting energy expenditure (% AdCal/REE) obtained by indirect calorimetry (IC) and to protein intake. Included patients were hospitalized from 2003 to 2015 at a 16-bed ICU at a university affiliated, tertiary care hospital, and had IC measurement to assess caloric targets. Data were drawn from a computerized system and included the % AdCal/REE and protein intake and other variables. A Cox proportional hazards model for 60-day mortality was used, with the % AdCal/REE modeled to accommodate non-linearity. Length of stay (LOS) and length of ventilation (LOV) were also assessed. A total of 1171 patients were included. The % AdCal/REE had a significant non-linear (p 70 % was associated with an increased LOS and LOV. The findings of this study suggest that both underfeeding and overfeeding appear to be harmful to critically ill patients, such that achieving an Adcal/REE of 70 % had a survival advantage. A higher caloric intake may also be associated with harm in the form of increased LOS and LOV. The optimal way to define caloric goals therefore requires an exact estimate, which is ideally performed using indirect calorimetry. These findings may provide a basis for future randomized controlled trials comparing specific nutritional regimens based on indirect calorimetry measurements.

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Topics: Resting energy expenditure (61%), Calorie (51%)

163 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00134-019-05594-1
Miet Schetz1, Audrey De Jong2, Adam M. Deane3, Adam M. Deane4  +8 moreInstitutions (7)
Abstract: The World Health Organization defines overweight and obesity as the condition where excess or abnormal fat accumulation increases risks to health. The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and is around 20% in ICU patients. Adipose tissue is highly metabolically active, and especially visceral adipose tissue has a deleterious adipocyte secretory profile resulting in insulin resistance and a chronic low-grade inflammatory and procoagulant state. Obesity is strongly linked with chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea and hypoventilation syndrome, mood disorders and physical disabilities. In hospitalized and ICU patients and in patients with chronic illnesses, a J-shaped relationship between BMI and mortality has been demonstrated, with overweight and moderate obesity being protective compared with a normal BMI or more severe obesity (the still debated and incompletely understood "obesity paradox"). Despite this protective effect regarding mortality, in the setting of critical illness morbidity is adversely affected with increased risk of respiratory and cardiovascular complications, requiring adapted management. Obesity is associated with increased risk of AKI and infection, may require adapted drug dosing and nutrition and is associated with diagnostic and logistic challenges. In addition, negative attitudes toward obese patients (the social stigma of obesity) affect both health care workers and patients.

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Topics: Obesity paradox (68%), Overweight (58%), Obesity (57%) ... show more

115 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.METABOL.2020.154378
Yi Huang1, Yao Lu1, Yan-Mei Huang2, Min Wang1  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Background Obesity is common in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The effects of obesity on clinical outcomes of COVID-19 warrant systematical investigation. Objective This study explores the effects of obesity with the risk of severe disease among patients with COVID-19. Methods Body mass index (BMI) and degree of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation were used as indicators for obesity status. Publication databases including preprints were searched up to August 10, 2020. Clinical outcomes of severe COVID-19 included hospitalization, a requirement for treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU), invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), and mortality. Risks for severe COVID-19 outcomes are presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for cohort studies with BMI-defined obesity, and standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95%CI for controlled studies with VAT-defined excessive adiposity. Results A total of 45, 650 participants from 30 studies with BMI-defined obesity and 3 controlled studies with VAT-defined adiposity were included for assessing the risk of severe COVID-19. Univariate analyses showed significantly higher ORs of severe COVID-19 with higher BMI: 1.76 (95%: 1.21, 2.56, P = 0.003) for hospitalization, 1.67 (95%CI: 1.26, 2.21, P Conclusions Obesity increases risk for hospitalization, ICU admission, IMV requirement and death among patients with COVID-19. Further, excessive visceral adiposity appears to be associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes. These findings emphasize the need for effective actions by individuals, the public and governments to increase awareness of the risks resulting from obesity and how these are heightened in the current global pandemic.

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Topics: Intensive care (53%), Body mass index (53%), Odds ratio (52%) ... show more

114 Citations


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