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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/11263504.2020.1727987

Heat stress in cultivated plants: nature, impact, mechanisms, and mitigation strategies—a review

04 Mar 2021-Plant Biosystems (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 155, Iss: 2, pp 211-234
Abstract: The progressive increase in the earth’s temperature due to anthropogenic activities is a major concern for humanity. The ensuing heat stress (HS) severely impacts plant growth, endangering ecosyste...

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Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: To deliver food security for the 9 billon population in 2050, a 70% increase in world food supply will be required. Projected climatic and environmental changes emphasize the need for breeding strategies that delivers both a substantial increase in yield potential and resilience to extreme weather events such as heat waves, late frost, and drought. Heat stress around sensitive stages of wheat development has been identified as a possible threat to wheat production in Europe. However, no estimates have been made to assess yield losses due to increased frequency and magnitude of heat stress under climate change. Using existing experimental data, the Sirius wheat model was refined by incorporating the effects of extreme temperature during flowering and grain filling on accelerated leaf senescence, grain number, and grain weight. This allowed us, for the first time, to quantify yield losses resulting from heat stress under climate change. The model was used to optimize wheat ideotypes for CMIP5-based climate scenarios for 2050 at six sites in Europe with diverse climates. The yield potential for heat-tolerant ideotypes can be substantially increased in the future (e.g. by 80% at Seville, 100% at Debrecen) compared with the current cultivars by selecting an optimal combination of wheat traits, e.g. optimal phenology and extended duration of grain filling. However, at two sites, Seville and Debrecen, the grain yields of heat-sensitive ideotypes were substantially lower (by 54% and 16%) and more variable compared with heat-tolerant ideotypes, because the extended grain filling required for the increased yield potential was in conflict with episodes of high temperature during flowering and grain filling. Despite much earlier flowering at these sites, the risk of heat stress affecting yields of heat-sensitive ideotypes remained high. Therefore, heat tolerance in wheat is likely to become a key trait for increased yield potential and yield stability in southern Europe in the future.

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Topics: Population (51%)

107 Citations


Open accessDataset
25 Jun 2019-
Abstract: This dataset provides supplementary files for the trials and sites described in the 2011 paper in https://www.nature.com/nclimate/ available at https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/NCLIMATE1043

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76 Citations


Open accessDOI: 10.32604/PHYTON.2022.017365
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: Salinity stress is a major threat to global food production and its intensity is continuously increasing because of anthropogenic activities. Wheat is a staple food and a source of carbohydrates and calories for the majority of people across the globe. However, wheat productivity is adversely affected by salt stress, which is associated with a reduction in germination, growth, altered reproductive behavior and enzymatic activity, disrupted photosynthesis, hormonal imbalance, oxidative stress, and yield reductions. Thus, a better understanding of wheat (plant) behavior to salinity stress has essential implications to devise counter and alleviation measures to cope with salt stress. Different approaches including the selection of suitable cultivars, conventional breeding, and molecular techniques can be used for facing salt stress tolerance. However, these techniques are tedious, costly, and labor-intensive. Management practices are still helpful to improve the wheat performance under salinity stress. Use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, and exogenous application of phytohormones, seed priming, and nutrient management are important tools to improve wheat performance under salinity stress. In this paper, we discussed the effect of salinity stress on the wheat crop, possible mechanisms to deal with salinity stress, and management options to improve wheat performance under salinity conditions.

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5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PLANTS10091778
Noushina Iqbal1, Mehar Fatma2, Harsha Gautam2, Shahid Umar1  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
26 Aug 2021-
Abstract: Photosynthesis is a pivotal process that determines the synthesis of carbohydrates required for sustaining growth under normal or stress situation. Stress exposure reduces the photosynthetic potential owing to the excess synthesis of reactive oxygen species that disturb the proper functioning of photosynthetic apparatus. This decreased photosynthesis is associated with disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism resulting in reduced growth under stress. We evaluated the importance of melatonin in reducing heat stress-induced severity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants. The plants were subjected to 25 °C (optimum temperature) or 40 °C (heat stress) for 15 days at 6 h time duration and then developed the plants for 30 days. Heat stress led to oxidative stress with increased production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and reduced accrual of total soluble sugars, starch and carbohydrate metabolism enzymes which were reflected in reduced photosynthesis. Application of melatonin not only reduced oxidative stress through lowering TBARS and H2O2 content, augmenting the activity of antioxidative enzymes but also increased the photosynthesis in plant and carbohydrate metabolism that was needed to provide energy and carbon skeleton to the developing plant under stress. However, the increase in these parameters with melatonin was mediated via hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as the inhibition of H2S by hypotaurine (HT; H2S scavenger) reversed the ameliorative effect of melatonin. This suggests a crosstalk of melatonin and H2S in protecting heat stress-induced photosynthetic inhibition via regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.

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Topics: Carbohydrate metabolism (55%), Melatonin (54%), Photosynthesis (53%) ... show more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22020530
Abstract: Heat stress (HS) is a major abiotic stress that negatively impacts crop yields across the globe. Plants respond to elevated temperatures by changing gene expression, mediated by transcription factors (TFs) functioning to enhance HS tolerance. The involvement of Group I bZIP TFs in the heat stress response (HSR) is not known. In this study, bZIP18 and bZIP52 were investigated for their possible role in the HSR. Localization experiments revealed their nuclear accumulation following heat stress, which was found to be triggered by dephosphorylation. Both TFs were found to possess two motifs containing serine residues that are candidates for phosphorylation. These motifs are recognized by 14–3–3 proteins, and bZIP18 and bZIP52 were found to bind 14–3–3 e, the interaction of which sequesters them to the cytoplasm. Mutation of both residues abolished 14–3–3 e interaction and led to a strict nuclear localization for both TFs. RNA-seq analysis revealed coordinated downregulation of several metabolic pathways including energy metabolism and translation, and upregulation of numerous lncRNAs in particular. These results support the idea that bZIP18 and bZIP52 are sequestered to the cytoplasm under control conditions, and that heat stress leads to their re-localization to nuclei, where they jointly regulate gene expression.

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Topics: Abiotic stress (53%), Transcription factor (51%)

3 Citations


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279 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVEXPBOT.2005.12.006
Muhammad Ashraf1, Majid R. Foolad2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Glycine betaine (GB) and proline are two major organic osmolytes that accumulate in a variety of plant species in response to environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, extreme temperatures, UV radiation and heavy metals. Although their actual roles in plant osmotolerance remain controversial, both compounds are thought to have positive effects on enzyme and membrane integrity along with adaptive roles in mediating osmotic adjustment in plants grown under stress conditions. While many studies have indicated a positive relationship between accumulation of GB and proline and plant stress tolerance, some have argued that the increase in their concentrations under stress is a product of, and not an adaptive response to stress. In this article, we review and discuss the evidence supporting each of these arguments. As not all plant species are capable of natural production or accumulation of these compounds in response to stress, extensive research has been conducted examining various approaches to introduce them into plants. Genetically-engineered plants containing transgenes for production of GB or proline have thus far faced with the limitation of being unable to produce sufficient amounts of these compounds to ameliorate stress effects. An alternative “shot-gun” approach of exogenous application of GB or proline to plants under stress conditions, however, has gained some attention. A review of the literature indicates that in many, but not all, plant species such applications lead to significant increases in growth and final crop yield under environmental stresses. In this review article, numerous examples of successful application of these compounds to improve plant stress tolerance are presented. However, to streamline useful and economic applications of these compounds, further investigations are needed to determine the most effective concentrations and number of applications as well as the most responsive growth stage(s) of the plant. All these factors may vary from species to species. Furthermore, a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of exogenously applied GB and proline is expected to aid their effective utilization in crop production in stress environments.

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Topics: Abiotic stress (54%), Osmoprotectant (51%), Osmolyte (51%)

3,312 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE03972
Philippe Ciais, Markus Reichstein1, Nicolas Viovy, A. Granier  +29 moreInstitutions (5)
22 Sep 2005-Nature
Abstract: Future climate warming is expected to enhance plant growth in temperate ecosystems and to increase carbon sequestration. But although severe regional heatwaves may become more frequent in a changing climate their impact on terrestrial carbon cycling is unclear. Here we report measurements of ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes, remotely sensed radiation absorbed by plants, and country-level crop yields taken during the European heatwave in 2003.We use a terrestrial biosphere simulation model to assess continental-scale changes in primary productivity during 2003, and their consequences for the net carbon balance. We estimate a 30 per cent reduction in gross primary productivity over Europe, which resulted in a strong anomalous net source of carbon dioxide (0.5 Pg Cyr21) to the atmosphere and reversed the effect of four years of net ecosystem carbon sequestration. Our results suggest that productivity reduction in eastern and western Europe can be explained by rainfall deficit and extreme summer heat, respectively. We also find that ecosystem respiration decreased together with gross primary productivity, rather than accelerating with the temperature rise. Model results, corroborated by historical records of crop yields, suggest that such a reduction in Europe's primary productivity is unprecedented during the last century. An increase in future drought events could turn temperate ecosystems into carbon sources, contributing to positive carbon-climate feedbacks already anticipated in the tropics and at high latitudes.

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Topics: Carbon sequestration (59%), Ecosystem respiration (58%), Productivity (ecology) (55%) ... show more

2,978 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1051/AGRO:2008021
Muhammad Farooq1, Muhammad Farooq2, Abdul Wahid1, Nobuya Kobayashi2  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Scarcity of water is a severe environmental constraint to plant productivity. Drought-induced loss in crop yield probably exceeds losses from all other causes, since both the severity and duration of the stress are critical. Here, we have reviewed the effects of drought stress on the growth, phenology, water and nutrient relations, photosynthesis, assimilate partitioning, and respiration in plants. This article also describes the mechanism of drought resistance in plants on a morphological, physiological and molecular basis. Various management strategies have been proposed to cope with drought stress. Drought stress reduces leaf size, stem extension and root proliferation, disturbs plant water relations and reduces water-use efficiency. Plants display a variety of physiological and biochemical responses at cellular and whole-organism levels towards prevailing drought stress, thus making it a complex phenomenon. CO2 assimilation by leaves is reduced mainly by stomatal closure, membrane damage and disturbed activity of various enzymes, especially those of CO2 fixation and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Enhanced metabolite flux through the photorespiratory pathway increases the oxidative load on the tissues as both processes generate reactive oxygen species. Injury caused by reactive oxygen species to biological macromolecules under drought stress is among the major deterrents to growth. Plants display a range of mechanisms to withstand drought stress. The major mechanisms include curtailed water loss by increased diffusive resistance, enhanced water uptake with prolific and deep root systems and its efficient use, and smaller and succulent leaves to reduce the transpirational loss. Among the nutrients, potassium ions help in osmotic adjustment; silicon increases root endodermal silicification and improves the cell water balance. Low-molecular-weight osmolytes, including glycinebetaine, proline and other amino acids, organic acids, and polyols, are crucial to sustain cellular functions under drought. Plant growth substances such as salicylic acid, auxins, gibberrellins, cytokinin and abscisic acid modulate the plant responses towards drought. Polyamines, citrulline and several enzymes act as antioxidants and reduce the adverse effects of water deficit. At molecular levels several drought-responsive genes and transcription factors have been identified, such as the dehydration-responsive element-binding gene, aquaporin, late embryogenesis abundant proteins and dehydrins. Plant drought tolerance can be managed by adopting strategies such as mass screening and breeding, marker-assisted selection and exogenous application of hormones and osmoprotectants to seed or growing plants, as well as engineering for drought resistance.

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Topics: Drought tolerance (65%), Plant protein (55%), Osmoprotectant (54%) ... show more

2,791 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1204531
29 Jul 2011-Science
Abstract: Efforts to anticipate how climate change will affect future food availability can benefit from understanding the impacts of changes to date. We found that in the cropping regions and growing seasons of most countries, with the important exception of the United States, temperature trends from 1980 to 2008 exceeded one standard deviation of historic year-to-year variability. Models that link yields of the four largest commodity crops to weather indicate that global maize and wheat production declined by 3.8 and 5.5%, respectively, relative to a counterfactual without climate trends. For soybeans and rice, winners and losers largely balanced out. Climate trends were large enough in some countries to offset a significant portion of the increases in average yields that arose from technology, carbon dioxide fertilization, and other factors.

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Topics: Climate change (55%)

2,633 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVEXPBOT.2007.05.011
Abstract: Heat stress due to increased temperature is an agricultural problem in many areas in the world. Transitory or constantly high temperatures cause an array of morpho-anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes in plants, which affect plant growth and development and may lead to a drastic reduction in economic yield. The adverse effects of heat stress can be mitigated by developing crop plants with improved thermotolerance using various genetic approaches. For this purpose, however, a thorough understanding of physiological responses of plants to high temperature, mechanisms of heat tolerance and possible strategies for improving crop thermotolerance is imperative. Heat stress affects plant growth throughout its ontogeny, though heat-threshold level varies considerably at different developmental stages. For instance, during seed germination, high temperature may slow down or totally inhibit germination, depending on plant species and the intensity of the stress. At later stages, high temperature may adversely affect photosynthesis, respiration, water relations and membrane stability, and also modulate levels of hormones and primary and secondary metabolites. Furthermore, throughout plant ontogeny, enhanced expression of a variety of heat shock proteins, other stress-related proteins, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) constitute major plant responses to heat stress. In order to cope with heat stress, plants implement various mechanisms, including maintenance of membrane stability, scavenging of ROS, production of antioxidants, accumulation and adjustment of compatible solutes, induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) cascades, and, most importantly, chaperone signaling and transcriptional activation. All these mechanisms, which are regulated at the molecular level, enable plants to thrive under heat stress. Based on a complete understanding of such mechanisms, potential genetic strategies to improve plant heat-stress tolerance include traditional and contemporary molecular breeding protocols and transgenic approaches. While there are a few examples of plants with improved heat tolerance through the use of traditional breeding protocols, the success of genetic transformation approach has been thus far limited. The latter is due to limited knowledge and availability of genes with known effects on plant heat-stress tolerance, though these may not be insurmountable in future. In addition to genetic approaches, crop heat tolerance can be enhanced by preconditioning of plants under different environmental stresses or exogenous application of osmoprotectants such as glycinebetaine and proline. Acquiring thermotolerance is an active process by which considerable amounts of plant resources are diverted to structural and functional maintenance to escape damages caused by heat stress. Although biochemical and molecular aspects of thermotolerance in plants are relatively well understood, further studies focused on phenotypic flexibility and assimilate partitioning under heat stress and factors modulating crop heat tolerance are imperative. Such studies combined with genetic approaches to identify and map genes (or QTLs) conferring thermotolerance will not only facilitate marker-assisted breeding for heat tolerance but also pave the way for cloning and characterization of underlying genetic factors which could be useful for engineering plants with improved heat tolerance.

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Topics: Heat shock protein (51%)

2,513 Citations


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