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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1089/DIA.2020.0656

Impact of COVID-19 on Health Economics and Technology of Diabetes Care: Use Cases of Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring to Transform Health Care During a Global Pandemic.

02 Mar 2021-Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor New Rochelle, NY 10801 USA)-Vol. 23
Abstract: Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed vulnerabilities and placed tremendous financial pressure on nearly all aspects of the U.S. health care system. Diabetes care is an example of the confluence of the pandemic and heightened importance of technology in changing care delivery. It has been estimated the added total direct U.S. medical cost burden due to COVID-19 to range between $160B (20% of the population infected) and $650B (80% of the population infected) over the course of the pandemic. The corresponding range for the population with diabetes is between $16B and $65B, representing between 5% and 20% of overall diabetes expenditure in the United States. We examine the evidence to support allocating part of this added spend to infrastructure capabilities to accelerate remote monitoring and management of diabetes. Methods and Results: We reviewed recent topical literature and COVID-19-related analyses in the public health, health technology, and health economics fields in addition to databases and surveys from government sources and the private sector. We summarized findings on use cases for real-time continuous glucose monitoring in the community, for telehealth, and in the hospital setting to highlight the successes and challenges of accelerating the adoption of a digital technology out of necessity during the pandemic and beyond. Conclusions: One critical and lasting consequence of the pandemic will be the accelerated adoption of digital technology in health care delivery. We conclude by discussing ways in which the changes wrought by COVID-19 from a health care, policy, and economics perspective can add value and are likely to endure postpandemic.

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Topics: Health care (64%), Health economics (57%), Public health (57%) ... show more
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1089/DIA.2020.0649
Abstract: Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted the lives of people with diabetes. Use of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM) helped manage diabetes effectively. Some of these disruptions may be reflected in population-scale changes to metrics of glycemic control, such as time-in-range (TIR). Methods: We examined data from 65,067 U.S.-based users of the G6 rtCGM System (Dexcom, Inc., San Diego, CA) who had uploaded data before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Users associated with three counties that included the cities of Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York or with five regions designated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were compared. Public data were used to associate regions with prepandemic and intrapandemic glycemic parameters, COVID-19 mortality, and median household income. Results: Compared with an 8-week prepandemic interval before stay-at-home orders (January 6, 2020, to March 1, 2020), overall mean (standard deviation) TIR improved from 59.0 (20.1)% to 61.0 (20.4)% during the early pandemic period (April 20, 2020 to June 14, 2020, P < 0.001). TIR improvements were noted in all three counties and in all five CDC-designated regions. Higher COVID-19 mortality was associated with higher proportions of individuals experiencing TIR improvements of ≥5 percentage points. Users in economically wealthier zip codes had higher pre- and intrapandemic TIR values and greater relative improvements in TIR. TIR and pandemic-related improvements in TIR varied across CDC-designated regions. Conclusions: Population-level rtCGM data may be used to monitor changes in glycemic control with temporal and geographic specificity. The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with improvements in TIR, which were not evenly distributed across the United States.

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9 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1590/1980-220X-REEUSP-2021-0295
Abstract: Objective To map evidence on the use of digital technologies in the care of people with diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method This is a scoping review, based on the JBI manual, which included scientific articles and gray literature from nine primary and seven secondary databases. Articles were independently assessed by two reviewers. Rayyan® was used to select the studies. The description of study characterization is presented in a table and tables, ending in a narrative synthesis. Results A total of 1,964 studies were identified and, after selection, 23 publications remained for analysis. It turned out that telemedicine was used in all studies and remote consultation support technologies included continuous glucose monitoring devices, glucose data analysis software, insulin delivery systems, applications, audio and/or voice communication devices, which facilitated remote diabetes mellitus monitoring and management. Conclusion Telehealth, monitoring technologies, insulin delivery systems and communication devices were tools used to monitor patients with diabetes during the pandemic.

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Topics: Telehealth (55%), Telemedicine (53%), Remote Consultation (50%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/19322968211052081
Abstract: Background Does initiation of a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) or insulin pump lower health care utilization and/or costs? Methods Distinct cohorts of people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) using a blood glucose monitor (BGM), CGM, pump, or CGM with pump were identified from a large claims database. Patients ≥40 years old with 12 months of continuous enrollment before and after the device start date qualified for the study. Outcomes included one-year medical utilization and costs (minus device) for events such as hospitalizations and office visits. Generalized linear models were fitted, controlling for numerous baseline covariates. The Holm method corrected for the multiplicity of hypotheses tested. Results Of the 8235 total patients, the BGM control group was the largest, had the lowest percentage of patients with T1D, and was significantly different from the device groups in most baseline categories. Formally, only two comparisons were statistically significant: Compared with BGM, the pump cohort had greater adjusted first-year total medical and office visit costs. Other secondary outcomes such as days hospitalized, emergency department visits and labs, favored pump. Most endpoints were favorable for CGM. Results for CGM with pump generally were intermediate between CGM and pump alone. Conclusions During a one-year follow-up, unadjusted medical costs of both CGM and pump appear lower than BGM, but multivariable modeling yielded adjusted savings only for CGM use. Economic benefits might be observable sooner for CGMs than for pumps. Generalized linear models fitted to health care utilization event rates produced favorable results for both CGM and pump.

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Topics: Insulin pump (55%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11213-021-09579-4
Abstract: This study aims to analyze institutional divergence of Beckert (2010) by measuring the reframing of three constitutive principles of Digital Weberian Bureaucracy (DWB). In contrast to the studies by Gaus et al. (2017), Sofyani et al. (2018), Muellerleile and Robertson (2018), Turner et al. (2019), and Meilani and Hardjosoekarto (2020), this study explores normative and mimetic mechanisms resulting in the mixed pattern of public administration (Traditional Public Administration (TPA), New Public Management (NPM), and Post NPM), focusing on the transformation of Digital Era Governance (DEG). Employing Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) by Reynolds and Holwell (2010), combined with Text Network Analysis (TNA) by Segev (2020) and Social Network Analysis (SNA) by Borgatti et al. (2014), this study shows the micro dynamics of relationships between actors, the meso dynamics of organizations, and the absence of regulations at the macro level, all of which lead to institutional divergence in the form of fully hybrid governance (as proposed by De Waele et al. (2015)) that is also caused by normative and mimetic mechanisms. Complementing the study of DWB, this study suggests that computer literacy and programming languages are essential to be improved by future bureaucrats as social actors to achieve the success of digital transformation. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11213-021-09579-4.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1089/DIA.2021.0271
Satish K. Garg1Institutions (1)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3
Fei Zhou1, Ting Yu, Ronghui Du, Guohui Fan2  +16 moreInstitutions (5)
28 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.

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Topics: Cohort study (56%), Retrospective cohort study (56%), Odds ratio (53%) ... show more

15,279 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2337/DIACARE.26.3.917
01 Mar 2003-Diabetes Care
Abstract: Objective Diabetes is the fifth leading cause of death by disease in the U.S. Diabetes also contributes to higher rates of morbidity-people with diabetes are at higher risk for heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, extremity amputations, and other chronic conditions. The objectives of this study were 1). to estimate the direct medical and indirect productivity-related costs attributable to diabetes and 2). to calculate and compare the total and per capita medical expenditures for people with and without diabetes. Research design and methods Medical expenditures were estimated for the U.S. population with and without diabetes in 2002 by sex, age, race/ethnicity, type of medical condition, and health care setting. Health care use and total health care expenditures attributable to diabetes were estimated using etiological fractions, calculated based on national health care survey data. The value of lost productivity attributable to diabetes was also estimated based on estimates of lost workdays, restricted activity days, prevalence of permanent disability, and mortality attributable to diabetes. RESULTS-Direct medical and indirect expenditures attributable to diabetes in 2002 were estimated at 132 billion US dollars. Direct medical expenditures alone totaled 91.8 billion US dollars and comprised 23.2 billion US dollars for diabetes care, 24.6 billion US dollars for chronic complications attributable to diabetes, and 44.1 billion US dollars for excess prevalence of general medical conditions. Inpatient days (43.9%), nursing home care (15.1%), and office visits (10.9%) constituted the major expenditure groups by service settings. In addition, 51.8% of direct medical expenditures were incurred by people >65 years old. Attributable indirect expenditures resulting from lost workdays, restricted activity days, mortality, and permanent disability due to diabetes totaled 39.8 billion US dollars. U.S. health expenditures for the health care components included in the study totaled 865 billion US dollars, of which 160 billion US dollars was incurred by people with diabetes. Per capita medical expenditures totaled 13243 US dollars for people with diabetes and 2560 US dollars for people without diabetes. When adjusting for differences in age, sex, and race/ethnicity between the population with and without diabetes, people with diabetes had medical expenditures that were approximately 2.4 times higher than expenditures that would be incurred by the same group in the absence of diabetes. Conclusions The estimated 132 billion US dollars cost likely underestimates the true burden of diabetes because it omits intangibles, such as pain and suffering, care provided by nonpaid caregivers, and several areas of health care spending where people with diabetes probably use services at higher rates than people without diabetes (e.g., dental care, optometry care, and the use of licensed dietitians). In addition, the cost estimate excludes undiagnosed cases of diabetes. Health care spending in 2002 for people with diabetes is more than double what spending would be without diabetes. Diabetes imposes a substantial cost burden to society and, in particular, to those individuals with diabetes and their families. Eliminating or reducing the health problems caused by diabetes through factors such as better access to preventive care, more widespread diagnosis, more intensive disease management, and the advent of new medical technologies could significantly improve the quality of life for people with diabetes and their families while at the same time potentially reducing national expenditures for health care services and increasing productivity in the U.S. economy.

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Topics: Health care (55%), Population (53%), Disease management (health) (50%)

3,992 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJSU.2020.04.018
Maria Nicola1, Zaid Alsafi2, Catrin Sohrabi3, Ahmed Kerwan4  +4 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in over 4.3 million confirmed cases and over 290,000 deaths globally. It has also sparked fears of an impending economic crisis and recession. Social distancing, self-isolation and travel restrictions have lead to a reduced workforce across all economic sectors and caused many jobs to be lost. Schools have closed down, and the need for commodities and manufactured products has decreased. In contrast, the need for medical supplies has significantly increased. The food sector is also facing increased demand due to panic-buying and stockpiling of food products. In response to this global outbreak, we summarise the socio-economic effects of COVID-19 on individual aspects of the world economy.

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Topics: Economic sector (53%), Recession (52%), Economic impact analysis (51%)

2,236 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CMET.2020.04.021
Lihua Zhu1, Zhi-Gang She1, Xu Cheng1, Juan Juan Qin1  +40 moreInstitutions (7)
02 Jun 2020-Cell Metabolism
Abstract: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major comorbidity of COVID-19. However, the impact of blood glucose (BG) control on the degree of required medical interventions and on mortality in patients with COVID-19 and T2D remains uncertain. Thus, we performed a retrospective, multi-centered study of 7,337 cases of COVID-19 in Hubei Province, China, among which 952 had pre-existing T2D. We found that subjects with T2D required more medical interventions and had a significantly higher mortality (7.8% versus 2.7%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49) and multiple organ injury than the non-diabetic individuals. Further, we found that well-controlled BG (glycemic variability within 3.9 to 10.0 mmol/L) was associated with markedly lower mortality compared to individuals with poorly controlled BG (upper limit of glycemic variability exceeding 10.0 mmol/L) (adjusted HR, 0.14) during hospitalization. These findings provide clinical evidence correlating improved glycemic control with better outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D.

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Topics: Glycemic (61%), Type 2 diabetes (53%), Hazard ratio (52%) ... show more

734 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/DMRR.3319
Weina Guo1, Mingyue Li1, Yalan Dong1, Haifeng Zhou1  +10 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Backgound To figure out whether diabetes is a risk factor influencing the progression and prognosis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods A total of 174 consecutive patients confirmed with COVID-19 were studied. Demographic data, medical history, symptoms and signs, laboratory findings, chest computed tomography (CT) as well the treatment measures were collected and analysed. Results We found that COVID-19 patients without other comorbidities but with diabetes (n = 24) were at higher risk of severe pneumonia, release of tissue injury-related enzymes, excessive uncontrolled inflammation responses and hypercoagulable state associated with dysregulation of glucose metabolism. Furthermore, serum levels of inflammation-related biomarkers such as IL-6, C-reactive protein, serum ferritin and coagulation index, D-dimer, were significantly higher (P Conclusions Our data support the notion that diabetes should be considered as a risk factor for a rapid progression and bad prognosis of COVID-19. More intensive attention should be paid to patients with diabetes, in case of rapid deterioration.

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Topics: Risk factor (58%), Diabetes mellitus (54%), Medical history (51%)

729 Citations


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