scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Measuring humane orientation of organizations through social exchange and organizational identification facilitation and control of burnout and intent to quit

01 Mar 2012-International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior (Emerald Publishing Limited)-Vol. 15, Iss: 4, pp 520-547

AbstractThe paper explores the relationship of humane orientation of organizations with members' reactions to such treatment by the organization. Orientation of mangers to form good relationships with subordinates has been reflected through subordinatesa’ perception of quality of leader-member exchange (LMX) and it was expected to predict members’ reaction through feeling of exhaustion (burnout). The roles of humane orientation of organizational support measured through perceived organizational support (POS) by subordinates and organizational identification (OID) as possible explicators of the relationship between LMX quality and organizational burnout have also been explored. We conducted three step hierarchical linear regressions on a sample involving data at two time waves. As expected, all the hypotheses were supported. A major contribution of the research to academic literature is the corroboration of directionality of some of the relationship through two time wave design. Also, burnout in this research has been measured at an organizational level and the results were in line with burnout measured at the job level in some earlier studies on burnout.

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

1
IIMK/WPS/111/ OB&HR /2012/14
Measuring humane orientation of organizations
through social exchange and organizational
identification facilitation and control of
burnout and intent to quit
Manish Kumar
1
Shailendra Singh
2
Himanshu Rai
3
Abhijit Bhattacharya
4
1
Visiting Assistant Professor, Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode, IIMK Campus PO,
Kozhikode– 673570, email: manish@iimk.ac.in
2
Professor, HRM area, Indian Institute of Management Lucknow, email: shail@iiml.ac.in
3
Associate Professor, HRM area, Indian Institute of Management Lucknow, email:
himanshu@iiml.ac.in
4
Professor, Decision Sciences Group, Indian Institute of Management Lucknow, email:
abhijit@iiml.ac.in

2
Measuring Humane Orientation of Organizations through Social
Exchange and Organizational Identification Facilitation
and Control of Burnout and Intent to Quit
The paper explores relationship of humane orientation of organizations with
members’ reactions to such treatment by the organization. Orientation of
mangers to form good relationship with subordinates has been reflected through
subordinates perception of quality of leader-member exchange (LMX) and it
was expected to predict members’ reaction through feeling of exhaustion
(burnout). Role of humane orientation of organizational support measured
through perceived organizational support (POS) by subordinates and
organizational identification (OID) as possible explicators of the relationship
between LMX quality and organizational burnout have also been explored. In
addition, the relationship of OID and POS with yet another reaction of
members’ to treatment of organizations through their intent to quit (termed as
“turnover intention” in this study) has been explored. Organizational burnout
has been considered as explicator of the two relationships.
We conducted three step hierarchical linear regressions on a sample involving
data at two time waves. Items on quality of LMX, POS and OID were answered
in first wave by participants while those on TI and organizational burnout were
answered by same participants in second wave. A total of 192 usable responses
were obtained for all items. The analysis was done with SPSS 16.0.
As expected, all the hypotheses were supported. A major contribution of the
research to academic literature is the corroboration of directionality of some of
the relationship through two time wave design. Also, burnout in this research
has been measured at organizational level and the results were in line with
burnout measured at job level in some of the earlier studies on burnout. It is
hoped that managers will pay increased attention to humane practices as
benefits of the same have been supported through this study.
Keywords: Quality of Leader-Member Exchange, Organizational Identification,
Perceived Organizational Support, Turnover Intention, Organizational Burnout.
INTRODUCTION
The paper explores relevance of humane orientation of organizations.
Contemporary organizational behavior variables have been explored to test the effect of
such practices on some of the variables which organizations consider as important.
Specifically the study tests the linkage among social exchange theory, social identity
theory, and literature on burnout and intent to quit. For example, recognizing the
importance of relationships in organizations, academic scholars have stressed on
importance of finding out how it associates with important outcomes (Dutton & Ragins,
2007; Gersick, Bartunek, & Dutton, 2000). Particularly, social exchange research has

3
established importance of quality of leader-member exchange (LMX) for organizational
outcomes but research on ‘how’ aspects of the association are still lacking (Ilies,
Nahrgang, & Morgeson, 2007). We would therefore test the relationship of aspects of
good relationship between leader and member as manifestation of humane gesture of
managers as agents of the organization on members’ experiencing exhaustion (burnout)
and therefore thinking of quitting the organization. Role of additional measure of
humane orientation, i.e., how much supporting the organization is perceived to be; as
members perceived organizational support (POS) and how much the members feels a
sense of oneness with the organization; as members organizational identification (OID)
will also be explored.
We hypothesize that LMX quality will lead to burnout and the relationship will
be mediated by OID. In relationships marked by high LMX quality, the increased
support by the supervisor may help reduce uncertainty and ambiguity of the subordinate
(Harris & Kacmar, 2006). Those in a low-LMX relationship with their supervisor may
see it as an additional role stressor (Erdogan & Liden, 2002). Social identity theory
emphasizes that individuals self-categorize in order to reduce uncertainty, as
uncertainty reduction, specifically about matters of value that are self conceptually
relevant, is a core human motivation (Hogg & Terry, 2000).
In addition, OID is likely to predict turnover intention (TI) and the relationship
is likely to be mediated by burnout. Identification leads to development of a sense of
being a part of something, as one’s self-definition relates to membership in a particular
firm (Ashforth, Harrison, & Corley, 2008; Ashforth & Mael, 1989; Dutton, Dukerich, &
Harquail, 1994). One is therefore less likely to consider work as a burden and hence
have less of TI. Individual employees who feel a match between own and
organizational values are likely to have higher sense of oneness with the organization
(Edwards & Cable, 2009). Individuals with higher identification are likely to experience
less emotional dissonance and therefore less of strain and burnout. A burnt-out
individual on the other hand is more likely to turnover as a reaction to be able to
conserve her energy (see Mishra & Bhatnagar, 2010).
By virtue of their position, the supervisors play an important role in helping
employees to deal with work-related stress by providing them with emotional support
(e.g., Rego, Sousa, Cunha, Correia & Saur-Amaral 2007). The employees therefore are
not only likely to have less motivation and effectiveness but they are likely to react to

4
the higher job stress by feeling burnt-out; a common reaction to job stress (Ciftcioglu,
2011). POS therefore is likely to mediate the relationship between LMX and burnout.
Also, support makes threatening events less frequent as a supporting environment is
synonymous with a caring workplace. Organizational support therefore indicates a
secure, positive environment (Shore & Shore, 1995). Maslach, Jackson, and Leiter
(1996) hypothesized that the presence of job demands such as work overload and
personal conflicts and the absence of specific job resources such as social support,
autonomy, and decision involvement predicts burnout, which in its turn will lead to
various negative outcomes including turnover. Burnout therefore will mediate the
relationship between POS and TI.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Quality of Leader-Member Exchange
Leader-member exchange theory stipulates that as a leader may not be able to
make contact with all the followers, he/she tries to satisfice by forming a special
relationship with a small set of followers (Gerstner & Day, 1997). This however is
likely to results in two groups of followers; one consisting of members who are part of
inner circle of the leader or in-group members and the other consisting of members for
whom the relationship with the leader is restricted to formal or superficial relationships,
i.e., out-group members. The in-group includes a small number of followers whom the
leader trusts and with whom he/she has better exchange relationship (Liden & Graen,
1980).
Quality of leader-member exchange has been found to be positively related to
follower’s satisfaction, organizational commitment, role clarity, work group
cohesiveness, organizational climate, leader power, performance ratings given by
leaders, and objective performance, and negatively related to role conflict and turnover
intentions (Bauer & Green, 1996; Cogliser & Schriesheim, 2000; Deluga, 1998;
Gerstner & Day, 1997; Schriesheim, Castro, & Cogliser, 1999). Overall, a high-quality
relationship with one’s leader can have a positive effect on performance and affective
outcomes (Gerstner & Day, 1997). Please refer to Dulebohn et al. (2011) for a recent
meta-analysis of antecedents and consequences of LMX.

5
Perceived Organizational Support
Employees develop general beliefs regarding the extent to which the
organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being. The motive for
the same is to determine the organization’s willingness to reward increased work effort
and to facilitate fulfillment of socio-emotional needs of members (Eisenberger,
Huntington, Hutchison, & Sowa, 1986; Shore & Shore, 1995). POS is also valued as
assurance that help will be available from the organization to do one’s job effectively
and to face stressful situations (see Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002). Since its
introduction more than two decades ago, perceived organizational support (POS) has
become a central construct in the organizational literature (Rhoades and Eisenerger,
2002).
POS has been found to be related to attitudinal variables like commitment
(e.g., Chew and Wong, 2008) particularly affective commitment (e.g., Rhoades,
Eisenberger, & Armeli, 2001), continuance commitment (e.g., Shore & Tetrick, 1991),
job satisfaction (e.g., Duke et al., 2009); organizational characteristics such as leader-
member exchange (e.g., Wayne, Shore, & Liden, 1997), procedural justice (e.g.,
Andrews & Kacmar, 2001) and supervisor support (e.g., Malatesta, 1995), behavior
such as citizenship behaviors ( e.g., Chen et al., 2009) and turnover intention (see
meta-analysis by Rhoades and Eisenerger, 2002) . Organizational practices such as
participation in decision-making, fairness of rewards (Allen et al., 2003), developmental
experiences and promotions (Wayne et al., 1997), autonomy (Eisenberger et al.,
1999), job security (Rhoades and Eisenerger, 2002) and other variables are
increasingly being empirically related with POS.
Organizational Identification
Organizational identification concerns the perception of belongingness to or
“oneness” with an organization, of which the person is a member (Ashforth & Mael,
1989). OID has been found to be positively associated with performance and
organizational citizenship behaviors and negatively related to turnover (Bhattacharya,
Rao, & Glynn, 1995; Kreiner & Ashforth, 2004; Mael & Ashforth, 1995; van
Knippenberg, 2000). It has also been argued to foster a sense of meaning and belonging
at work and positively affect employees’ job attitudes and perceptions of their work
environment (Ashforth, 2001; Kreiner & Ashforth, 2004). On the organizational level,



Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Stress has been implicated as an important determinant of leadership functioning. Conversely, the behavior of leaders has long been argued to be a major factor in determining the stress levels of followers. Yet despite the widespread acknowledgement that stress and leadership are linked, there has been no systematic attempt to organize and summarize these literatures. In the present, we meta-analytically review the relationship between three leadership constructs (transformational leadership, leader-member exchange, and abusive supervision) and stress and burnout. Our analyses confirm that leader stress influences leader behavior and that leadership behaviors and leader-follower relationships are significant determinants of stress and burnout in subordinates. We build on these results to suggest new avenues for research in this domain as well as discussing how these results can inform practice with regards to leader development.

150 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Purpose – In today’s scenario when loyalty can no longer be demanded from employees, the extent of organizational identification (OID) of employees predicts outcomes of organizational interest. It is therefore essential for organizations to foster the sense of oneness in employees. Since, need satisfaction lies at the core of human motivation, the purpose of this paper is to test if satisfaction of learning, performance, and relatedness needs at workplace could influence employees’ identification with the organization. Design/methodology/approach – For this study, the authors collected data from 365 professionals representing diverse work backgrounds and analysed it using structural equation modelling approach. Findings – Results suggest that OID is positively influenced by satisfaction of these three needs and about 45 per cent of its variance is explained by these needs. Originality/value – The study corroborates the relevance of the three needs in organizational context. Although not a part of design o...

17 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: To contribute to the management of blended call centers, researchers explored the moderating effects of personality traits and organizational identification on the turnover intention of inbound and outbound agents in a Canadian call center. The results reveal that the level of organizational identification among inbound agents is lower than it is among outbound agents. Contrary to previous research, however, turnover intention among inbound employees was found to be lower than that among outbound employees. The results also illustrate that openness to experience, which serves to reduce turnover intention, is a trait common to both types of call center agents. The finding that two personality traits—conscientiousness and emotional stability—have a positive impact on organizational identification for both inbound and outbound call center agents can be used to improve recruitment selection processes at call centers of all types.

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Leader-member exchange (LMX) pertains to the exchange relationship between supervisors and subordinates. While prior results validated LMX’s critical role in the workplace, less is known about “what has been input and exchanged” to cultivate this dyadic relationship. In this study, a resource framework based on conservation of resources theory (COR) was developed as an alternative theoretical perspective in investigating relationships between LMX and its correlates. Three groups of resources which has incorporated newly studied and existing correlates of LMX and existing constructs that could not be easily fitted into other theoretical frameworks were argued as antecedents to LMX. COR theory highlights the important role of LMX in transforming instrumental resources into favorable outcomes. The model also incorporates two types of LMX consequences: employee competitiveness and organizational enhancements. The findings contribute to the LMX literature by identifying the types of resources that are valuable in cultivating a high-quality LMX relationship, which in turn relates to the competitiveness of employees and their contribution that can enhance organizational effectiveness. Overall, the study findings indicate that LMX is significantly related to various antecedents and outcomes. Implications for theory development and directions for future research are also discussed.

6 citations

01 Jan 2015
Abstract: Job burnout represents a serious contemporary problem. Social support from the supervisor may have the potential to attenuate the effects of burnout. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the sales manager support on the perceived level of all facets of burnout. The study findings suggest that positive manager support negatively influences the perceived levels of emotional exhaustion and personal non-accomplishment and has no influence on the depersonalization components of burnout. The highlighted relationships can help sales managers in their attempts to reduce burnout among their salespeople by providing them more social support. The results may also encourage organizations and policy makers to provide resources and take actions focused on enhancing manager supportive skills in order to reduce the negative burnout effects.

1 citations


References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results is examined, potential sources of method biases are identified, the cognitive processes through which method bias influence responses to measures are discussed, the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases is evaluated, and recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and Statistical remedies are provided.
Abstract: Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.

41,990 citations

Book
01 Jan 1975
Abstract: Contents: Preface. Introduction. Bivariate Correlation and Regression. Multiple Regression/Correlation With Two or More Independent Variables. Data Visualization, Exploration, and Assumption Checking: Diagnosing and Solving Regression Problems I. Data-Analytic Strategies Using Multiple Regression/Correlation. Quantitative Scales, Curvilinear Relationships, and Transformations. Interactions Among Continuous Variables. Categorical or Nominal Independent Variables. Interactions With Categorical Variables. Outliers and Multicollinearity: Diagnosing and Solving Regression Problems II. Missing Data. Multiple Regression/Correlation and Causal Models. Alternative Regression Models: Logistic, Poisson Regression, and the Generalized Linear Model. Random Coefficient Regression and Multilevel Models. Longitudinal Regression Methods. Multiple Dependent Variables: Set Correlation. Appendices: The Mathematical Basis for Multiple Regression/Correlation and Identification of the Inverse Matrix Elements. Determination of the Inverse Matrix and Applications Thereof.

29,559 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: It is argued that (a) social identification is a perception of oneness with a group of persons; (b) social identification stems from the categorization of individuals, the distinctiveness and prestige of the group, the salience of outgroups, and the factors that traditionally are associated with group formation; and (c) social identification leads to activities that are congruent with the identity, support for institutions that embody the identity, stereotypical perceptions of self and others, and outcomes that traditionally are associated with group formation, and it reinforces the antecedents of identification. This perspective is applied to organizational socialization, role conflict, and intergroup relations.

7,641 citations


"Measuring humane orientation of org..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Organizational Identification Organizational identification concerns the perception of belongingness to or “oneness” with an organization, of which the person is a member (Ashforth & Mael, 1989)....

    [...]

  • ...Organizational Identification as a Mediator between LMX Quality and Burnout Social identity theory (Ashforth & Mael, 1989) looks at the degree to which people define themselves in terms of their membership of a collective, and how their feelings of self-worth are reflected in the status of the…...

    [...]

  • ...Identification leads to development of a sense of being a part of something, as one’s self-definition relates to membership in a particular firm (Ashforth, Harrison, & Corley, 2008; Ashforth & Mael, 1989; Dutton, Dukerich, & Harquail, 1994)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results confirmed the 2-factor structure (exhaustion and disengagement) of a new burnout instrument--the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory--and suggested that this structure is essentially invariant across occupational groups.
Abstract: The job demands-resources (JD-R) model proposes that working conditions can be categorized into 2 broad categories, job demands and job resources. that are differentially related to specific outcomes. A series of LISREL analyses using self-reports as well as observer ratings of the working conditions provided strong evidence for the JD-R model: Job demands are primarily related to the exhaustion component of burnout, whereas (lack of) job resources are primarily related to disengagement. Highly similar patterns were observed in each of 3 occupational groups: human services, industry, and transport (total N = 374). In addition, results confirmed the 2-factor structure (exhaustion and disengagement) of a new burnout instrument--the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory--and suggested that this structure is essentially invariant across occupational groups.

6,554 citations


"Measuring humane orientation of org..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Demands of the job and lack of job resources have been significantly related to burnout (Bakker, Demerouti, & Verbeke, 2004; Demerouti et al., 2001)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This study focuses on burnout and its positive antipode—engagement. A model is tested in which burnout and engagement have different predictors and different possible consequences. Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously analyze data from four independent occupational samples (total N = 1698). Results confirm the hypothesized model indicating that: (1) burnout and engagement are negatively related, sharing between 10 per cent and 25 per cent of their variances; (2) burnout is mainly predicted by job demands but also by lack of job resources, whereas engagement is exclusively predicted by available job resources; (3) burnout is related to health problems as well as to turnover intention, whereas engagement is related only to the latter; (4) burnout mediates the relationship between job demands and health problems, whereas engagement mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover intention. The fact that burnout and engagement exhibit different patterns of possible causes and consequences implies that different intervention strategies should be used when burnout is to be reduced or engagement is to be enhanced. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

6,084 citations


"Measuring humane orientation of org..." refers background in this paper

  • ...However, their model is limited to serving as a heuristic framework (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004)....

    [...]



Frequently Asked Questions (9)
Q1. What have the authors contributed in "Measuring humane orientation of organizations through social exchange and organizational identification facilitation and control of burnout and intent to quit" ?

In this paper, the authors explored the relevance of humane orientation of organizations and tested the linkage among social exchange theory, social identity theory, and literature on burnout and intent to quit. 

Demographic variables of gender, marital status, educationlevel, and tenure have been considered as control variables for the purpose of this study. 

a high-quality relationship with one’s leader can have a positive effect on performance and affective outcomes (Gerstner & Day, 1997). 

In relationships marked by high LMX quality, the increased support by the supervisor may help reduce uncertainty and ambiguity of the subordinate (Harris & Kacmar, 2006). 

Because the original scale is unidimensional and has high internal reliability, the use of shorter versions does not appear problematic (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002). 

social exchange research hasestablished importance of quality of leader-member exchange (LMX) for organizational outcomes but research on ‘how’ aspects of the association are still lacking (Ilies, Nahrgang, & Morgeson, 2007). 

As the person-organization fit affects one’s experience of the job, it is therefore likely to affect burnout (Siegall & McDonald, 2004). 

Statistics confirmed the significance of mediation analysis for OID mediating relation of LMX quality (z = -2.74, p=.006 for LMX as independent variable) and burnout. 

Activities like induction and training of new personnel involve high costs thereby increasing the relevance of turnover (Siong, Mellor, Moore & Firth, 2006).