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Journal ArticleDOI

Molecular details of ligand selectivity determinants in a promiscuous β-glucan periplasmic binding protein

TL;DR: The identification of the roles these water molecules play in ligand recognition suggests potential mechanisms that can be utilized to adapt a single ligand binding site to recognize multiple distinct ligands in the presence of varying β-glucan oligosaccharides.
Abstract: Background: Members of the periplasmic binding protein (PBP) superfamily utilize a highly conserved inter-domain ligand binding site that adapts to specifically bind a chemically diverse range of ligands. This paradigm of PBP ligand binding specificity was recently altered when the structure of the Thermotoga maritima cellobiose-binding protein (tmCBP) was solved. The tmCBP binding site is bipartite, comprising a canonical solvent-excluded region (subsite one), adjacent to a solvent-filled cavity (subsite two) where specific and semi-specific ligand recognition occur, respectively. Results: A molecular level understanding of binding pocket adaptation mechanisms that simultaneously allow both ligand specificity at subsite one and promiscuity at subsite two has potentially important implications in ligand binding and drug design studies. We sought to investigate the determinants of ligand binding selectivity in tmCBP through biophysical characterization of tmCBP in the presence of varying β-glucan oligosaccharides. Crystal structures show that whilst the amino acids that comprise both the tmCBP subsite one and subsite two binding sites remain fixed in conformation regardless of which ligands are present, the rich hydrogen bonding potential of water molecules may facilitate the ordering and the plasticity of this unique PBP binding site. Conclusions: The identification of the roles these water molecules play in ligand recognition suggests potential mechanisms that can be utilized to adapt a single ligand binding site to recognize multiple distinct ligands.
Citations
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TL;DR: This work model the selectivity of two multiply promiscuous members of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily, namely the phosphonate monoester hydrolases from Burkholderia caryophylli and Rhizobium leguminosarum and suggest that this phenomenon is a generalized feature driving selectivity and promiscuity within this superfamily and can be in turn used for artificial enzyme design.
Abstract: It is becoming widely accepted that catalytic promiscuity, i.e., the ability of a single enzyme to catalyze the turnover of multiple, chemically distinct substrates, plays a key role in the evolution of new enzyme functions. In this context, the members of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily have been extensively studied as model systems in order to understand the phenomenon of enzyme multifunctionality. In the present work, we model the selectivity of two multiply promiscuous members of this superfamily, namely the phosphonate monoester hydrolases from Burkholderia caryophylli and Rhizobium leguminosarum. We have performed extensive simulations of the enzymatic reaction of both wild-type enzymes and several experimentally characterized mutants. Our computational models are in agreement with key experimental observables, such as the observed activities of the wild-type enzymes, qualitative interpretations of experimental pH-rate profiles, and activity trends among several active site mutants. In all cases the substrates of interest bind to the enzyme in similar conformations, with largely unperturbed transition states from their corresponding analogues in aqueous solution. Examination of transition-state geometries and the contribution of individual residues to the calculated activation barriers suggest that the broad promiscuity of these enzymes arises from cooperative electrostatic interactions in the active site, allowing each enzyme to adapt to the electrostatic needs of different substrates. By comparing the structural and electrostatic features of several alkaline phosphatases, we suggest that this phenomenon is a generalized feature driving selectivity and promiscuity within this superfamily and can be in turn used for artificial enzyme design.

51 citations

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TL;DR: Comparing quantitative protein-substrate interactions and dynamical properties of tmMBPs with those of the promiscuous ecMBP and disaccharide selective Thermococcus litoralis MBP provides insights into the features that enable selective binding.
Abstract: The genome of the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima contains three isoforms of maltose binding protein (MBP) that are high-affinity receptors for di-, tri-, and tetrasaccharides. Two of these proteins (tmMBP1 and tmMBP2) share significant sequence identity, approximately 90%, while the third (tmMBP3) shares less than 40% identity. MBP from Escherichia coli (ecMBP) shares 35% sequence identity with the tmMBPs. This subset of MBP isoforms offers an interesting opportunity to investigate the mechanisms underlying the evolution of substrate specificity and affinity profiles in a genome where redundant MBP genes are present. In this study, the X-ray crystal structures of tmMBP1, tmMBP2, and tmMBP3 are reported in the absence and presence of oligosaccharides. tmMBP1 and tmMBP2 have binding pockets that are larger than that of tmMBP3, enabling them to bind to larger substrates, while tmMBP1 and tmMBP2 also undergo substrate-induced hinge bending motions (∼52°) that are larger than that of tmMBP3 (∼35°). Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to compare protein behavior in solution, and computer simulations provided insights into dynamics of these proteins. Comparing quantitative protein-substrate interactions and dynamical properties of tmMBPs with those of the promiscuous ecMBP and disaccharide selective Thermococcus litoralis MBP provides insights into the features that enable selective binding. Collectively, the results provide insights into how the structure and dynamics of tmMBP homologues enable them to differentiate between a myriad of chemical entities while maintaining their common fold.

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

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TL;DR: This work identifies an additional state of the PBP that is also allosterically regulated by the ligand, and minimizes futile ATP hydrolysis in the transporter, a phenomenon in which ATP Hydrolysis is not coupled to metabolite transport.
Abstract: The ligand-induced conformational changes of periplasmic binding proteins (PBP) play a key role in the acquisition of metabolites in ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport systems. This conformational change allows for differential recognition of the ligand occupancy of the PBP by the ABC transporter. This minimizes futile ATP hydrolysis in the transporter, a phenomenon in which ATP hydrolysis is not coupled to metabolite transport. In many systems, the PBP conformational change is insufficient at eliminating futile ATP hydrolysis. Here we identify an additional state of the PBP that is also allosterically regulated by the ligand. Ligand binding to the homodimeric apo PBP leads to a tightening of the interface α-helices so that the hydrogen bonding pattern shifts to that of a 310 helix, in-turn altering the contacts and the dynamics of the protein interface so that the monomer exists in the presence of ligand.

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

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TL;DR: The overall structural feature of the Vibrios CBPs is most similar to the cellobiose-binding orthologue from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima, which provides an opportunity to engineer the substrate specificity of the proteins and to control the uptake of chitinous and cellulosic nutrients in marine bacteria.
Abstract: Periplasmic solute-binding proteins (SBPs) serve as molecular shuttles that assist the transport of small solutes from the outer membrane to the inner membrane of all Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the available crystal structures, SBPs are classified into seven clusters, A–G, and are further divided into subclusters, I V. This minireview is focused on the classification, structure and substrate specificity of a distinct class of SBPs specific for chitooligosaccharides (CBPs). To date, only two structures of CBP homologues, VhCBP and VcCBP, have been reported in the marine Vibrio species, with exposition of their limited function. The Vibrio CBPs are structurally classified as cluster C/subcluster IV SBPs that exclusively recognize β-1,4- or β-1,3-linked linear oligosaccharides. The overall structural feature of the Vibrios CBPs is most similar to the cellobiose-binding orthologue from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. This similarity provides an opportunity to engineer the substrate specificity of the proteins and to control the uptake of chitinous and cellulosic nutrients in marine bacteria.

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

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TL;DR: This study reports, for the first time, four different structural states of the protein βGlyBP, revealing its conformational changes upon ligand binding and suggesting a two-step induced-fit mechanism.
Abstract: Substrate-binding proteins (SBPs), selectively capture ligand(s) and ensure their translocation via its cognate ATP-binding cassette (ABC) import system. SBPs bind their cognate ligand(s) via an induced-fit mechanism known as the "Venus Fly-trap"; however, this mechanism lacks the atomic details of all conformational landscape as the confirmatory evidence(s) in its support. In this study, we delineate the atomic details of an SBP, β-glucosides-binding protein (βGlyBP) from Thermus thermophilus HB8. The protein βGlyBP is multi-specific and binds to different types of β-glucosides varying in their glycosidic linkages viz. β-1,2; β-1,3; β-1,4 and β-1,6 with a degree of polymerization of 2-5 glucosyl units. Structurally, the protein βGlyBP possesses four subdomains (N1, N2, C1 and C2). The unliganded protein βGlyBP remains in an open state, which closes upon binding to sophorose (SOP2), laminari-oligosaccharides (LAMn), cello-oligosaccharides (CELn), and gentiobiose (GEN2). This study reports, for the first time, four different structural states (open-unliganded, partial-open-unliganded, open-liganded and closed-liganded) of the protein βGlyBP, revealing its conformational changes upon ligand binding and suggesting a two-step induced-fit mechanism. Further, results suggest that the conformational changes of N1 and C1 subdomains drive the ligand binding, unlike that of the whole N- and C-terminal domains (NTD and CTD) as known in the "Venus Fly-trap" mechanism. Additionally, profiling of stereo-selection mechanism for α- and β-glucosides reveals that in the ligand-binding site four secondary structural elements (L1, H1, H2 and H3) drive the ligand selection. In summary, results demonstrate that the details of conformational changes and ligand selection are pre-encoded in the SBPs.

1 citations

References
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Book ChapterDOI

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TL;DR: The methods presented in the chapter have been applied to solve a large variety of problems, from inorganic molecules with 5 A unit cell to rotavirus of 700 A diameters crystallized in 700 × 1000 × 1400 A cell.
Abstract: Publisher Summary X-ray data can be collected with zero-, one-, and two-dimensional detectors, zero-dimensional (single counter) being the simplest and two-dimensional the most efficient in terms of measuring diffracted X-rays in all directions. To analyze the single-crystal diffraction data collected with these detectors, several computer programs have been developed. Two-dimensional detectors and related software are now predominantly used to measure and integrate diffraction from single crystals of biological macromolecules. Macromolecular crystallography is an iterative process. To monitor the progress, the HKL package provides two tools: (1) statistics, both weighted (χ2) and unweighted (R-merge), where the Bayesian reasoning and multicomponent error model helps obtain proper error estimates and (2) visualization of the process, which helps an operator to confirm that the process of data reduction, including the resulting statistics, is correct and allows the evaluation of the problems for which there are no good statistical criteria. Visualization also provides confidence that the point of diminishing returns in data collection and reduction has been reached. At that point, the effort should be directed to solving the structure. The methods presented in the chapter have been applied to solve a large variety of problems, from inorganic molecules with 5 A unit cell to rotavirus of 700 A diameters crystallized in 700 × 1000 × 1400 A cell.

30,745 citations

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TL;DR: The goals of the PDB are described, the systems in place for data deposition and access, how to obtain further information and plans for the future development of the resource are described.
Abstract: The Protein Data Bank (PDB; http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/ ) is the single worldwide archive of structural data of biological macromolecules. This paper describes the goals of the PDB, the systems in place for data deposition and access, how to obtain further information, and near-term plans for the future development of the resource.

30,190 citations


"Molecular details of ligand selecti..." refers methods in this paper

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TL;DR: CCP4mg is a project that aims to provide a general-purpose tool for structural biologists, providing tools for X-ray structure solution, structure comparison and analysis, and publication-quality graphics.
Abstract: CCP4mg is a project that aims to provide a general-purpose tool for structural biologists, providing tools for X-ray structure solution, structure comparison and analysis, and publication-quality graphics. The map-fitting tools are available as a stand-alone package, distributed as `Coot'.

24,547 citations


"Molecular details of ligand selecti..." refers methods in this paper

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TL;DR: The CCP4 (Collaborative Computational Project, number 4) program suite is a collection of programs and associated data and subroutine libraries which can be used for macromolecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography.
Abstract: The CCP4 (Collaborative Computational Project, number 4) program suite is a collection of programs and associated data and subroutine libraries which can be used for macromolecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography. The suite is designed to be flexible, allowing users a number of methods of achieving their aims and so there may be more than one program to cover each function. The programs are written mainly in standard Fortran77. They are from a wide variety of sources but are connected by standard data file formats. The package has been ported to all the major platforms under both Unix and VMS. The suite is distributed by anonymous ftp from Daresbury Laboratory and is widely used throughout the world.

16,879 citations

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TL;DR: The PHENIX software for macromolecular structure determination is described and its uses and benefits are described.
Abstract: Macromolecular X-ray crystallography is routinely applied to understand biological processes at a molecular level. How­ever, significant time and effort are still required to solve and complete many of these structures because of the need for manual interpretation of complex numerical data using many software packages and the repeated use of interactive three-dimensional graphics. PHENIX has been developed to provide a comprehensive system for macromolecular crystallo­graphic structure solution with an emphasis on the automation of all procedures. This has relied on the development of algorithms that minimize or eliminate subjective input, the development of algorithms that automate procedures that are traditionally performed by hand and, finally, the development of a framework that allows a tight integration between the algorithms.

15,827 citations


"Molecular details of ligand selecti..." refers methods in this paper

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