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Journal ArticleDOI

MoleculeNet: a benchmark for molecular machine learning

03 Jan 2018-Chemical Science (The Royal Society of Chemistry)-Vol. 9, Iss: 2, pp 513-530

TL;DR: A large scale benchmark for molecular machine learning consisting of multiple public datasets, metrics, featurizations and learning algorithms.
Abstract: Molecular machine learning has been maturing rapidly over the last few years. Improved methods and the presence of larger datasets have enabled machine learning algorithms to make increasingly accurate predictions about molecular properties. However, algorithmic progress has been limited due to the lack of a standard benchmark to compare the efficacy of proposed methods; most new algorithms are benchmarked on different datasets making it challenging to gauge the quality of proposed methods. This work introduces MoleculeNet, a large scale benchmark for molecular machine learning. MoleculeNet curates multiple public datasets, establishes metrics for evaluation, and offers high quality open-source implementations of multiple previously proposed molecular featurization and learning algorithms (released as part of the DeepChem open source library). MoleculeNet benchmarks demonstrate that learnable representations are powerful tools for molecular machine learning and broadly offer the best performance. However, this result comes with caveats. Learnable representations still struggle to deal with complex tasks under data scarcity and highly imbalanced classification. For quantum mechanical and biophysical datasets, the use of physics-aware featurizations can be more important than choice of particular learning algorithm.
Citations
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01 Aug 2000-
TL;DR: Assessment of medical technology in the context of commercialization with Bioentrepreneur course, which addresses many issues unique to biomedical products.
Abstract: BIOE 402. Medical Technology Assessment. 2 or 3 hours. Bioentrepreneur course. Assessment of medical technology in the context of commercialization. Objectives, competition, market share, funding, pricing, manufacturing, growth, and intellectual property; many issues unique to biomedical products. Course Information: 2 undergraduate hours. 3 graduate hours. Prerequisite(s): Junior standing or above and consent of the instructor.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that deep learning has yet to revolutionize biomedicine or definitively resolve any of the most pressing challenges in the field, but promising advances have been made on the prior state of the art.
Abstract: Deep learning describes a class of machine learning algorithms that are capable of combining raw inputs into layers of intermediate features. These algorithms have recently shown impressive results across a variety of domains. Biology and medicine are data-rich disciplines, but the data are complex and often ill-understood. Hence, deep learning techniques may be particularly well suited to solve problems of these fields. We examine applications of deep learning to a variety of biomedical problems-patient classification, fundamental biological processes and treatment of patients-and discuss whether deep learning will be able to transform these tasks or if the biomedical sphere poses unique challenges. Following from an extensive literature review, we find that deep learning has yet to revolutionize biomedicine or definitively resolve any of the most pressing challenges in the field, but promising advances have been made on the prior state of the art. Even though improvements over previous baselines have been modest in general, the recent progress indicates that deep learning methods will provide valuable means for speeding up or aiding human investigation. Though progress has been made linking a specific neural network's prediction to input features, understanding how users should interpret these models to make testable hypotheses about the system under study remains an open challenge. Furthermore, the limited amount of labelled data for training presents problems in some domains, as do legal and privacy constraints on work with sensitive health records. Nonetheless, we foresee deep learning enabling changes at both bench and bedside with the potential to transform several areas of biology and medicine.

1,035 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
07 Oct 2016-arXiv: Learning
TL;DR: A method to convert discrete representations of molecules to and from a multidimensional continuous representation that allows us to generate new molecules for efficient exploration and optimization through open-ended spaces of chemical compounds is reported.
Abstract: We report a method to convert discrete representations of molecules to and from a multidimensional continuous representation. This model allows us to generate new molecules for efficient exploration and optimization through open-ended spaces of chemical compounds. A deep neural network was trained on hundreds of thousands of existing chemical structures to construct three coupled functions: an encoder, a decoder and a predictor. The encoder converts the discrete representation of a molecule into a real-valued continuous vector, and the decoder converts these continuous vectors back to discrete molecular representations. The predictor estimates chemical properties from the latent continuous vector representation of the molecule. Continuous representations allow us to automatically generate novel chemical structures by performing simple operations in the latent space, such as decoding random vectors, perturbing known chemical structures, or interpolating between molecules. Continuous representations also allow the use of powerful gradient-based optimization to efficiently guide the search for optimized functional compounds. We demonstrate our method in the domain of drug-like molecules and also in the set of molecules with fewer that nine heavy atoms.

934 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jessica Vamathevan1, Dominic Clark1, Paul Czodrowski2, Ian Dunham1  +8 moreInstitutions (8)
TL;DR: The most useful techniques and how machine learning can promote data-driven decision making in drug discovery and development are discussed and major hurdles in the field are highlighted.
Abstract: Drug discovery and development pipelines are long, complex and depend on numerous factors. Machine learning (ML) approaches provide a set of tools that can improve discovery and decision making for well-specified questions with abundant, high-quality data. Opportunities to apply ML occur in all stages of drug discovery. Examples include target validation, identification of prognostic biomarkers and analysis of digital pathology data in clinical trials. Applications have ranged in context and methodology, with some approaches yielding accurate predictions and insights. The challenges of applying ML lie primarily with the lack of interpretability and repeatability of ML-generated results, which may limit their application. In all areas, systematic and comprehensive high-dimensional data still need to be generated. With ongoing efforts to tackle these issues, as well as increasing awareness of the factors needed to validate ML approaches, the application of ML can promote data-driven decision making and has the potential to speed up the process and reduce failure rates in drug discovery and development. Machine learning has been applied to numerous stages in the drug discovery pipeline. Here, Vamathevan and colleagues discuss the most useful techniques and how machine learning can promote data-driven decision making in drug discovery and development. They highlight major hurdles in the field, such as the required data characteristics for applying machine learning, which will need to be solved as machine learning matures.

501 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jonathan M. Stokes1, Kevin Yang1, Kyle Swanson1, Wengong Jin1  +18 moreInstitutions (5)
20 Feb 2020-Cell
TL;DR: A deep neural network capable of predicting molecules with antibacterial activity is trained and a molecule from the Drug Repurposing Hub-halicin- is discovered that is structurally divergent from conventional antibiotics and displays bactericidal activity against a wide phylogenetic spectrum of pathogens.
Abstract: Due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, there is a growing need to discover new antibiotics. To address this challenge, we trained a deep neural network capable of predicting molecules with antibacterial activity. We performed predictions on multiple chemical libraries and discovered a molecule from the Drug Repurposing Hub-halicin-that is structurally divergent from conventional antibiotics and displays bactericidal activity against a wide phylogenetic spectrum of pathogens including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Halicin also effectively treated Clostridioides difficile and pan-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections in murine models. Additionally, from a discrete set of 23 empirically tested predictions from >107 million molecules curated from the ZINC15 database, our model identified eight antibacterial compounds that are structurally distant from known antibiotics. This work highlights the utility of deep learning approaches to expand our antibiotic arsenal through the discovery of structurally distinct antibacterial molecules.

467 citations


Cites background or methods from "MoleculeNet: a benchmark for molecu..."

  • ...coli, we prioritized these based on clinical phase of investigation, structural similarity to molecules in the primary training dataset, and predicted toxicity using a deep neural network model trained on the ClinTox database (Gayvert et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2017) (Table S2B)....

    [...]

  • ...Decades of prior work in chemoinformatics have developed models for molecular property prediction (Mayr et al., 2018; Wu et al., 2017)....

    [...]


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Journal Article
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Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20228
2021309
2020259
2019153
201865
20177