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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/21645515.2020.1804777

SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates in rapid development.

04 Mar 2021-Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 17, Iss: 3, pp 644-653
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still spreading globally. The scientific community is attempting to procure an effective treatment and prevention strategy for COVID-19. A rising number of vaccines for COVID-19 are being developed at an unprecedented speed. Development platforms include traditional inactivated or live attenuated virus vaccines, DNA or RNA vaccines, recombinant viral vector vaccines, and protein or peptide subunit vaccines. There are 23 vaccines in the clinical evaluation stage and at least 140 candidate vaccines in preclinical evaluation. In this review, we describe research regarding basic knowledge on the virus, updates on the animal models, current landscape of vaccines in clinical evaluation and updated research results on vaccine development. Safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines require further investigation.

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Topics: Attenuated vaccine (54%)
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14 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMOLB.2021.635245
Abstract: With the current outbreak caused by SARS-CoV-2, vaccination is acclaimed as a public health priority. Rapid genetic sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 has triggered the scientific community to search for effective vaccines. Collaborative approaches from research institutes and biotech companies have acknowledged the use of viral proteins as potential vaccine candidates against COVID-19. Nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) vaccines are considered the next generation vaccines as they can be rapidly designed to encode any desirable viral sequence including the highly conserved antigen sequences. RNA vaccines being less prone to host genome integration (cons of DNA vaccines) and anti-vector immunity (a compromising factor of viral vectors) offer a great potential as a front-runner for universal COVID-19 vaccine. The proof of concept for RNA-based vaccines has already been proven in humans, and the prospects for commercialization are very encouraging as well. With the emergence of COVID-19, mRNA-1273, a mRNA vaccine developed by Moderna, Inc. was the first to enter human trials, with the first volunteer receiving the dose within 10 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequencing. The recent interest in mRNA vaccines has been fueled by the state of the art technologies that enhance mRNA stability and improve vaccine delivery. Interestingly, as per the “Draft landscape of COVID-19 candidate vaccines” published by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 12th November, 2020, 6 potential RNA based COVID-19 vaccines are in different stages of clinical trials, of them, 2 are already in Phase III clinical trial. On the other hand, another 22 potential candidates are undergoing preclinical investigations. This review will shed light on the rationality of the RNA as a platform for vaccine development against COVID-19, highlighting the possible pros and cons, lessons learned from the past and the future prospects.

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Topics: Vaccination (53%), Viral vector (50%)

11 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/ENE.15028
Itay Lotan1, Itay Lotan2, Adi Wilf-Yarkoni1, Adi Wilf-Yarkoni2  +8 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Background and purpose Although the COVID-19 vaccines are currently recommended for people with multiple sclerosis (MS), the fact that they were not specifically tested in people with MS raises uncertainty regarding their safety in this population. The purpose of this study was to report real-life safety data of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine in a cohort of MS patients. Methods An anonymous survey was distributed to 425 MS patients. Participants were asked general demographic and disease-related questions and specific questions regarding the safety profile of the COVID-19 vaccine. Results Of the 425 MS patients, 262 completed the questionnaire. The median (range) participant age was 42 (22-79) years, 199 participants were women (75.9%), and 66 participants (25.2%) had associated comorbidities. A total of 198 participants (75.6%) were treated with disease-modifying therapies. In all, 239 participants (91.2% of the responders) had received the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. Of these, 182 (76.1%) were aged 55 years. Adverse events were reported by 136 participants (56.9%; 52.5% of those aged 55 years; p = 0.1517) and 36 participants (15.1%) reported new or worsening neurological symptoms following the vaccination, the most frequent being sensory disturbances (21 participants, 58.3%). Most symptoms occurred within the first 24 h after vaccination and resolved within 3 days. A total of 28 participants (77.8%) did not require any medication to treat their symptoms. Conclusions This survey indicates an overall favorable safety profile of the BNT162b2 vaccine in people with MS. These data should be confirmed in further prospective, large-scale studies.

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Topics: Population (51%)

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BIOLOGY10070589
26 Jun 2021-Biology
Abstract: Currently, a worldwide pandemic has been declared in response to the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a fatal and fast-spreading viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The low availability of efficient vaccines and treatment options has resulted in a high mortality rate, bringing the world economy to its knees. Thus, mechanistic investigations of drugs capable of counteracting this disease are in high demand. The main protease (Mpro) expressed by SARS-CoV-2 has been targeted for the development of potential drug candidates due to the crucial role played by Mpro in viral replication and transcription. We generated a phytochemical library containing 1672 phytochemicals derived from 56 plants, which have been reported as having antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. A molecular docking program was used to screen the top three candidate compounds: epicatechin-3-O-gallate, psi-taraxasterol, and catechin gallate, which had respective binding affinities of −8.4, −8.5, and −8.8 kcal/mol. Several active sites in the targeted protein, including Cys145, His41, Met49, Glu66, and Met165, were found to interact with the top three candidate compounds. The multiple simulation profile, root-mean-square deviation, root-mean-square fluctuation, radius of gyration, and solvent-accessible surface area values supported the inflexible nature of the docked protein–compound complexes. The toxicity and carcinogenicity profiles were assessed, which showed that epicatechin-3-O-gallate, psi-taraxasterol, and catechin gallate had favorable pharmacological properties with no adverse effects. These findings suggest that these compounds could be developed as part of an effective drug development pathway to treat COVID-19.

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5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1667/RADE-20-00241.1
Ziad Francis1, Sebastien Incerti2, Sara A. Zein2, Nathanael Lampe2  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
01 Mar 2021-Radiation Research
Abstract: Immunization with an inactivated virus is one of the strategies currently being tested towards developing a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. One of the methods used to inactivate viruses is exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation to damage their nucleic acids. While gamma (γ) rays effectively induce lesions in the RNA, envelope proteins are also highly damaged in the process. This in turn may alter their antigenic properties, affecting their capacity to induce an adaptive immune response able to confer effective protection. Here, we modeled the effect of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation on SARS-CoV-2 using the Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4-DNA. With a realistic 3D target virus model, we calculated the expected number of lesions in the spike and membrane proteins, as well as in the viral RNA. Our findings showed that γ rays produced significant spike protein damage, but densely ionizing charged particles induced less membrane damage for the same level of RNA lesions, because a single ion traversal through the nuclear envelope was sufficient to inactivate the virus. We propose that accelerated charged particles produce inactivated viruses with little structural damage to envelope proteins, thereby representing a new and effective tool for developing vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and other enveloped viruses.

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Topics: Viral envelope (52%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MSARD.2021.103189
Abstract: Background The COVID-19 vaccines are currently recommended for people with rare neuroimmunological diseases such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), MOG-antibody disease (MOGAD), and transverse myelitis. However, the safety profile of the vaccines in this population is uncertain. Objective To report real-world safety data of the COVID-19 vaccines in persons with rare neuroimmunological diseases. Methods An anonymous survey was distributed to patients recruited on social media. Participants answered general demographic and disease-related questions, and specific questions about their experiences with the COVID-19 vaccines. Results 438 participants completed the questionnaire. The median age was 51 (range 18–82 years); 366 were female (83.6%); 102 (23.3%) had associated comorbidities, and 354 (80.1%) were treated with immunotherapies. 242 participants (55.3%) reported a diagnosis of NMOSD; 99 (22.6%) had MOGAD; 79 (18%) had transverse myelitis. 239 participants (66.2%) were younger than 55 years of age. 138 participants (31.5%) reported earlyadverse events. Of these, 93 (67.4%) were 55 years old (p=0.0086). The most common adverse events were local reactions, including pain, redness, and swelling at the injection site, reported by 155 participants (35.4%). 73 participants (16.7%) reported new or worsening neurological symptoms following the vaccination. Most symptoms occurred within the first week after vaccination and resolved within three days. Conclusions This survey indicates an overall favorable safety and tolerability profile of the COVID-19 vaccines among persons with rare neuroimmunological diseases. Longer-term studies are warranted to confirm these data.

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Topics: Population (51%)

5 Citations


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63 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2001017
Na Zhu1, Dingyu Zhang, Wenling Wang1, Xingwang Li2  +15 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.).

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Topics: Coronavirus (57%), Betacoronavirus (56%)

15,285 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2012-7
Peng Zhou1, Xing-Lou Yang1, Xian Guang Wang2, Ben Hu1  +25 moreInstitutions (3)
03 Feb 2020-Nature
Abstract: Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats1–4. Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans5–7. Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV. Characterization of full-length genome sequences from patients infected with a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) shows that the sequences are nearly identical and indicates that the virus is related to a bat coronavirus.

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Topics: Coronavirus (67%), Betacoronavirus (54%), Deltacoronavirus (51%) ... show more

12,056 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.ABB2507
13 Mar 2020-Science
Abstract: The outbreak of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) represents a pandemic threat that has been declared a public health emergency of international concern. The CoV spike (S) glycoprotein is a key target for vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, and diagnostics. To facilitate medical countermeasure development, we determined a 3.5-angstrom-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the 2019-nCoV S trimer in the prefusion conformation. The predominant state of the trimer has one of the three receptor-binding domains (RBDs) rotated up in a receptor-accessible conformation. We also provide biophysical and structural evidence that the 2019-nCoV S protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with higher affinity than does severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV S. Additionally, we tested several published SARS-CoV RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies and found that they do not have appreciable binding to 2019-nCoV S, suggesting that antibody cross-reactivity may be limited between the two RBDs. The structure of 2019-nCoV S should enable the rapid development and evaluation of medical countermeasures to address the ongoing public health crisis.

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5,197 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2020.02.058
16 Apr 2020-Cell
Abstract: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in >90,000 infections and >3,000 deaths. Coronavirus spike (S) glycoproteins promote entry into cells and are the main target of antibodies. We show that SARS-CoV-2 S uses ACE2 to enter cells and that the receptor-binding domains of SARS-CoV-2 S and SARS-CoV S bind with similar affinities to human ACE2, correlating with the efficient spread of SARS-CoV-2 among humans. We found that the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein harbors a furin cleavage site at the boundary between the S1/S2 subunits, which is processed during biogenesis and sets this virus apart from SARS-CoV and SARS-related CoVs. We determined cryo-EM structures of the SARS-CoV-2 S ectodomain trimer, providing a blueprint for the design of vaccines and inhibitors of viral entry. Finally, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV S murine polyclonal antibodies potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 S mediated entry into cells, indicating that cross-neutralizing antibodies targeting conserved S epitopes can be elicited upon vaccination.

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Topics: Ectodomain (56%), Viral entry (55%), Epitope (53%) ... show more

4,968 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.ABB2762
Renhong Yan1, Yuanyuan Zhang1, Yaning Li2, Lu Xia1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
04 Mar 2020-Science
Abstract: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cellular receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that is causing the serious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. Here, we present cryo-electron microscopy structures of full-length human ACE2 in the presence of the neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 with or without the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the surface spike glycoprotein (S protein) of SARS-CoV-2, both at an overall resolution of 2.9 angstroms, with a local resolution of 3.5 angstroms at the ACE2-RBD interface. The ACE2-B0AT1 complex is assembled as a dimer of heterodimers, with the collectrin-like domain of ACE2 mediating homodimerization. The RBD is recognized by the extracellular peptidase domain of ACE2 mainly through polar residues. These findings provide important insights into the molecular basis for coronavirus recognition and infection.

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Topics: Coronavirus (59%), Protein domain (52%)

2,888 Citations


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