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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S42003-021-01785-Z

Temporal hierarchy of intrinsic neural timescales converges with spatial core-periphery organization.

04 Mar 2021-Vol. 4, Iss: 1, pp 277-277
Abstract: The human cortex exhibits intrinsic neural timescales that shape a temporal hierarchy. Whether this temporal hierarchy follows the spatial hierarchy of its topography, namely the core-periphery organization, remains an open issue. Using magnetoencephalography data, we investigate intrinsic neural timescales during rest and task states; we measure the autocorrelation window in short (ACW-50) and, introducing a novel variant, long (ACW-0) windows. We demonstrate longer ACW-50 and ACW-0 in networks located at the core compared to those at the periphery with rest and task states showing a high ACW correlation. Calculating rest-task differences, i.e., subtracting the shared core-periphery organization, reveals task-specific ACW changes in distinct networks. Finally, employing kernel density estimation, machine learning, and simulation, we demonstrate that ACW-0 exhibits better prediction in classifying a region’s time window as core or periphery. Overall, our findings provide fundamental insight into how the human cortex’s temporal hierarchy converges with its spatial core-periphery hierarchy. Golesorkhi et al. use a combination of magnetoencephalography data, machine learning and simulation to investigate intrinsic neural timescales during resting and task states. They provide insight into how the temporal hierarchy of the human cortex converges with its spatial core-periphery hierarchy.

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Topics: Hierarchy (55%)
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S42003-021-02483-6
16 Aug 2021-
Abstract: We process and integrate multiple timescales into one meaningful whole. Recent evidence suggests that the brain displays a complex multiscale temporal organization. Different regions exhibit different timescales as described by the concept of intrinsic neural timescales (INT); however, their function and neural mechanisms remains unclear. We review recent literature on INT and propose that they are key for input processing. Specifically, they are shared across different species, i.e., input sharing. This suggests a role of INT in encoding inputs through matching the inputs' stochastics with the ongoing temporal statistics of the brain's neural activity, i.e., input encoding. Following simulation and empirical data, we point out input integration versus segregation and input sampling as key temporal mechanisms of input processing. This deeply grounds the brain within its environmental and evolutionary context. It carries major implications in understanding mental features and psychiatric disorders, as well as going beyond the brain in integrating timescales into artificial intelligence.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BRAINSCI11050574
Fuxin Lian1, Georg Northoff2Institutions (2)
29 Apr 2021-Brain Sciences
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by a fundamental change in self-awareness including seemingly paradoxical features like increased ego-centeredness and weakened self-referentiality. What is the neural basis of this so-called “self-paradox”? Conducting a meta-analytic review of fMRI rest and task studies, we show that ASD exhibits consistent hypofunction in anterior and posterior midline regions of the default-mode network (DMN) in both rest and task with decreased self–non-self differentiation. Relying on a multilayered nested hierarchical model of self, as recently established (Qin et al. 2020), we propose that ASD subjects cannot access the most upper layer of their self, the DMN-based mental self—they are locked-out of their own DMN and its mental self. This, in turn, results in strong weakening of their self-referentiality with decreases in both self-awareness and self–other distinction. Moreover, this blocks the extension of non-DMN cortical and subcortical regions at the lower layers of the physical self to the DMN-based upper layer of the mental self, including self–other distinction. The ASD subjects remain stuck and restricted to their intero- and exteroceptive selves as manifested in a relative increase in ego-centeredness (as compared to self-referentiality). This amounts to what we describe as “Hierarchical Model of Autistic Self” (HAS), which, characterizing the autistic self in hierarchical and spatiotemporal terms, aligns well with and extends current theories of ASD including predictive coding and weak central coherence.

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Topics: Default mode network (51%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/1741-2552/ABE8AD
Abstract: Objective. Nested into slow oscillations (SOs) and modulated by their up-states, spindles are electrophysiological hallmarks of N2 sleep stage that present a complex hierarchical architecture. However, most studies have only described spindles in basic statistical terms, which were limited to the spindle itself without analyzing the characteristics of the pre-spindle moments in which the SOs are originated. The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to apply spectral and temporal measures to the pre-spindle and spindle periods, as well as analyze the correlation between them, and (b) to evaluate the potential of these spectral and temporal measures in future automatic detection algorithms.Approach. An automatic spindle detection algorithm was applied to the overnight electroencephalographic recordings of 26 subjects. Ten complementary features (five spectral and five temporal parameters) were computed in the pre-spindle and spindle periods after their segmentation. These features were computed independently in each period and in a time-resolved way (sliding window). After the statistical comparison of both periods, a correlation analysis was used to assess their interrelationships. Finally, a receiver operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis along with a bootstrap procedure was conducted to further evaluate the degree of separability between the pre-spindle and spindle periods.Main results. The results show important time-varying changes in spectral and temporal parameters. The features calculated in pre-spindle and spindle periods are strongly and significantly correlated, demonstrating the association between the pre-spindle characteristics and the subsequent spindle. The ROC analysis exposes that the typical feature used in automatic spindle detectors, i.e. the power in the sigma band, is outperformed by other features, such as the spectral entropy in this frequency range.Significance. The novel features applied here demonstrate their utility as predictors of spindles that could be incorporated into novel algorithms of automatic spindle detectors, in which the analysis of the pre-spindle period becomes relevant for improving their performance. From the clinical point of view, these features may serve as novel precision therapeutic targets to enhance spindle production with the aim of improving memory, cognition, and sleep quality in healthy and clinical populations. The results evidence the need for characterizing spindles in terms beyond power and the spindle period itself to more dynamic measures and the pre-spindle period. Physiologically, these findings suggest that spindles are more than simple oscillations, but nonstable oscillatory bursts embedded in the complex pre-spindle dynamics.

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Topics: Sleep spindle (59%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIADV.ABJ0751
15 Oct 2021-Science Advances
Abstract: The extraction of “fingerprints” from human brain connectivity data has become a new frontier in neuroscience. However, the time scales of human brain identifiability are still largely unexplored. ...

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Open accessDOI: 10.1038/S41537-021-00184-X
22 Nov 2021-
Abstract: We computed intrinsic neural timescales (INT) based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data of healthy controls (HC) and patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SZ) from three independently collected samples. Five clusters showed decreased INT in SZ compared to HC in all three samples: right occipital fusiform gyrus (rOFG), left superior occipital gyrus (lSOG), right superior occipital gyrus (rSOG), left lateral occipital cortex (lLOC) and right postcentral gyrus (rPG). In other words, it appears that sensory information in visual and posterior parietal areas is stored for reduced lengths of time in SZ compared to HC. Finally, we found that symptom severity appears to modulate INT of these areas in SZ.

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Topics: Fusiform gyrus (61%)

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56 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.NEUROIMAGE.2013.05.041
15 Oct 2013-NeuroImage
Abstract: The Human Connectome Project consortium led by Washington University, University of Minnesota, and Oxford University is undertaking a systematic effort to map macroscopic human brain circuits and their relationship to behavior in a large population of healthy adults. This overview article focuses on progress made during the first half of the 5-year project in refining the methods for data acquisition and analysis. Preliminary analyses based on a finalized set of acquisition and preprocessing protocols demonstrate the exceptionally high quality of the data from each modality. The first quarterly release of imaging and behavioral data via the ConnectomeDB database demonstrates the commitment to making HCP datasets freely accessible. Altogether, the progress to date provides grounds for optimism that the HCP datasets and associated methods and software will become increasingly valuable resources for characterizing human brain connectivity and function, their relationship to behavior, and their heritability and genetic underpinnings.

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Topics: Human Connectome (57%), Human Connectome Project (57%), Connectome (56%)

3,196 Citations


Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.25080/MAJORA-92BF1922-011
01 Jan 2010-
Abstract: Statsmodels is a library for statistical and econometric analysis in Python. This paper discusses the current relationship between statistics and Python and open source more generally, outlining how the statsmodels package fills a gap in this relationship. An overview of statsmodels is provided, including a discussion of the overarching design and philosophy, what can be found in the package, and some usage examples. The paper concludes with a look at what the future holds.

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1,726 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0378-8733(99)00019-2
01 Oct 2000-Social Networks
Abstract: A common but informal notion in social network analysis and other fields is the concept of a core/periphery structure. The intuitive conception entails a dense, cohesive core and a sparse, unconnected periphery. This paper seeks to formalize the intuitive notion of a core/periphery structure and suggests algorithms for detecting this structure, along with statistical tests for testing a priori hypotheses. Different models are presented for different kinds of graphs (directed and undirected, valued and nonvalued). In addition, the close relation of the continuous models developed to certain centrality measures is discussed.

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Topics: Centrality (50%)

1,703 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TICS.2013.09.012
Abstract: Virtually all domains of cognitive function require the integration of distributed neural activity. Network analysis of human brain connectivity has consistently identified sets of regions that are critically important for enabling efficient neuronal signaling and communication. The central embedding of these candidate 'brain hubs' in anatomical networks supports their diverse functional roles across a broad range of cognitive tasks and widespread dynamic coupling within and across functional networks. The high level of centrality of brain hubs also renders them points of vulnerability that are susceptible to disconnection and dysfunction in brain disorders. Combining data from numerous empirical and computational studies, network approaches strongly suggest that brain hubs play important roles in information integration underpinning numerous aspects of complex cognitive function.

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1,400 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.282.5395.1846
04 Dec 1998-Science
Abstract: Conventional approaches to understanding consciousness are generally concerned with the contribution of specific brain areas or groups of neurons. By contrast, it is considered here what kinds of neural processes can account for key properties of conscious experience. Applying measures of neural integration and complexity, together with an analysis of extensive neurological data, leads to a testable proposal-the dynamic core hypothesis-about the properties of the neural substrate of consciousness.

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1,177 Citations


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