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Journal ArticleDOI

A Review on Air Pollution Monitoring and Management Using Plants With Special Reference to Foliar Dust Adsorption and Physiological Stress Responses

TL;DR: In this article, it has been proposed that reduction in levels of air pollution may result in lessening of the global burden of disease, which is a major environmental risk as far as public health is concerned.
Abstract: Air pollution has become a major environmental risk as far as public health is concerned. It has been proposed that reduction in levels of air pollution may result in lessening of the global burden of disease. Monitoring and management of air pollution has been carried out for a long time. However, the causes of air pollution and effects of air pollution on humans, animals, and plants are yet to be fully unraveled. Moreover, management of air pollution is facing challenges due to lack of availability of suitable tools and techniques. The latter half of the 19th century was dominated by research on the recognition and description of different pollutants and to some extent toward the search for tools and techniques to control and reduce air pollution. One of the major air pollutants is atmospheric particulate matter. Resuspended roadside dust is one of the sources of these particulate matters. Resuspended dust is composed of several elements from different sources. The elemental composition of these dust pa...
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present review provides a recent update for development and applications of phytoremediation in different environments including air, water, and soil.

167 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, road and vehicle use in urban environments are key contributors to urban air pollution and increase concentrations of carbon monoxide, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and particulate matter (particles).

154 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The formation of trichomes and the accumulation of phenolics are interrelated at the molecular level as discussed by the authors, which can be attributed to the excellent combination of suitable structural traits and chemical reinforcement in the form of phenolic compounds, primarily flavonoids.
Abstract: As superficial structures, non-glandular trichomes, protect plant organs against multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. The protective and defensive roles of these epidermal appendages are crucial to developing organs and can be attributed to the excellent combination of suitable structural traits and chemical reinforcement in the form of phenolic compounds, primarily flavonoids. Both the formation of trichomes and the accumulation of phenolics are interrelated at the molecular level. During the early stages of development, non-glandular trichomes show strong morphological similarities to glandular ones such as the balloon-like apical cells with numerous phenolics. At later developmental stages, and during secondary wall thickening, phenolics are transferred to the cell walls of the trichomes. Due to the diffuse deposition of phenolics in the cell walls, trichomes provide protection against UV-B radiation by behaving as optical filters, screening out wavelengths that could damage sensitive tissues. Protection from strong visible radiation is also afforded by increased surface light reflectance. Moreover, the mixtures of trichome phenolics represent a superficial chemical barrier that provides protection against biotic stress factors such as herbivores and pathogens. Although the cells of some trichomes die at maturity, they can modulate their quantitative and qualitative characteristics during development, depending on the prevailing conditions of the external biotic or abiotic environment. In fact, the structure and chemical constituents of trichomes may change due to the particular light regime, herbivore damage, wounding, water stress, salinity and the presence of heavy metals. Hence, trichomes represent dynamic protective structures that may greatly affect the outcome of many plant–environment interactions.

135 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The phytoextraction efficiency of OPs can be improved through chemical, microbial, soil amending, and genetic approaches, which primarily target bioavailability, uptake, and sequestration of HMs.
Abstract: Accumulation of heavy metals (HMs) in soil, water and air is one of the major environmental concerns worldwide, which mainly occurs due to anthropogenic activities such as industrialization, urbanization, and mining. Conventional remediation strategies involving physical or chemical techniques are not cost-effective and/or eco-friendly, reinforcing the necessity for development of novel approaches. Phytoextraction has attracted considerable attention over the past decades and generally refers to use of plants for cleaning up environmental pollutants such as HMs. Compared to other plant types such as edible crops and medicinal plants, ornamental plants (OPs) seem to be a more viable option as they offer several advantages including cleaning up the HMs pollution, beautification of the environment, by-product generation and related economic benefits, and not generally being involved in the food/feed chain or other direct human applications. Phytoextraction ability of OPs involve diverse detoxification pathways such as enzymatic and non-enzymatic (secondary metabolites) antioxidative responses, distribution and deposition of HMs in the cell walls, vacuoles and metabolically inactive tissues, and chelation of HMs by a ligand such as phytochelatins followed by the sequestration of the metal-ligand complex into the vacuoles. The phytoextraction efficiency of OPs can be improved through chemical, microbial, soil amending, and genetic approaches, which primarily target bioavailability, uptake, and sequestration of HMs. In this review, we explore the phytoextraction potential of OPs for remediation of HMs-polluted environments, underpinning mechanisms, efficiency improvement strategies, and highlight the potential future research directions.

122 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This systematic review summarizes the interactions of PMs-TMs in soil-plant systems including the deposition, transfer, accumulation, toxicity, and mechanisms among them and current knowledge gaps and prospective are proposed for future research agendas.

102 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The mechanisms of ROS generation and removal in plants during development and under biotic and abiotic stress conditions are described and the possible functions and mechanisms for ROS sensing and signaling in plants are compared with those in animals and yeast.
Abstract: Several reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously produced in plants as byproducts of aerobic metabolism. Depending on the nature of the ROS species, some are highly toxic and rapidly detoxified by various cellular enzymatic and nonenzymatic mechanisms. Whereas plants are surfeited with mechanisms to combat increased ROS levels during abiotic stress conditions, in other circumstances plants appear to purposefully generate ROS as signaling molecules to control various processes including pathogen defense, programmed cell death, and stomatal behavior. This review describes the mechanisms of ROS generation and removal in plants during development and under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. New insights into the complexity and roles that ROS play in plants have come from genetic analyses of ROS detoxifying and signaling mutants. Considering recent ROS-induced genome-wide expression analyses, the possible functions and mechanisms for ROS sensing and signaling in plants are compared with those in animals and yeast.

9,908 citations


"A Review on Air Pollution Monitorin..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Air pollutants generate ROS that leads to damage at cellular and molecular levels (Apel and Hirt, 2004)....

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  • ...Plants under oxidative stress protect themselves against the damaging effects of ROS with the synthesis of various enzymatic and nonenzymatic ROS scavenging and detoxification mediators (Apel and Hirt, 2004)....

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  • ...3.2 Antioxidant Enzymes: Response to Air Pollution Induced Oxidative Stress Air pollutants generate ROS that leads to damage at cellular and molecular levels (Apel and Hirt, 2004)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The biochemistry of ROS and their production sites, and ROS scavenging antioxidant defense machinery are described, which protects plants against oxidative stress damages.

8,259 citations


"A Review on Air Pollution Monitorin..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The antioxidant defense system consists of enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR), and compounds such as ascorbate, glutathione, and α-tocopherol (Gill and Tuteja, 2010)....

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  • ...Several groups of researchers have worked upon abiotic stress tolerant transgenic plants and reported increase in production of antioxidant enzyme, SOD, and its 3 different isoforms (Gill and Tuteja, 2010)....

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01 Jan 2013

6,953 citations


"A Review on Air Pollution Monitorin..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide that equals to 1.8 million, which is 13% of the total cancer reported, and deaths due to the same were estimated to be 1.6 million, which is 19.4% of the total deaths (Ferlay et al., 2013)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Kozi Asada1
01 Jun 1999
TL;DR: Whenever the water-water cycle operates properly for scavenging of active oxygens in chloroplasts, it also effectively dissipates excess excitation energy under environmental stress.
Abstract: Photoreduction of dioxygen in photosystem I (PSI) of chloroplasts generates superoxide radicals as the primary product. In intact chloroplasts, the superoxide and the hydrogen peroxide produced via the disproportionation of superoxide are so rapidly scavenged at the site of their generation that the active oxygens do not inactivate the PSI complex, the stromal enzymes, or the scavenging system itself. The overall reaction for scavenging of active oxygens is the photoreduction of dioxygen to water via superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in PSI by the electrons derived from water in PSII, and the water-water cycle is proposed for these sequences. An overview is given of the molecular mechanism of the water-water cycle and microcompartmentalization of the enzymes participating in it. Whenever the water-water cycle operates properly for scavenging of active oxygens in chloroplasts, it also effectively dissipates excess excitation energy under environmental stress. The dual functions of the water-water cycle for protection from photoinihibition are discussed.

3,904 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The finding that the upstream sequences of Mn and peroxisomal Cu/Zn SODs have three common elements suggests a common regulatory pathway, which is borne out in the research literature.
Abstract: Reactive O2 species (ROS) are produced in both unstressed and stressed cells. Plants have welldeveloped defence systems against ROS, involving both limiting the formation of ROS as well as instituting its removal. Under unstressed conditions, the formation and removal of O2 are in balance. However, the defence system, when presented with increased ROS formation under stress conditions, can be overwhelmed. Within a cell, the superoxide dismutases (SODs) constitute the first line of defence against ROS. Specialization of function among the SODs may be due to a combination of the influence of subcellular location of the enzyme and upstream sequences in the genomic sequence. The commonality of elements in the upstream sequences of Fe, Mn and CuuZn SODs suggests a relatively recent origin for those regulatory regions. The differences in the upstream regions of the three FeSOD genes suggest differing regulatory control which is borne out in the research literature. The finding that the upstream sequences of Mn and peroxisomal CuuZn SODs have three common elements suggests a common regulatory pathway. The tools are available to dissect further the molecular basis for antioxidant defence responses in plant cells. SODs are clearly among the most important of those defences, when coupled with the necessary downstream events for full detoxification of ROS.

2,378 citations


"A Review on Air Pollution Monitorin..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In plants, environmental adversities often leads to the increased generation of ROS and consequently, production of SOD has been proposed to be an important mechanism in plant stress tolerance (Alscher et al., 2002)....

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