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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACSSUSCHEMENG.0C06869

Closed-Loop Recycling of Lithium, Cobalt, Nickel, and Manganese from Waste Lithium-Ion Batteries of Electric Vehicles

04 Mar 2021-ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering (American Chemical Society (ACS))-Vol. 9, Iss: 12, pp 4398-4410
Abstract: With the growing awareness to protect the urban environment and the increasing demand for strategic materials, recycling of postconsumer lithium-ion batteries has become imperative. This study aims...

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Topics: Lithium (60%)
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6 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CEJ.2021.131637
Youzhou Jiang1, Xiangping Chen2, Shuxuan Yan1, Shuzhen Li2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Sustainable recycling of different value-added metals from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) can expect significant environmental and economic benefits for the fulfillment of resources utilization. During the separation and recovery of different metals, excessive chemical consumption caused by prolonged processes may eventually spoil the environmentally soundness recycling of spent LIBs. Here, Ferro-chemistry was innovatively proposed towards the recycling of different metals based on transformation of iron morphology from different types of spent LIBs (LiCoO2 and LiFePO4). It can be concluded from the thermodynamic results that redox reaction will take place in dilute sulfuric acid medium without addition of reductant/oxidant, indicating that Fe(II) in LFP can be used as reductant for the direct leaching of LiCoO2. Leaching results indicate that 99.9% Li, Fe, P and 92.4% Co can be dissolved and existed as Fe3+, Li+, PO43− and Co2+ under the optimized conditions, with a decline of over 80% acid consumption. The leaching kinetics of different metals and reaction mechanism suggest that Fe(II) will be promptly liberated to lixivium and then slowly oxidized into Fe(III) with the existence of Co(III), resulting in a synergetic leaching of Co and Fe. Then, Fe(III) can be precipitated as FePO4 at pH of 2.5, which can remove PO43− with the direct generation of LiFePO4 precursors. This above ferro-chemistry strategy can effectively reduce the consumption of chemicals with reduced environmental footprint.

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Topics: Leaching (metallurgy) (56%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2021.127214
Abstract: Water-soluble organic acids (e.g., acetic acid, acrylic acid, and ascorbic acid), as green leachants, have been applied to leach strategic metals (Ni, Li, Mn, and Co) from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Organic acid-based linear free energy relationship models were developed and simulated to predict the feasibility of the leaching efficiency for each of the strategic metals based on in silico calculated descriptors. The developed models, with accuracy (R2) of 0.747–0.831, reveal that hydrogen bond acidity of organic acids promotes the leaching efficiency, whereas molecular volume or excess molar refraction inhibits the efficiency. Furthermore, toxicity (lethal dose 50%) of organic acids was discussed along with the predicted leaching efficiency to explore more green and efficient organic acids. Considering both toxicity and leaching efficiency, citric acid was selected as a green and efficient leachant. To more improve the leaching performance (rate and efficiency) of citric acid, glucose as a green reductant and microwave treatment were additionally applied. Under the selected conditions, the leaching efficiencies after 1 h for Ni, Li, Mn, and Co were enhanced up to 98.3%, 99.1%, 98.7%, and 97.7%, respectively.

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Topics: Leaching (metallurgy) (63%), Ascorbic acid (57%), Organic acid (57%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2021.127900
Youping Miao1, Lili Liu1, Yuping Zhang, Quanyin Tan1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The rapid development of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in emerging markets is pouring huge reserves into, and triggering wide interest in, as the popularity of electric vehicles is driving the explosive growth of EV LIBs. These mounting demands are posing severe challenges to the supply of raw materials for LIBs and producing an enormous quantity of spent LIBs, bringing difficulties in the areas of resource allocation and environmental protection. This review article presents an overview of the global situation of power LIBs, aiming at different methods to treat spent power LIBs and their associated metals. We provide a critical review of power LIB supply chain, industrial development, waste treatment strategies and recycling, etc. Data show that power LIBs will form the largest proportion of the battery industry in the next 30 years, at a dramatically increasing rate. The analysis of the sustainable supply of critical metal materials is emphasised, as recycling metal materials can alleviate the tight supply chain of power LIBs. The existing significant recycling practices that have been recognised as economically beneficial can promote metal closed-loop recycling. Scientific thinking needs to innovate sustainable and cost-effective recycling technologies to protect the environment because of the chemicals contained in power LIBs.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RESCONREC.2021.106076
Ka Ho Chan1, Monu Malik1, Gisele Azimi1Institutions (1)
Abstract: With the expansion of lithium-ion battery market and the awareness of environmental protection, the development of green and sustainable technologies to recycle waste lithium-ion batteries has become urgent. Electrodialysis is an emerging green process to recover valuable metals from postconsumer lithium-ion batteries. This study focuses on the separation and recovery of lithium, nickel, manganese, and cobalt from LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2 chemistry of lithium-ion batteries using electrodialysis. Prior to the electrodialysis experiment, complexation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with four different metals is assessed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Using the developed three-stage electrodialysis process, 99.3% of nickel is separated in stage 1 and 87.3% of cobalt is then separated in stage 2 using electrodialysis coupled with EDTA. About 99% of lithium is sequentially separated from manganese in stage 3 using electrodialysis with a monovalent cation-exchange membrane. After the electrodialysis experiment, nickel and cobalt are decomplexed from EDTA at pH below 0.5 and all four metals are recovered with high purity of >99%. Electrodialysis offers a new route to recycle lithium-ion batteries with twofold benefits of providing a secondary source for strategic materials and reducing the number of lithium-ion batteries that are landfilled after they reach their end of life.

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Topics: Electrodialysis (73%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CHEMPR.2021.09.013
Xiaotu Ma1, Luqman Azhari1, Yan Wang1Institutions (1)
11 Nov 2021-Chem
Abstract: Summary Lithium-ion battery (LIB) recycling is critical given the continued electrification of vehicles and mass generation of spent LIBs. However, industrial-level recycling is hampered by a variety of factors that make large-scale recycling difficult while maintaining economic viability. Here, we address these challenges and provide guidance toward solutions and future work.

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References
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27 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10643389.2013.763578
Xianlai Zeng1, Jinhui Li1, Narendra Singh1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Lithium-ion battery (LIB) applications in consumer electronics and electric vehicles are rapidly growing, resulting in boosting resources demand, including cobalt and lithium. So recycling of batteries will be a necessity, not only to decline the consumption of energy, but also to relieve the shortage of rare resources and eliminate the pollution of hazardous components, toward sustainable industries related to consumer electronics and electric vehicles. The authors review the current status of the recycling processes of spent LIBs, introduce the structure and components of the batteries, and summarize all available single contacts in batch mode operation, including pretreatment, secondary treatment, and deep recovery. Additionally, many problems and prospect of the current recycling processes will be presented and analyzed. It is hoped that this effort would stimulate further interest in spent LIBs recycling and in the appreciation of its benefits.

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Topics: Battery (electricity) (51%)

446 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACSSUSCHEMENG.7B03811
Weiguang Lv1, Zhonghang Wang1, Hongbin Cao1, Yong Sun2  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has attracted significant attention in recent years due to the increasing demand for corresponding critical metals/materials and growing pressure on the environmental impact of solid waste disposal. A range of investigations have been carried out for recycling spent LIBs to obtain either battery materials or individual compounds. For the effective recovery of materials to be enhanced, physical pretreatment is usually applied to obtain different streams of waste materials ensuring efficient separation for further processing. Subsequently, a metallurgical process is used to extract metals or separate impurities from a specific waste stream so that the recycled materials or compounds can be further prepared by incorporating principles of materials engineering. In this review, the current status of spent LIB recycling is summarized in light of the whole recycling process, especially focusing on the hydrometallurgy. In addition to understanding different hydromet...

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Topics: Municipal solid waste (53%)

352 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2015.02.064
Xianlai Zeng1, Jinhui Li1, Shen Bingyu1Institutions (1)
Abstract: With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L(-1) solid-liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO2 of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle.

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Topics: Lithium-ion battery (57%), Leaching (chemistry) (54%), Lithium (52%) ... read more

261 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0378-7753(02)00037-X
Abstract: A recycling process involving mechanical, thermal, hydrometallurgical and sol–gel steps has been applied to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries and to synthesize LiCoO2 from leach liquor as cathodic active materials. Electrode materials containing lithium and cobalt can be concentrated with a two-step thermal and mechanical treatment. The leaching behavior of lithium and cobalt in nitric acid media is investigated in terms of reaction variables. Hydrogen peroxide in 1 M HNO3 solution is found to be an effective reducing agent by enhancing the leaching efficiency. Of the many possible processes to produce LiCoO2, the amorphous citrate precursor process (ACP) has been applied to synthesize powders with a large specific surface area and an exact stoichiometry. After leaching used LiCoO2 with nitric acid, the molar ratio of Li to Co in the leach liquor is adjusted to 1.1 by adding a fresh LiNO3 solution. Then, 1 M citric acid solution at a 100% stoichiometry is added to prepare a gelatinous precursor. When the precursor is calcined at 950 °C for 24 h, purely crystalline LiCoO2 is successfully obtained. The particle size and specific surface-area of the resulting crystalline powders are 20 μm and 30 cm2 g−1, respectively. The LiCoO2 powder is found to have good characteristics as a cathode active material in terms of charge–discharge capacity and cycling performance.

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Topics: Lithium-ion battery (59%), Leaching (chemistry) (58%), Cobalt (55%) ... read more

257 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JPOWSOUR.2012.12.089
Li Li1, Li Li2, Jennifer B. Dunn2, Xiaoxiao Zhang1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: A leaching process for the recovery of cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIB) is developed in this work. Three different organic acids, namely citric acid, malic acid and aspartic acid, are used as leaching reagents in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The cathode active materials before and after acid leaching are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Recovery of cobalt and lithium is optimized by varying the leachant and H 2 O 2 concentrations, the solid-to-liquid ratio, and the reaction temperature and duration. Whereas leaching with citric and malic acids recovered in excess of 90% of cobalt and lithium, leaching with aspartic acid recovered significantly less of these metals. The leaching mechanism likely begins with the dissolution of the active material (LiCoO 2 ) in the presence of H 2 O 2 followed by chelation of Co(II) and Li with citrate, malate or aspartate. An environmental analysis of the process indicates that it may be less energy and greenhouse gas intensive to recover Co from spent LIBs than to produce virgin cobalt oxide.

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Topics: Leaching (metallurgy) (63%), Cobalt (57%), Citric acid (54%) ... read more

256 Citations


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