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Journal ArticleDOI

Dual-frequency planar inverted-F antenna

01 Oct 1997-IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation (IEEE)-Vol. 45, Iss: 10, pp 1451-1458
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a planar dual-band inverted-F antenna for cellular handsets, which operates at the 0.9-GHz and 1.8-GHz bands.
Abstract: Cellular telephone handsets are now being designed to have dual-mode capabilities. In particular, there is a requirement for internal antennas for GSM and DCS1800 systems. This paper describes a novel planar dual-band inverted-F antenna for cellular handsets, which operates at the 0.9-GHz and 1.8-GHz bands. The dual-band antenna has almost the same size as a conventional inverted-F antenna operating at 0.9 GHz and has an isolation between bands of better than 17 dB. The bandwidths of the antenna are close to those required for the above systems. Good dual-band action is also obtained for other frequency ratios in the range of 1.3-2.4. Studies also show that the dual-band antenna can operate with one or two feeds. A finite-difference time-domain analysis has been shown to give calculated results close to those measured.
Citations
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Book
15 Jan 2002
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an overview of the most recent advances in regular-size Dual-Frequency Antennas and their application in a wide range of applications, including: 1.1 Introduction.
Abstract: Preface. 1. Introduction and Overview. 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Compact Microstrip Antennas. 1.3 Compact Broadband Microstrip Antennas. 1.4 Compact Dual-Frequency Microstrip Antennas. 1.5 Compact Dual-Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 1.6 Compact Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 1.7 Compact Microstrip Antennas with Enhanced Gain. 1.8 Broadband Microstrip Antennas. 1.9 Broadband Dual-Frequency and Dual-Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 1.10 Broadband and Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 2. Compact Microstrip Antennas. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Use of a Shorted Patch with a Thin Dielectric Substrate. 2.3 Use of a Meandered Patch. 2.4 Use of a Meandered Ground Plane. 2.5 Use of a Planar Inverted-L Patch. 2.6 Use of an Inverted U-Shaped or Folded Patch. 3. Compact Broadband Microstrip Antennas. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Use of a Shorted Patch with a Thick Air Substrate. 3.3 Use of Stacked Shorted Patches. 3.4 Use of Chip-Resistor and Chip-Capacitor Loading Technique. 3.5 Use of a Slot-Loading Technique. 3.6 Use of a Slotted Ground Plane. 4. Compact Dual-Frequency and Dual-Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Some Recent Advances in Regular-Size Dual-Frequency Designs. 4.3 Compact Dual-Frequency Operation with Same Polarization Planes. 4.4 Compact Dual-Frequency Operation. 4.5 Dual-Band or Triple-Band PIFA. 4.6 Compact Dual-Polarized Designs. 5. Compact Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Designs with a Cross-Slot of Unequal Arm Lengths. 5.3 Designs with a Y-Shaped Slot of Unequal Arm Lengths. 5.4 Designs with Slits. 5.5 Designs with Spur Lines. 5.6 Designs with Truncated Corners. 5.7 Designs with Peripheral Cuts. 5.8 Designs with a Tuning Stub. 5.9 Designs with a Bent Tuning Stub. 5.10 Compact CP Designs with an Inset Microstrip-Line Feed. 6. Compact Microstrip Antennas with Enhanced Gain. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Compact Microstrip Antennas with High-Permittivity Superstrate. 6.3 Compact Microstrip Antennas with Active Circuitry. 7. Broadband Microstrip Antennas. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Use of Additional Microstrip Resonators. 7.3 Microstrip Antennas with an Air Substrate. 7.4 Broadband Slot-Loaded Microstrip Antennas. 7.5 Broadband Microstrip Antennas with an Integrated Reactive Loading. 7.6 Broadband Microstrip Antennas with Reduced Cross-Polarization Radiation. 8. Broadband Dual-Frequency and Dual-Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Broadband Dual-Frequency Microstrip Antennas. 8.3 Broadband Dual-Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 9. Broadband and Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Broadband Single-Feed Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 9.3 Broadband Two-Feed Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 9.4 Broadband Four-Feed Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas. 9.5 Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas. Index.

1,734 citations


Cites background from "Dual-frequency planar inverted-F an..."

  • ...Other interesting PIFA designs for dual-band operation have been discussed [37, 38]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors summarize the work that has been developed by the authors for the last several years, in order to demonstrate that the Theory of Characteristic Modes can be used to perform a systematic design of different types of antennas.
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to summarize the work that has been developed by the authors for the last several years, in order to demonstrate that the Theory of Characteristic Modes can be used to perform a systematic design of different types of antennas. Characteristic modes are real current modes that can be computed numerically for conducting bodies of arbitrary shape. Since characteristic modes form a set of orthogonal functions, they can be used to expand the total current on the surface of the body. However, this paper shows that what makes characteristic modes really attractive for antenna design is the physical insight they bring into the radiating phenomena taking place in the antenna. The resonance frequency of modes, as well as their radiating behavior, can be determined from the information provided by the eigenvalues associated with the characteristic modes. Moreover, by studying the current distribution of modes, an optimum feeding arrangement can be found in order to obtain the desired radiating behavior.

565 citations


Cites methods from "Dual-frequency planar inverted-F an..."

  • ...Double-band and triple-band operation can be achieved by inserting slits in the PIFA's radiating path [ 37 , 38]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Several solutions are presented to reduce the mutual coupling between two planar inverted-F antennas working in close radiocommunication standards and positioned on a finite-sized ground plane modeling the printed circuit board (PCB) of a typical mobile phone.
Abstract: Several solutions are presented to reduce the mutual coupling between two planar inverted-F antennas (PIFAs) working in close radiocommunication standards and positioned on a finite-sized ground plane modeling the printed circuit board (PCB) of a typical mobile phone. First, the two PIFAs are designed on separate PCBs to, respectively, operate in the DCS1800 and UMTS bands. In a second step, they are associated on the top edge of the same PCB. Realistic arrangements are then theoretically and experimentally studied. Finally, several solutions are investigated to maximize the isolation. They consist in inserting a suspended line between the PIFAs' feedings and/or shorting points. All along this paper, several prototypes are fabricated and their performances measured to validate the obtained IE3D moment method-based simulation results

530 citations


Cites background from "Dual-frequency planar inverted-F an..."

  • ...The best antenna arrangement clearly seems to be the one where the shorting strips are facing, which follows the observations made by several authors [21], [26], [31]....

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  • ...We first choose to position both shorting strips in front of each other as this configuration is experimentally known to generate better isolation between the antennas [21], [22], [26], [31]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A systematic way to design concurrent multiband integrated LNAs in general is developed and experimental results of a dual-band LNA implemented in a 0.35-/spl mu/m CMOS technology are presented.
Abstract: The concept of concurrent multiband low-noise-amplifiers (LNAs) is introduced. A systematic way to design concurrent multiband integrated LNAs in general is developed. Applications of concurrent multiband LNAs in concurrent multiband receivers together with receiver architecture are discussed. Experimental results of a dual-band LNA implemented in a 0.35-/spl mu/m CMOS technology as a demonstration of the concept and theory is presented.

503 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the performance of the mobile phone handset antenna-chassis combination is analyzed based on an approximate decomposition of the waves on the structure into two resonant wavemodes: the antenna-element wavemode and the chassis wavemode.
Abstract: The performance of the mobile phone handset antenna-chassis combination is analyzed based on an approximate decomposition of the waves on the structure into two resonant wavemodes: the antenna-element wavemode and the chassis wavemode. A double resonator equivalent circuit model is presented and used to estimate the impedance bandwidth and the respective distributions of radiation losses with typical parameter values at 900 and 1800 MHz. It is noticed that at 900 MHz, the radiation losses of the antenna element wavemode represent typically less than 10% of the total power. Thus, the antenna element works mainly as a matching element, which couples to the low-Q resonant wavemode of the chassis. At 1800 MHz, the contribution of the antenna element wavemode is larger. By enhancing the coupling and by tuning the chassis resonance, it is possible to obtain an impedance bandwidth of over 50% (6 dB return loss) at both at 900 and 1800 MHz. The results given by the equivalent circuit study are fully supported by those of three-dimensional phone-model simulations, including calculation of the SAR and efficiency values. In prototyping, the 6 dB bandwidth of 5.5% was obtained at 980 MHz with a nonradiating coupling element with a volume of 1.6 cm/sup 3/ on a 120 mm long chassis.

500 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, highly absorbing boundary conditions for two-dimensional time-domain electromagnetic field equations are presented for both two-and three-dimensional configurations and numerical results are given that clearly exhibit the accuracy and limits of applicability of these boundary conditions.
Abstract: When time-domain electromagnetic-field equations are solved using finite-difference techniques in unbounded space, there must be a method limiting the domain in which the field is computed. This is achieved by truncating the mesh and using absorbing boundary conditions at its artificial boundaries to simulate the unbounded surroundings. This paper presents highly absorbing boundary conditions for electromagnetic-field equations that can be used for both two-and three-dimensional configurations. Numerical results are given that clearly exhibit the accuracy and limits of applicability of highly absorbing boundary conditions. A simplified, but equally accurate, absorbing condition is derived for two- dimensional time-domain electromagnetic-field problems.

2,553 citations


"Dual-frequency planar inverted-F an..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The outer boundaries of the FDTD computation space were terminated in secondorder Mur numerical absorbing boundaries to reduce reflection of the scattered fields [17]....

    [...]

Book
01 Feb 2001
TL;DR: In this paper, the relationship between all the elements involved in the design of antennas for mobile communications is discussed from a systems-oriented approach, providing a detailed discussion of equipment mountings, proximity of obstacles, and propagation phenomena.
Abstract: From the Publisher: Understand the relationship between all the elements involved in the design of antennas for mobile communications with this book Written from a systems-oriented approach, it provides a detailed discussion of equipment mountings, proximity of obstacles, and propagation phenomena It also presents the innovations that the printed antenna has made possible — such as compact adaptive arrays to combat fading Supplemented with 184 equations and 461 illustrations

488 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss full-wave modeling of electronic circuits in three dimensions using the finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) solution of Maxwell's equations.
Abstract: Most existing computer-aided circuit design tools are limited when digital clock speeds exceed several hundred MHz. These tools may not deal effectively with the physics of UHF and microwave electromagnetic wave energy transport along metal surfaces such as ground planes or in the air away from metal paths that are common at or above this frequency range. In this paper, we discuss full-wave modeling of electronic circuits in three dimensions using the finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) solution of Maxwell's equations. Parameters such as stripline complex line impedance, propagation constant, capacitance per unit length and inductance per unit length can be easily computed as a function of frequency. We also discuss FD-TD Maxwell's equations computational modeling of lumped-circuit loads and sources in 3-D, including resistors and resistive voltage sources, capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. We believe that this approach will be useful in simulating the large-signal behavior of very high-speed nonlinear analog and digital devices in the context of the full-wave time-dependent electromagnetic field. >

453 citations


"Dual-frequency planar inverted-F an..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The feed points were a one-cell-wide gap with 50internal impedance located between the feed pins and the case [18]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article presents an overview of the current state of wireless communications, including relevant ongoing activities in technology development, standards, and spectrum allocation, and ongoing and planned future developments are summarized.
Abstract: This article presents an overview of the current state of wireless communications, including relevant ongoing activities in technology development, standards, and spectrum allocation. The authors discuss cellular radio, cordless telephony, and wireless data systems. Ongoing and planned future developments are summarized. The presentation is oriented toward broad coverage rather than technical depth. However, brief discussions of the air interfaces for existing digital cellular and digital cordless systems are provided, because the air interface bears heavily on system capacity and the environments in which the system can be used, as well as on the cost and complexity of the equipment. >

327 citations


"Dual-frequency planar inverted-F an..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The dual-band cellular system suggests that there is a need for dual-frequency handset antennas [2]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The paper presents the analysis of small antennas mounted on hand-held transceivers using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, which is used to predict the gain patterns and broadband input impedance behavior of monopole, planar inverted F, and loop antenna elements mounted on the handset.
Abstract: The design of antennas for hand-held communications devices depends on the implementation of simulation tools that can accurately model general topologies. The paper presents the analysis of small antennas mounted on hand-held transceivers using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The key features of the FDTD implementation are discussed, with particular emphasis placed upon modeling of the source region. The technique is used to predict the gain patterns and broadband input impedance behavior of monopole, planar inverted F, and loop antenna elements mounted on the handset. Effects of the conducting handset chassis, the plastic casing around the device, and lumped elements integrated into the antenna design are illustrated. Experimental results are provided to verify the accuracy of the computational methodology. The concept of antenna diversity is discussed, and key assumptions and expressions are provided that characterize the multipath fading fields. Several computational examples demonstrate the diversity performance of two receiving antennas on a single handset. >

313 citations


"Dual-frequency planar inverted-F an..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Work on the effect of head interaction is receiving interest [9]–[12]....

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