Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity and standardisation of hydro-methanol extract of underground tuber of Dioscorea alata
10 Feb 2016-Pharmaceutical Biology (Pharm Biol)-Vol. 54, Iss: 8, pp 1474-1482
TL;DR: Different bioactive phytocompounds individually possessing anti-inflammatory activities contributed to the overall bioactivity of the D. alata tuber extract.
Abstract: Context The underground edible tuber of Dioscorea alata L. (Dioscoreaceae) is a functional food with high nutritive value and therapeutic potential. The tuber is known to possess anti-inflammatory properties in traditional medicine. Objective The present study explores the anti-inflammatory activity and standardisation of D. alata tuber hydromethanol extract. Materials and methods Hydromethanol extract (70%) of D. alata tuber was chemically characterised using HPLC and GC-MS techniques. Murine lymphocytes were cultured for 48 h with six different concentrations (0-80 μg/mL) of the extract. The expression of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, COX-1, COX-2, and PGE2 were evaluated using colorimetric and ELISA methods. Results Dioscorea alata extract inhibited the expression of NO and TNF-α with an IC50 value of 134.51 ± 6.75 and 113.30 ± 7.44 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 values for inhibition of total COX, COX-1, COX-2 activities and PGE2 level were 41.96 ± 3.07, 141.41 ± 8.99, 32.50 ± 1.69, and 186.34 ± 15.36 μg/mL, respectively. Inhibition of PGE2 level and COX-2 activity was positively correlated (R(2) = 0.9393). Gallic acid (GA), 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (4HBA), syringic acid (SYA), p-coumaric acid (PCA), and myricetin (MY) were identified and quantified using HPLC. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 13 different phytocompounds such as hexadecanoic acid, methyl stearate, cinnamyl cinnamate, and squalene. Conclusion The D. alata extract significantly down-regulated the pro-inflammatory signals in a gradual manner compared with control (0 μg/mL). Different bioactive phytocompounds individually possessing anti-inflammatory activities contributed to the overall bioactivity of the D. alata tuber extract.
TL;DR: Syringic acid (SA), a phenolic compound often found in fruits and vegetables and which is synthesized via shikimic acid pathway in plants, shows a wide range of therapeutic applications in prevention of diabetes, CVDs, cancer, cerebral ischemia; as well as it possess anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiendotoxic, neuro and hepatoprotective activities.
Abstract: The use of phytochemicals in control of human diseases have been considerable public and scientific interest in current days Syringic acid (SA), a phenolic compound often found in fruits and vegetables and which is synthesized via shikimic acid pathway in plants It shows a wide range of therapeutic applications in prevention of diabetes, CVDs, cancer, cerebral ischemia; as well as it possess anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiendotoxic, neuro and hepatoprotective activities It has an effective free radical scavenger and alleviates the oxidative stress markers The therapeutic property of SA is attributed by the presence of methoxy groups onto the aromatic ring at positions 3 and 5 The strong antioxidant activity of SA may confer its beneficial effects for human health SA has the potential to modulate enzyme activity, protein dynamics and diverse transcription factors involved in diabetes, inflammation, cancer and angiogenesis In vivo experimental data and histopathological studies on SA activity has delineated its possible therapeutic mechanisms Besides usage in biomedical field, SA has greater industrial applications in bioremediation, photocatalytic ozonation, and laccase based catalysis The present review deals about SA natural sources, biosynthesis, bioavailability, biomedical applications (in vivo and in vito The review addresses basic information about molecular mechanisms, therapeutic and industrial potential of SA
TL;DR: This review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the key notions of intestinal microbiota and dysbiosis and highlight the microbiota-phytochemical bidirectional interactions that affects bioavailability and bioactivity of parent phytochemicals and their metabolites.
Abstract: The dynamic and delicate interactions amongst intestinal microbiota, metabolome and metabolism dictates human health and disease. In recent years, our understanding of gut microbial regulation of intestinal immunometabolic and redox homeostasis have evolved mainly out of in vivo studies associated with high-fat feeding induced metabolic diseases. Techniques utilizing fecal transplantation and germ-free mice have been instrumental in reproducibly demonstrating how the gut microbiota affects disease pathogenesis. However, the pillars of modern drug discovery i.e. evidence-based pharmacological studies critically lack focus on intestinal microflora. This is primarily due to targeted in vitro molecular-approaches at cellular-level that largely overlook the etiology of disease pathogenesis from the physiological perspective. Thus, this review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the key notions of intestinal microbiota and dysbiosis, and highlight the microbiota-phytochemical bidirectional interactions that affects bioavailability and bioactivity of parent phytochemicals and their metabolites. Potentially by focusing on the three major aspects of gut microbiota i.e. microbial abundance, diversity, and functions, I will discuss phytochemical-microbiota reciprocal interactions, biotransformation of phytochemicals and plant-derived drugs, and pre-clinical and clinical efficacies of herbal medicine on dysbiosis. Additionally, in relation to phytochemical pharmacology, I will briefly discuss the role of dietary-patterns associated with changes in microbial profiles and review pharmacological study models considering possible microbial effects. This review therefore, emphasize on the timely and critically needed evidence-based phytochemical studies focusing on gut microbiota and will provide newer insights for future pre-clinical and clinical phytopharmacological interventions.
TL;DR: The results concluded that the presences of hormetic dietary phytochemicals in tubers might drive the stress response in C. elegans via HSF-1 and SKN-1/Nrf2 signaling pathways.
Abstract: Mild stress activates the adaptive cellular response for the subsequent severe stress called hormesis. Hormetic stress plays a vital role to activate multiple stress-responsive genes for the benefit of an organism. In tropical regions of world, tubers of Dioscorea spp. has been extensively used in folk medicine and also consumed as food. In this study, we report that the phytochemicals of Dioscorea alata L., tubers extends the lifespan of nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans by hormetic mechanism. We showed that the low dose of tubers extract at 200 and 300 μg/mL extends the mean lifespan of wild-type worms, whereas higher doses are found to be toxic. Supplementation of tubers extract slightly increased the intracellular ROS in second-day adult worms and it might activate the adaptive stress response, which protects the worms from oxidative and thermal stress. Transgenic reporter gene expression assay showed that extract treatment enhanced the expression of stress protective genes such as hsp-16.2, hsp-6, hsp-60 and gst-4. Further studies proved that the transcription factors HSF-1 and SKN-1/Nrf2 were implicated in hormetic stress response of the worms. Moreover, pretreatment of extract reduced the high glucose-mediated lipid accumulation by enhancing the expression of glyoxalase-1. It was also found that the aggregation of Parkinson’s related protein α-synuclein reduced in the transgenic strain NL5901 and extended its lifespan. Finally, our results concluded that the presences of hormetic dietary phytochemicals in tubers might drive the stress response in C. elegans via HSF-1 and SKN-1/Nrf2 signaling pathways.
Gazi University1, Zabol University of Medical Sciences2, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology3, Lahore College for Women University4, University of South Africa5, University of Yaoundé6, Cairo University7, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services8, University of Naples Federico II9, Canadian Real Estate Association10, University of Melbourne11
TL;DR: Dioscorea is a potential source of bioactive substances of interest in the prevention/treatment of several diseases, and thus represents a great challenge in developing countries, however, ethnomedicinal potential should be validated and further researches on pharmacological properties and phytochemical composition should be carried out.
Abstract: Dioscorea species, known as "Yams," belong to family Dioscoreaceae. This genus consists of more than 600 species distributed from Africa, Asia, the Caribbean's South America, and the South Pacific islands. Their organoleptic properties make them the most widely used carbohydrate food and dietary supplements. The underground and/or aerial tubers represent valuable sources of proteins, fats, and vitamins for millions of people in West Africa. This review gives a shot of secondary metabolites of Dioscorea plants, including steroids, clerodane diterpenes, quinones, cyanidins, phenolics, diarylheptanoids, and nitrogen-containing compounds. This review collected the evidence on biological properties of description Dioscorea, including in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Dioscorea species contain promising bioactive molecules i.e. diosgenin that support their different biological properties, including antioxidant, hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic, anti- antimicrobial, inflammatory, antiproliferative, androgenic, estrogenic, and contraceptive drugs. Indeed, besides its nutrient values, Dioscorea is a potential source of bioactive substances of interest in the prevention/treatment of several diseases, and thus represents a great challenge in developing countries. However, ethnomedicinal potential should be validated and further researches on pharmacological properties and phytochemical composition should be carried out. Particularly, doing some studies to convert the preclinical results to clinical efficacy should be guaranteed. Dioscorea, Food plant, Traditional use, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological activities.
TL;DR: The lipid decomposition studies in frozen fish have led to the development of a simple and rapid method for the extraction and purification of lipids from biological materials that has been applied to fish muscle and may easily be adapted to use with other tissues.
Abstract: Lipid decomposition studies in frozen fish have led to the development of a simple and rapid method for the extraction and purification of lipids from biological materials. The entire procedure can...
01 Jan 1973
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present methods of extraction and isolation of plant components and methods of separation, and methods for identification and analysis of the results of the extraction and separation of these components.
Abstract: 1 Methods of Plant Analysis.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Methods of extraction and isolation.- 1.3 Methods of separation.- 1.4 Methods of identification.- 1.5 Analysis of results.- 1.6 Applications.- 2 Phenolic Compounds.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Phenols and phenolic acids.- 2.3 Phenylpropanoids.- 2.4 Flavonoid pigments.- 2.5 Anthocyanins.- 2.6 Flavonols and flavones.- 2.7 Minor flavonoids, xanthones and stilbenes.- 2.8 Tannins.- 2.9 Quinone pigments.- 3 The Terpenoids.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Essential oils.- 3.3 Diterpenoids and gibberellins.- 3.4 Triterpenoids and steroids.- 3.5 Carotenoids.- 4 Organic Acids, Lipids and Related Compounds.- 4.1 Plant acids.- 4.2 Fatty acids and lipids.- 4.3 Alkanes and related hydrocarbons.- 4.4 Polyacetylenes.- 4.5 Sulphur compounds.- 5 Nitrogen Compounds.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Amino acids.- 5.3 Amines.- 5.4 Alkaloids.- 5.5 Cyanogenic glycosides.- 5.6 Indoles.- 5.7 Purines, pyrimidines and cytokinins.- 5.8 Chlorophylls.- 6 Sugars and their Derivatives.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Monosaccharides.- 6.3 Oligosaccharides.- 6.4 Sugar alcohols and cyclitols.- 7 Macromolecules.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Nucleic acids.- 7.3 Proteins.- 7.4 Polysaccharides.
TL;DR: ins biology has potential clinical relevance for atherosclerosis, the response to vascular injury and aortic aneurysm, and the roles of individual mediators and their receptors in modulating the inflammatory response.
Abstract: Prostaglandins are lipid autacoids derived from arachidonic acid. They both sustain homeostatic functions and mediate pathogenic mechanisms, including the inflammatory response. They are generated from arachidonate by the action of cyclooxygenase isoenzymes, and their biosynthesis is blocked by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, including those selective for inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2. Despite the clinical efficacy of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, prostaglandins may function in both the promotion and resolution of inflammation. This review summarizes insights into the mechanisms of prostaglandin generation and the roles of individual mediators and their receptors in modulating the inflammatory response. Prostaglandin biology has potential clinical relevance for atherosclerosis, the response to vascular injury and aortic aneurysm.
TL;DR: The results suggest that nitric oxide is the precursor of nitrite/nitrate synthesized by cytotoxic activated macrophages and, via formation of iron-nitric oxide complexes and subsequent degradation of Iron-sulfur prosthetic groups, an effector molecule.
Abstract: The experiments reported here identify nitric oxide as a molecular effector of activated macrophage induced cytotoxicity. Cytotoxic activated macrophages synthesize nitric oxide from a terminal guanidino nitrogen atom of L-arginine which is converted to L-citrulline without loss of the guanidino carbon atom. In addition, authentic nitric oxide gas causes the same pattern of cytotoxicity in L10 hepatoma cells as is induced by cytotoxic activated macrophages (iron loss as well as inhibition of DNA synthesis, mitochondrial respiration, and aconitase activity). The results suggest that nitric oxide is the precursor of nitrite/nitrate synthesized by cytotoxic activated macrophages and, via formation of iron-nitric oxide complexes and subsequent degradation of iron-sulfur prosthetic groups, an effector molecule.
"Evaluation of anti-inflammatory act..." refers methods in this paper