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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.048568

Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Preserves High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Improves Survival in Sepsis.

02 Mar 2021-Circulation (Lippincott Williams & WilkinsHagerstown, MD)-Vol. 143, Iss: 9, pp 921-934
Abstract: Background: The high-density lipoprotein hypothesis of atherosclerosis has been challenged by clinical trials of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors, which failed to show significa...

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Topics: Cholesterylester transfer protein (69%), Lipoprotein (59%), Cholesterol (56%) ... show more
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19 results found


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: BACKGROUND In 2013, New York began requiring hospitals to follow protocols for the early identification and treatment of sepsis. However, there is controversy about whether more rapid treatment of sepsis improves outcomes in patients. METHODS We studied data from patients with sepsis and septic shock that were reported to the New York State Department of Health from April 1, 2014, to June 30, 2016. Patients had a sepsis protocol initiated within 6 hours after arrival in the emergency department and had all items in a 3‐hour bundle of care for patients with sepsis (i.e., blood cultures, broad‐spectrum antibiotic agents, and lactate measurement) completed within 12 hours. Multilevel models were used to assess the associations between the time until completion of the 3‐hour bundle and risk‐adjusted mortality. We also examined the times to the administration of antibiotics and to the completion of an initial bolus of intravenous fluid. RESULTS Among 49,331 patients at 149 hospitals, 40,696 (82.5%) had the 3‐hour bundle completed within 3 hours. The median time to completion of the 3‐hour bundle was 1.30 hours (interquartile range, 0.65 to 2.35), the median time to the administration of antibiotics was 0.95 hours (interquartile range, 0.35 to 1.95), and the median time to completion of the fluid bolus was 2.56 hours (interquartile range, 1.33 to 4.20). Among patients who had the 3‐hour bundle completed within 12 hours, a longer time to the completion of the bundle was associated with higher risk‐adjusted in‐hospital mortality (odds ratio, 1.04 per hour; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.05; P<0.001), as was a longer time to the administration of antibiotics (odds ratio, 1.04 per hour; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.06; P<0.001) but not a longer time to the completion of a bolus of intravenous fluids (odds ratio, 1.01 per hour; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.02; P=0.21). CONCLUSIONS More rapid completion of a 3‐hour bundle of sepsis care and rapid administration of antibiotics, but not rapid completion of an initial bolus of intravenous fluids, were associated with lower risk‐adjusted in‐hospital mortality. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.)

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662 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0248602
Ryan J. Scalsky1, Yi-Ju Chen1, Karan Desai1, Jeffery R. O'Connell1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Apr 2021-PLOS ONE
Abstract: BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a rapidly spreading coronavirus responsible for the Covid-19 pandemic, which is characterized by severe respiratory infection. Many factors have been identified as risk factors for SARS-CoV-2, with much early attention being paid to body mass index (BMI), which is a well-known cardiometabolic risk factor. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to examine the impact of additional baseline cardiometabolic risk factors including high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and diabetes on the odds of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in UK Biobank (UKB) study participants. METHODS: We examined the effect of BMI, lipid profiles, diabetes and alcohol intake on the odds of testing positive for SARS-Cov-2 among 9,005 UKB participants tested for SARS-CoV-2 from March 16 through July 14, 2020. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed using logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and ancestry. RESULTS: Higher BMI, Type II diabetes and HbA1c were associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 odds (p < 0.05) while HDL-C and ApoA-I were associated with decreased odds (p < 0.001). Though the effect of BMI, Type II diabetes and HbA1c were eliminated when HDL-C was controlled, the effect of HDL-C remained significant when BMI was controlled for. LDL-C, ApoB and triglyceride levels were not found to be significantly associated with increased odds. CONCLUSION: Elevated HDL-C and ApoA-I levels were associated with reduced odds of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, while higher BMI, type II diabetes and HbA1c were associated with increased odds. The effects of BMI, type II diabetes and HbA1c levels were no longer significant after controlling for HDL-C, suggesting that these effects may be mediated in part through regulation of HDL-C levels. In summary, our study suggests that baseline HDL-C level may be useful for stratifying SARS-CoV-2 infection risk and corroborates the emerging picture that HDL-C may confer protection against sepsis in general and SARS-CoV-2 in particular.

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Topics: Odds ratio (59%), Respiratory infection (53%), Body mass index (52%) ... show more

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS10051041
28 Apr 2021-Cells
Abstract: The vascular endothelium serves as a barrier between the intravascular and extravascular compartments. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) have two kinds of interactions with this barrier. First, bloodborne HDL must pass the endothelium to access extravascular tissues, for example the arterial wall or the brain, to mediate cholesterol efflux from macrophages and other cells or exert other functions. To complete reverse cholesterol transport, HDL must even pass the endothelium a second time to re-enter circulation via the lymphatics. Transendothelial HDL transport is a regulated process involving scavenger receptor SR-BI, endothelial lipase, and ATP binding cassette transporters A1 and G1. Second, HDL helps to maintain the integrity of the endothelial barrier by (i) promoting junction closure as well as (ii) repair by stimulating the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and their progenitor cells, and by preventing (iii) loss of glycocalix, (iv) apoptosis, as well as (v) transmigration of inflammatory cells. Additional vasoprotective functions of HDL include (vi) the induction of nitric oxide (NO) production and (vii) the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These vasoprotective functions are exerted by the interactions of HDL particles with SR-BI as well as specific agonists carried by HDL, notably sphingosine-1-phophate (S1P), with their specific cellular counterparts, e.g., S1P receptors. Various diseases modify the protein and lipid composition and thereby the endothelial functionality of HDL. Thorough understanding of the structure-function relationships underlying the multiple interactions of HDL with endothelial cells is expected to elucidate new targets and strategies for the treatment or prevention of various diseases.

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Topics: Reverse cholesterol transport (57%), Endothelium (55%), Endothelial lipase (54%) ... show more

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10409238.2021.1925217
Abstract: Plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) inversely correlate with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The causal relationship between plasma HDL-cholesterol levels and CVD has been called into question by Mendelian randomization studies and the majority of clinical trials not showing any benefit of plasma HDL-cholesterol raising drugs on CVD. Nonetheless, recent Mendelian randomization studies including an increased number of CVD cases compared to earlier studies have confirmed that HDL-cholesterol levels and CVD are causally linked. Moreover, several studies in large population cohorts have shown that the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL inversely correlates with CVD. Cholesterol efflux pathways exert anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects by suppressing proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and inflammation and inflammasome activation in macrophages. Cholesterol efflux pathways also suppress the accumulation of cholesteryl esters in macrophages, i.e. macrophage foam cell formation. Recent single-cell RNASeq studies on atherosclerotic plaques have suggested that macrophage foam cells have lower expression of inflammatory genes than non-foam cells, probably reflecting liver X receptor activation, upregulation of ATP Binding Cassette A1 and G1 cholesterol transporters and suppression of inflammation. However, when these pathways are defective lesional foam cells may become pro-inflammatory.

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Topics: Liver X receptor (57%), Foam cell (56%), Inflammation (53%) ... show more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS10051061
29 Apr 2021-Cells
Abstract: High density lipoproteins (HDL) are heterogeneous particles composed by a vast array of proteins and lipids, mostly recognized for their cardiovascular (CV) protective effects. However, evidences from basic to clinical research have contributed to depict a role of HDL in the modulation of immune-inflammatory response thus paving the road to investigate their involvement in other diseases beyond those related to the CV system. HDL-C levels and HDL composition are indeed altered in patients with autoimmune diseases and usually associated to disease severity. At molecular levels, HDL have been shown to modulate the anti-inflammatory potential of endothelial cells and, by controlling the amount of cellular cholesterol, to interfere with the signaling through plasma membrane lipid rafts in immune cells. These findings, coupled to observations acquired from subjects carrying mutations in genes related to HDL system, have helped to elucidate the contribution of HDL beyond cholesterol efflux thus posing HDL-based therapies as a compelling interventional approach to limit the inflammatory burden of immune-inflammatory diseases.

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3 Citations


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68 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2016.0287
23 Feb 2016-JAMA
Abstract: Importance Definitions of sepsis and septic shock were last revised in 2001. Considerable advances have since been made into the pathobiology (changes in organ function, morphology, cell biology, biochemistry, immunology, and circulation), management, and epidemiology of sepsis, suggesting the need for reexamination. Objective To evaluate and, as needed, update definitions for sepsis and septic shock. Process A task force (n = 19) with expertise in sepsis pathobiology, clinical trials, and epidemiology was convened by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Definitions and clinical criteria were generated through meetings, Delphi processes, analysis of electronic health record databases, and voting, followed by circulation to international professional societies, requesting peer review and endorsement (by 31 societies listed in the Acknowledgment). Key Findings From Evidence Synthesis Limitations of previous definitions included an excessive focus on inflammation, the misleading model that sepsis follows a continuum through severe sepsis to shock, and inadequate specificity and sensitivity of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria. Multiple definitions and terminologies are currently in use for sepsis, septic shock, and organ dysfunction, leading to discrepancies in reported incidence and observed mortality. The task force concluded the term severe sepsis was redundant. Recommendations Sepsis should be defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. For clinical operationalization, organ dysfunction can be represented by an increase in the Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of 2 points or more, which is associated with an in-hospital mortality greater than 10%. Septic shock should be defined as a subset of sepsis in which particularly profound circulatory, cellular, and metabolic abnormalities are associated with a greater risk of mortality than with sepsis alone. Patients with septic shock can be clinically identified by a vasopressor requirement to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 65 mm Hg or greater and serum lactate level greater than 2 mmol/L (>18 mg/dL) in the absence of hypovolemia. This combination is associated with hospital mortality rates greater than 40%. In out-of-hospital, emergency department, or general hospital ward settings, adult patients with suspected infection can be rapidly identified as being more likely to have poor outcomes typical of sepsis if they have at least 2 of the following clinical criteria that together constitute a new bedside clinical score termed quickSOFA (qSOFA): respiratory rate of 22/min or greater, altered mentation, or systolic blood pressure of 100 mm Hg or less. Conclusions and Relevance These updated definitions and clinical criteria should replace previous definitions, offer greater consistency for epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, and facilitate earlier recognition and more timely management of patients with sepsis or at risk of developing sepsis.

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Topics: Sepsis Six (75%), Surviving Sepsis Campaign (73%), Septic shock (63%) ... show more

9,896 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1097/01.CCM.0000050454.01978.3B
Abstract: Objective: In 1991, the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) convened a "Consensus Conference", the goals of which were to provide a conceptual and a practical framework to define the systemic inflammatory response to infection, which is a progressive inju- rious process that falls under the gen- eralized term 'sepsis' and includes sepsis-associated organ dysfunction as well. The general definitions intro- duced as a result of that conference have been widely used in practice, and have served as the foundation for in- clusion criteria for numerous clinical trials of therapeutic interventions. Nevertheless, there has been an impe- tus from experts in the field to modify these definitions to reflect our current understanding of the pathophysiology of these syndromes. Design: Several North American and European inten- sive care societies agreed to revisit the definitions for sepsis and related con- ditions. This conference was spon- sored by the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), The European So-

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5,018 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00134-003-1662-X
Abstract: In 1991, the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) convened a "Consensus Conference," the goals of which were to "provide a conceptual and a practical framework to define the systemic inflammatory response to infection, which is a progressive injurious process that falls under the generalized term 'sepsis' and includes sepsis-associated organ dysfunction as well. The general definitions introduced as a result of that conference have been widely used in practice, and have served as the foundation for inclusion criteria for numerous clinical trials of therapeutic interventions. Nevertheless, there has been an impetus from experts in the field to modify these definitions to reflect our current understanding of the pathophysiology of these syndromes. Several North American and European intensive care societies agreed to revisit the definitions for sepsis and related conditions. This conference was sponsored by the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), The European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM), The American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the Surgical Infection Society (SIS). 29 participants attended the conference from Europe and North America. In advance of the conference, subgroups were formed to evaluate the following areas: signs and symptoms of sepsis, cell markers, cytokines, microbiologic data, and coagulation parameters.. The present manuscript serves as the final report of the 2001 International Sepsis Definitions Conference. 1. Current concepts of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock remain useful to clinicians and researchers. 2. These definitions do not allow precise staging or prognostication of the host response to infection. 3. While SIRS remains a useful concept, the diagnostic criteria for SIRS published in 1992 are overly sensitive and non-specific. 4. An expanded list of signs and symptoms of sepsis may better reflect the clinical response to infection. 6. PIRO, a hypothetical model for staging sepsis is presented, which, in the future, may better characterize the syndrome on the basis of predisposing factors and premorbid conditions, the nature of the underlying infection, the characteristics of the host response, and the extent of the resultant organ dysfunction.

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Topics: Intensive care (56%)

4,128 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00134-017-4683-6
Andrew Rhodes1, Laura Evans2, Waleed Alhazzani3, Mitchell M. Levy4  +55 moreInstitutions (37)
Abstract: To provide an update to “Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012”. A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups and among the entire committee served as an integral part of the development. The panel consisted of five sections: hemodynamics, infection, adjunctive therapies, metabolic, and ventilation. Population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) questions were reviewed and updated as needed, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations, and 18 were best-practice statements. No recommendation was provided for four questions. Substantial agreement exists among a large cohort of international experts regarding many strong recommendations for the best care of patients with sepsis. Although a significant number of aspects of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality.

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Topics: Surviving Sepsis Campaign (70%), Evidence-based medicine (53%), Population (51%) ... show more

3,296 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA0706628
Abstract: Background Inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) has been shown to have a substantial effect on plasma lipoprotein levels. We investigated whether torcetrapib, a potent CETP inhibitor, might reduce major cardiovascular events. The trial was terminated prematurely because of an increased risk of death and cardiac events in patients receiving torcetrapib. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind study involving 15,067 patients at high cardiovascular risk. The patients received either torcetrapib plus atorvastatin or atorvastatin alone. The primary outcome was the time to the first major cardiovascular event, which was defined as death from coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina. Results At 12 months in patients who received torcetrapib, there was an increase of 72.1% in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a decrease of 24.9% in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as compared with baseline (P<0.001 for both compari...

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Topics: Torcetrapib (72%), Evacetrapib (66%), Dalcetrapib (60%) ... show more

2,664 Citations