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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JDCR.2021.02.018

Oral angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for treatment of delayed inflammatory reaction to dermal hyaluronic acid fillers following COVID-19 vaccination-a model for inhibition of angiotensin II-induced cutaneous inflammation.

02 Mar 2021-JAAD case reports (Elsevier)-Vol. 10, pp 63-68
Abstract: We present 4 cases of delayed inflammatory reaction (DIR) to facial dermal hyaluronic acid filler rapidly following vaccination for COVID-19. All DIRs occurred after a hyaluronic acid filler had been placed more than 1 year before vaccination. All patients responded rapidly to therapy with a low dose of oral lisinopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I), which decreases the cutaneous filler-related inflammatory reaction and edema by a novel proposed mechanism.

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Topics: Angiotensin II (60%), Lisinopril (53%), Angiotensin-converting enzyme (52%) ... read more
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17 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/BJD.20639
Abstract: Background Cutaneous reactions after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines are poorly characterized. Objective To describe and classify cutaneous reactions after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Methods A nationwide Spanish cross-sectional study was conducted. We included patients with cutaneous reactions within 21 days of any dose of the approved vaccines at the time of the study. After a face-to-face visit with a dermatologist, information on cutaneous reactions was collected via an online professional survey and clinical photographs were sent by email. Investigators searched for consensus on clinical patterns and classification. Results From 16 February to 15 May 2021, we collected 405 reactions after vaccination with the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech; 40·2%), mRNA-1273 (Moderna; 36·3%) and AZD1222 (AstraZeneca; 23·5%) vaccines. Mean patient age was 50·7 years and 80·2% were female. Cutaneous reactions were classified as injection site ('COVID arm', 32·1%), urticaria (14·6%), morbilliform (8·9%), papulovesicular (6·4%), pityriasis rosea-like (4·9%) and purpuric (4%) reactions. Varicella zoster and herpes simplex virus reactivations accounted for 13·8% of reactions. The COVID arm was almost exclusive to women (95·4%). The most reported reactions in each vaccine group were COVID arm (mRNA-1273, Moderna, 61·9%), varicella zoster virus reactivation (BNT162b2, Pfizer-BioNTech, 17·2%) and urticaria (AZD1222, AstraZeneca, 21·1%). Most reactions to the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine were described in women (90·5%). Eighty reactions (21%) were classified as severe/very severe and 81% required treatment. Conclusions Cutaneous reactions after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are heterogeneous. Most are mild-to-moderate and self-limiting, although severe/very severe reactions are reported. Knowledge of these reactions during mass vaccination may help healthcare professionals and reassure patients.

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20 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CLINDERMATOL.2021.04.001
Abstract: Vaccination has played a crucial role in the improvement of global health. Some of the world's deadliest diseases, like smallpox and rinderpest, have been eradicated with the help of vaccines, and many others have been restrained. The appearance of the strain of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and its impact on global health have made the development of effective and safe vaccines crucial for this new lethal disease. So far, there are three main types of COVID-19 vaccines in use around the world: messenger RNA-based vaccines, adenoviral vector vaccines, and inactivated whole-virus vaccines. Some of them have passed through phase 3 of safety and efficacy trials and are widely used for prophylaxis of COVID-19 infection. A plethora of cutaneous adverse events have been reported, most of them mild or moderate injection-site reactions. Some rare delayed inflammatory reactions such as "COVID arm" have also been reported, posing questions on their pathophysiology and clinical importance. Some rare serious adverse events, such as vaccine-induced prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia and anaphylaxis, have been described raising great concerns on the safety of some widely spread vaccines. More data need to be collected with further and more detailed analysis. The overall risk of such severe adverse reactions remains extremely low, and the benefits of the existing vaccines in combating the widespread threat of COVID-19 continue to outweigh the risk of their side effects.

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Topics: Vaccination (52%)

16 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.DET.2021.05.016
Abstract: In 2021, we entered a new phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. As mass vaccinations are underway and more vaccines are approved, it is important to recognize cutaneous adverse events. We review the dermatologic manifestations of COVID-19 vaccines as reported in clinical trial data and summarize additional observational reports of skin reactions to COVID-19 vaccines. Early-onset local injection reactions were the most common cutaneous side effects observed in clinical trials; delayed injection reactions were the most common cutaneous side effect reported outside of clinical trials. Understanding the landscape of cutaneous manifestations to COVID-19 vaccines is key to providing appropriate vaccine guidance.

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11 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/JOCD.14074
Abstract: The incidence of hypersensitivity reactions to hyaluronic acid dermal fillers is between 0.3 and 4.25%, mediated by T-lymphocytes. Flu-like illness can trigger immunogenic reactions at the site of filler placement. Cases of SARS-CoV-2 are significant and pose a possible risk of inducing hypersensitivity. This case report is of a delayed-type hypersensitivity after hyaluronic acid dermal filler treatment of the nose and subsequent infection with SARS-CoV-2. Risk factors for the development of such symptoms were identified as the presence of hyaluronic acid combined with flu-like illness and repeated treatment of one area. The case resolved without intervention. Clinicians should be mindful of the risk posed by the interaction of hyaluronic acid dermal filler with SARS-CoV-2 in light of the pandemic.

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11 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7759/CUREUS.14453
13 Apr 2021-Cureus
Abstract: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) local scar inflammatory reactions have been mostly associated with Kawasaki disease in children and less commonly with other viral infections (i.e., measles). BCG scar inflammation associated with or following vaccine administration has only been reported with the influenza vaccine. We describe the first reports in the literature of local BCG inflammation following two different available messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (anti-SARS-CoV-2) vaccines (mRNA-1273, and BNT162b2) in two young healthy physicians, one from Costa Rica, and another from the United States of America, with normal cell blood counts, flow cytometries, and negative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In both cases, BCG scar inflammation appeared after 24 hours of vaccination of the second dose, without signs of reaction on the injection site, and resolved within four days. Dermoscopic findings in one case showed arborizing and comma-shaped vessels. Pharmacovigilance surveillance of BCG scar reactions following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines should be considered particularly in countries where BCG is part of their national immunization programs.

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Topics: Vaccination (54%), Influenza vaccine (52%), Measles (52%)

4 Citations


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19 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-020-18319-6
Abstract: Study of the interactions established between the viral glycoproteins and their host receptors is of critical importance for a better understanding of virus entry into cells. The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells is mediated by its spike glycoprotein (S-glycoprotein), and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as a cellular receptor. Here, we use atomic force microscopy to investigate the mechanisms by which the S-glycoprotein binds to the ACE2 receptor. We demonstrate, both on model surfaces and on living cells, that the receptor binding domain (RBD) serves as the binding interface within the S-glycoprotein with the ACE2 receptor and extract the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of this binding pocket. Altogether, these results provide a picture of the established interaction on living cells. Finally, we test several binding inhibitor peptides targeting the virus early attachment stages, offering new perspectives in the treatment of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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Topics: Entry into host (62%), Plasma protein binding (53%), Binding site (52%) ... read more

174 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.0906-6705.2004.0139.X
Abstract: The present study examined the expression of angiotensin receptors in human skin, the potential synthesis of angiotensin II (Ang II) in this location and looked for a first insight into physiological functions. AT1 and AT2 receptors were found within the epidermis and in dermal vessel walls. The same expression pattern was found for angiotensinogen, renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). All components could additionally be demonstrated at mRNA level in cultured primary keratinocytes, melanocytes, dermal fibroblasts and dermal microvascular endothelial cells, except for AT2 receptors in melanocytes. The ability of cutaneous cells to synthesize Ang II was proved by identifying the molecule in cultured keratinocytes. Furthermore, in artificially wounded keratinocyte monolayers, ACE-mRNA expression was rapidly increased, and enhanced ACE expression was still found in cutaneous human scars 3 months after wounding. These findings suggest that the complete renin-angiotensin system is present in human skin and plays a role in normal cutaneous homeostasis as well as in human cutaneous wound healing.

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Topics: Angiotensin II (63%), Human skin (57%), Angiotensin receptor (57%) ... read more

129 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1253/CIRCJ.CJ-12-1544
Keiji Kuba1, Yumiko Imai1, Josef M. Penninger2Institutions (2)
25 Jan 2013-Circulation
Abstract: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system, and functions as the key SARS coronavirus receptor and stabilizer of neutral amino acid transporters. ACE2 catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, thereby counterbalancing ACE activity. Accumulating evidence indicates that the enzymatic activity of ACE2 has a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. Loss of ACE2 can be detrimental, as it leads to functional deterioration of the heart and progression of cardiac, renal, and vascular pathologies. Recombinant soluble human ACE2 protein has been demonstrated to exhibit beneficial effects in various animal models, including cardiovascular diseases. ACE2 is a multifunctional enzyme and thus potentially acts on other vasoactive peptides, such as Apelin, a vital regulator of blood pressure and myocardium contractility. In addition, ACE2 is structurally a chimeric protein that has emerged from the duplication of 2 genes: homology with ACE at the carboxypeptidase domain and homology with Collectrin in the transmembrane C-terminal domain. ACE2 has been implicated in the pathology of Hartnup's disease, a disorder of amino acid homeostasis, and, via its function in amino acid transport, it has been recently revealed that ACE2 controls intestinal inflammation and diarrhea, thus regulating the gut microbiome. This review summarizes and discusses the structure and multiple functions of ACE2 and the relevance of this key enzyme in disease pathogenesis.

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Topics: Angiotensin II (63%), Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (60%), Amino acid homeostasis (59%) ... read more

122 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12016-012-8348-5
Abstract: An ever-increasing number of persons seek medical solutions to improve the appearance of their aging skin or for aesthetic and cosmetic indications in diverse pathological conditions, such as malformations, trauma, cancer, and orthopedic, urological, or ophthalmological conditions. Currently, physicians have many different types of dermal and subdermal fillers, such as non-permanent, permanent, reversible, or non-reversible materials. Despite the claims of manufacturers and different authors that fillers are non-toxic and non-immunogenic or that complications are very uncommon, unwanted side effects do occur with all compounds used. Implanted, injected, and blood-contact biomaterials trigger a wide variety of adverse reactions, including inflammation, thrombosis, and excessive fibrosis. Usually, these adverse reactions are associated with the accumulation of large numbers of mononuclear cells. The adverse reactions related to fillers comprise a broad range of manifestations, which may appear early or late and range from local to systemic. Clinicians should be aware of them since the patient often denies the antecedent of injection or is unaware of the material employed. Most of these adverse effects seem to have an immunological basis, the fillers acting more as adjuvants than as direct T-cell activators, on a background of genetic predisposition. Their treatment has not been the subject of well-designed studies; management of both acute and systemic reactions is often difficult, and requires anti-inflammatory and occasionally immunosuppressive therapy. The clinical, pathological, and therapeutic aspects of inflammatory and immune-mediated late-onset adverse reactions related to soft tissue filler injections are thoroughly reviewed herein.

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Topics: Adverse effect (51%), Dermal Fillers (51%)

83 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/V12050491
Li Xiao1, Hiroshi Sakagami2, Nobuhiko Miwa3Institutions (3)
28 Apr 2020-Viruses
Abstract: Recently, the SARS-CoV-2 induced disease COVID-19 has spread all over the world. Nearly 20% of the patients have severe or critical conditions. SARS-CoV-2 exploits ACE2 for host cell entry. ACE2 plays an essential role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which regulates blood pressure and fluid balance. ACE2 also protects organs from inflammatory injuries and regulates intestinal functions. ACE2 can be shed by two proteases, ADAM17 and TMPRSS2. TMPRSS2-cleaved ACE2 allows SARS-CoV-2 cell entry, whereas ADAM17-cleaved ACE2 offers protection to organs. SARS-CoV-2 infection-caused ACE2 dysfunction worsens COVID-19 and could initiate multi-organ failure. Here, we will explain the role of ACE2 in the pathogenesis of severe and critical conditions of COVID-19 and discuss auspicious strategies for controlling the disease.

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81 Citations