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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.FREERADBIOMED.2021.02.046

Primary Coenzyme Q deficiencies: A literature review and online platform of clinical features to uncover genotype-phenotype correlations.

04 Mar 2021-Free Radical Biology and Medicine (Pergamon)-Vol. 167, pp 141-180
Abstract: Primary Coenzyme Q (CoQ) deficiencies are clinically heterogeneous conditions and lack clear genotype-phenotype correlations, complicating diagnosis and prognostic assessment. Here we present a compilation of all the symptoms and patients with primary CoQ deficiency described in the literature so far and analyse the most common clinical manifestations associated with pathogenic variants identified in the different COQ genes. In addition, we identified new associations between the age of onset of symptoms and different pathogenic variants, which could help to a better diagnosis and guided treatment. To make these results useable for clinicians, we created an online platform (https://coenzymeQbiology.github.io/clinic-CoQ-deficiency) about clinical manifestations of primary CoQ deficiency that will be periodically updated to incorporate new information published in the literature. Since CoQ primary deficiency is a rare disease, the available data are still limited, but as new patients are added over time, this tool could become a key resource for a more efficient diagnosis of this pathology.

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8 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41580-021-00415-0
Irene Vercellino1, Leonid A. Sazanov1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system is central to cellular metabolism. It comprises five enzymatic complexes and two mobile electron carriers that work in a mitochondrial respiratory chain. By coupling the oxidation of reducing equivalents coming into mitochondria to the generation and subsequent dissipation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, this electron transport chain drives the production of ATP, which is then used as a primary energy carrier in virtually all cellular processes. Minimal perturbations of the respiratory chain activity are linked to diseases; therefore, it is necessary to understand how these complexes are assembled and regulated and how they function. In this Review, we outline the latest assembly models for each individual complex, and we also highlight the recent discoveries indicating that the formation of larger assemblies, known as respiratory supercomplexes, originates from the association of the intermediates of individual complexes. We then discuss how recent cryo-electron microscopy structures have been key to answering open questions on the function of the electron transport chain in mitochondrial respiration and how supercomplexes and other factors, including metabolites, can regulate the activity of the single complexes. When relevant, we discuss how these mechanisms contribute to physiology and outline their deregulation in human diseases. Mitochondrial respiration relies on five enzymatic complexes that couple electron transport with proton pumping, leading to ATP synthesis. Recent studies have shed new light on the organization, assembly and mechanisms of the respiratory complexes, including the formation of their larger assemblies — respiratory supercomplexes — and their roles in physiology.

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Topics: Mitochondrial respiratory chain (75%), Respiratory chain (70%), Electron transport chain (54%) ... read more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.REDOX.2021.102127
Anita Ayer1, Anita Ayer2, Daniel J. Fazakerley3, Daniel J. Fazakerley2  +22 moreInstitutions (6)
01 Oct 2021-Redox biology
Abstract: Mitochondrial energy production and function rely on optimal concentrations of the essential redox-active lipid, coenzyme Q (CoQ). CoQ deficiency results in mitochondrial dysfunction associated with increased mitochondrial oxidative stress and a range of pathologies. What drives CoQ deficiency in many of these pathologies is unknown, just as there currently is no effective therapeutic strategy to overcome CoQ deficiency in humans. To date, large-scale studies aimed at systematically interrogating endogenous systems that control CoQ biosynthesis and their potential utility to treat disease have not been carried out. Therefore, we developed a quantitative high-throughput method to determine CoQ concentrations in yeast cells. Applying this method to the Yeast Deletion Collection as a genome-wide screen, 30 genes not known previously to regulate cellular concentrations of CoQ were discovered. In combination with untargeted lipidomics and metabolomics, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) deficiency was confirmed as a positive regulator of CoQ synthesis, the first identified to date. Mechanistically, PEMT deficiency alters mitochondrial concentrations of one-carbon metabolites, characterized by an increase in the S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAM-to-SAH) ratio that reflects mitochondrial methylation capacity, drives CoQ synthesis, and is associated with a decrease in mitochondrial oxidative stress. The newly described regulatory pathway appears evolutionary conserved, as ablation of PEMT using antisense oligonucleotides increases mitochondrial CoQ in mouse-derived adipocytes that translates to improved glucose utilization by these cells, and protection of mice from high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Our studies reveal a previously unrecognized relationship between two spatially distinct lipid pathways with potential implications for the treatment of CoQ deficiencies, mitochondrial oxidative stress/dysfunction, and associated diseases.

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Topics: Mitochondrion (54%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.REDOX.2021.102061
03 Jul 2021-Redox biology
Abstract: Dietary fats are important for human health, yet it is not fully understood how different fats affect various health problems. Although polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are generally considered as highly oxidizable, those of the n-3 series can ameliorate the risk of many age-related disorders. Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is both an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and the only lipid-soluble antioxidant that animal cells can synthesize. Previous work has documented the protective antioxidant properties of CoQ against the autoxidation products of PUFAs. Here, we have explored in vitro and in vivo models to better understand the regulation of CoQ biosynthesis by dietary fats. In mouse liver, PUFAs increased CoQ content, and PUFAs of the n-3 series increased preferentially CoQ10. This response was recapitulated in hepatic cells cultured in the presence of lipid emulsions, where we additionally demonstrated a role for n-3 PUFAs as regulators of CoQ biosynthesis via the upregulation of several COQ proteins and farnesyl pyrophosphate levels. In both models, n-3 PUFAs altered the mitochondrial network without changing the overall mitochondrial mass. Furthermore, in cellular systems, n-3 PUFAs favored the synthesis of CoQ10 over CoQ9, thus altering the ratio between CoQ isoforms through a mechanism that involved downregulation of farnesyl diphosphate synthase activity. This effect was recapitulated by both siRNA silencing and by pharmacological inhibition of farnesyl diphosphate synthase with zoledronic acid. We highlight here the ability of n-3 PUFAs to regulate CoQ biosynthesis, CoQ content, and the ratio between its isoforms, which might be relevant to better understand the health benefits associated with this type of fat. Additionally, we identify for the first time zoledronic acid as a drug that inhibits CoQ biosynthesis, which must be also considered with respect to its biological effects on patients.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/METABO11060385
14 Jun 2021-Metabolites
Abstract: Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone or CoQ) is a conserved polyprenylated lipid essential for mitochondrial respiration. CoQ is composed of a redox-active benzoquinone ring and a long polyisoprenyl tail that serves as a membrane anchor. A classic pathway leading to CoQ biosynthesis employs 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4HB). Recent studies with stable isotopes in E. coli, yeast, and plant and animal cells have identified CoQ intermediates and new metabolic pathways that produce 4HB. Stable isotope labeling has identified para-aminobenzoic acid as an alternate ring precursor of yeast CoQ biosynthesis, as well as other natural products, such as kaempferol, that provide ring precursors for CoQ biosynthesis in plants and mammals. In this review, we highlight how stable isotopes can be used to delineate the biosynthetic pathways leading to CoQ.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANTIOX10111785
08 Nov 2021-Antioxidants
Abstract: Coenzyme Q is a unique lipidic molecule highly conserved in evolution and essential to maintaining aerobic metabolism. It is endogenously synthesized in all cells by a very complex pathway involving a group of nuclear genes that share high homology among species. This pathway is tightly regulated at transcription and translation, but also by environment and energy requirements. Here, we review how coenzyme Q reacts within mitochondria to promote ATP synthesis and also integrates a plethora of metabolic pathways and regulates mitochondrial oxidative stress. Coenzyme Q is also located in all cellular membranes and plasma lipoproteins in which it exerts antioxidant function, and its reaction with different extramitochondrial oxidoreductases contributes to regulate the cellular redox homeostasis and cytosolic oxidative stress, providing a key factor in controlling various apoptosis mechanisms. Coenzyme Q levels can be decreased in humans by defects in the biosynthesis pathway or by mitochondrial or cytosolic dysfunctions, leading to a highly heterogeneous group of mitochondrial diseases included in the coenzyme Q deficiency syndrome. We also review the importance of coenzyme Q levels and its reactions involved in aging and age-associated metabolic disorders, and how the strategy of its supplementation has had benefits for combating these diseases and for physical performance in aging.

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References
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255 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/343425A0
01 Feb 1990-Nature
Abstract: The mevalonate pathway produces isoprenoids that are vital for diverse cellular functions, ranging from cholesterol synthesis to growth control. Several mechanisms for feedback regulation of low-density-lipoprotein receptors and of two enzymes involved in mevalonate biosynthesis ensure the production of sufficient mevalonate for several end-products. Manipulation of this regulatory system could be useful in treating certain forms of cancer as well as heart disease.

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Topics: Mevalonate kinase (74%), Mevalonate pathway (71%), Mevalonic acid (61%) ... read more

4,920 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0891-5849(01)00724-9
Jonas Nordberg1, Elias S.J. Arnér1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known mediators of intracellular signaling cascades. Excessive production of ROS may, however, lead to oxidative stress, loss of cell function, and ultimately apoptosis or necrosis. A balance between oxidant and antioxidant intracellular systems is hence vital for cell function, regulation, and adaptation to diverse growth conditions. Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in conjunction with thioredoxin (Trx) is a ubiquitous oxidoreductase system with antioxidant and redox regulatory roles. In mammals, extracellular forms of Trx also have cytokine-like effects. Mammalian TrxR has a highly reactive active site selenocysteine residue resulting in a profound reductive capacity, reducing several substrates in addition to Trx. Due to the reactivity of TrxR, the enzyme is inhibited by many clinically used electrophilic compounds including nitrosoureas, aurothioglucose, platinum compounds, and retinoic acid derivatives. The properties of TrxR in combination with the functions of Trx position this system at the core of cellular thiol redox control and antioxidant defense. In this review, we focus on the reactions of the Trx system with ROS molecules and different cellular antioxidant enzymes. We summarize the TrxR-catalyzed regeneration of several antioxidant compounds, including ascorbic acid (vitamin C), selenium-containing substances, lipoic acid, and ubiquinone (Q10). We also discuss the general cellular effects of TrxR inhibition. Dinitrohalobenzenes constitute a unique class of immunostimulatory TrxR inhibitors and we consider the immunomodulatory effects of dinitrohalobenzene compounds in view of their reactions with the Trx system.

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Topics: Thioredoxin (59%), Ascorbic acid (55%), Thioredoxin reductase (55%) ... read more

2,463 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/0471142905.HG0720S76
Abstract: PolyPhen-2 (Polymorphism Phenotyping v2), available as software and via a Web server, predicts the possible impact of amino acid substitutions on the stability and function of human proteins using structural and comparative evolutionary considerations. It performs functional annotation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), maps coding SNPs to gene transcripts, extracts protein sequence annotations and structural attributes, and builds conservation profiles. It then estimates the probability of the missense mutation being damaging based on a combination of all these properties. PolyPhen-2 features include a high-quality multiple protein sequence alignment pipeline and a prediction method employing machine-learning classification. The software also integrates the UCSC Genome Browser's human genome annotations and MultiZ multiple alignments of vertebrate genomes with the human genome. PolyPhen-2 is capable of analyzing large volumes of data produced by next-generation sequencing projects, thanks to built-in support for high-performance computing environments like Grid Engine and Platform LSF.

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Topics: Genome browser (60%), Genome (52%), Human genome (52%)

2,121 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2011.06.013
22 Jul 2011-Cell
Abstract: FMRP loss of function causes Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autistic features. FMRP is a polyribosome-associated neuronal RNA-binding protein, suggesting that it plays a key role in regulating neuronal translation, but there has been little consensus regarding either its RNA targets or mechanism of action. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing of RNAs isolated by crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP) to identify FMRP interactions with mouse brain polyribosomal mRNAs. FMRP interacts with the coding region of transcripts encoding pre- and postsynaptic proteins and transcripts implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We developed a brain polyribosome-programmed translation system, revealing that FMRP reversibly stalls ribosomes specifically on its target mRNAs. Our results suggest that loss of a translational brake on the synthesis of a subset of synaptic proteins contributes to FXS. In addition, they provide insight into the molecular basis of the cognitive and allied defects in FXS and ASD and suggest multiple targets for clinical intervention.

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Topics: FMR1 (55%), RNA-binding protein (51%), CYFIP2 (50%)

1,631 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NAR/GKS539
Ngak-Leng Sim1, Priyank Kumar, Jing Hu, Steven Henikoff  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) algorithm predicts the effect of coding variants on protein function. It was first introduced in 2001, with a corresponding website that provides users with predictions on their variants. Since its release, SIFT has become one of the standard tools for characterizing missense variation. We have updated SIFT’s genome-wide prediction tool since our last publication in 2009, and added new features to the insertion/deletion (indel) tool. We also show accuracy metrics on independent data sets. The original developers have hosted the SIFT web server at FHCRC, JCVI and the web server is currently located at BII. The URL is http://sift-dna.org (24 May 2012, date last accessed).

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Topics: Web server (53%)

1,297 Citations


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20218