Abstract: Chromobacterium violaceum (C. violaceum) is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped facultatively anaerobic bacterium implicated with recalcitrant human infections. Here, we evaluated the anti-QS and antibiofilm activities of ethyl acetate extracts of Passiflora edulis (P. edulis) on the likely inactivation of acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-regulated molecules in C. violaceum both by in vitro and in silico analyses. Our investigations showed that the sub-MIC levels were 2, 1, and 0.5 mg/mL, and the concentrations showed a marked reduction in violacein pigment production by 75.8, 64.6, and 35.2%. AHL quantification showed 72.5, 52.2, and 35.9% inhibitions, inhibitions of EPS production (72.8, 36.5, and 25.9%), and reductions in biofilm formation (90.7, 69.4, and 51.8%) as compared to a control. Light microscopy and CLSM analysis revealed dramatic reduction in the treated biofilm group as compared to the control. GC-MS analysis showed 20 major peaks whose chemical structures were docked as the CviR ligand. The highest docking score was observed for hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester bonds in the active site of CviR with a binding energy of -8.825 kcal/mol. Together, we found that hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester remarkably interacted with CviR to inhibit the QS system. Hence, we concluded that hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester of P. edulis could likely be evaluated for treating C. violaceum infections.
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