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J.M. Hartmann

Bio: J.M. Hartmann is an academic researcher from University of Grenoble. The author has contributed to research in topics: Electron mobility & MOSFET. The author has an hindex of 45, co-authored 327 publications receiving 7464 citations.


Papers
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2009
TL;DR: In this article, the Gate-All-Around (GAA) SONOS memory architecture with 4-level crystalline nanowire channels (down to 6nm-diameter) is extended to an independent double gate memory architecture, called φ-Flash.
Abstract: We present the first experimental study of a Gate-All-Around (GAA) SONOS memory architecture with 4-level crystalline nanowire channels (down to 6nm-diameter). The technology is also extended to an independent double gate memory architecture, called φ-Flash. The experimental results with 6nm nanowires show high programming windows (up to 7.4V), making the structure compatible with multilevel operation. Excellent retention even after 104 cycles is achieved. The independent double gate option has otherwise been successfully integrated with 4-level stacked nanowires for multibit applications. The φ-Flash exhibits up to 1.8V ΔV Th between its two gates, demonstrating multibits operation. The basic process to fully disconnect the different nanowires in view of a full 3D integration of a memory array is discussed.

248 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the structural and optical properties of Ge-based photodetectors operating in the low loss windows (1.3-1.6 μm) of silica fibers are investigated.
Abstract: Ge-based photodetectors operating in the low loss windows (1.3–1.6 μm) of silica fibers are highly desirable for the development of optical interconnections on silicon-on-insulator substrates. We have therefore investigated the structural and optical properties of Ge thick films grown directly onto Si(001) substrates using a production-compatible reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition system. We have first of all evidenced a Ge growth regime which is akin to a supply-limited one in the 400–750 °C temperature range (Ea=6.9 kcal mol−1). The thick Ge layers grown using a low-temperature/high-temperature approach are in a definite tensile-strain configuration, with a threading dislocation density for as-grown layers of the order of 9×108 cm−2 (annealed: <2×108 cm−2). The surface of those Ge thick layers is rather smooth, especially when considering the large lattice mismatch between Ge and Si. The root-mean-square roughness is indeed of the order of 0.6 nm (2 nm) only for as-grown (annealed) layers. A che...

234 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2011
TL;DR: This paper addresses the major challenges of 3D sequential integration: in particular, the control of molecular bonding allows us to obtain pristine quality top active layer and can match the performance of top FET, processed at low temperature (600°C), with the bottom FET devices.
Abstract: 3D sequential integration enables the full use of the third dimension thanks to its high alignment performance. In this paper, we address the major challenges of 3D sequential integration: in particular, the control of molecular bonding allows us to obtain pristine quality top active layer. With the help of Solid Phase Epitaxy, we can match the performance of top FET, processed at low temperature (600°C), with the bottom FET devices. Finally, the development of a stable salicide enables to retain bottom performance after top FET processing. Overcoming these major technological issues offers a wide range of applications.

184 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reported a longer emitted wavelength and a significant improvement in lasing temperature using higher Sn content GeSn layers of optimized crystalline quality, grown on graded Sn content buffers using Reduced Pressure CVD.
Abstract: Recent demonstrations of optically pumped lasers based on GeSn alloys put forward the prospect of efficient laser sources monolithically integrated on a Si photonic platform. For instance, GeSn layers with 12.5% of Sn were reported to lase at 2.5 um wavelength up to 130 K. In this work, we report a longer emitted wavelength and a significant improvement in lasing temperature. The improvements resulted from the use of higher Sn content GeSn layers of optimized crystalline quality, grown on graded Sn content buffers using Reduced Pressure CVD. The fabricated GeSn micro-disks with 13% and 16% of Sn showed lasing operation at 2.6 um and 3.1 um wavelengths, respectively. For the longest wavelength (i.e 3.1 um), lasing was demonstrated up to 180 K, with a threshold of 377 kW/cm2 at 25 K.

157 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a Si0.69Ge0.31 layer, grown onto a Si substrate has been used to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the nanobeam electron diffraction technique.
Abstract: Improvements in transmission electron microscopy have transformed nanobeam electron diffraction into a simple and powerful technique to measure strain. A Si0.69Ge0.31 layer, grown onto a Si substrate has been used to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the technique. Diffraction patterns have been acquired along a ⟨110⟩ zone axis using a FEI-Titan microscope and have been analyzed using dedicated software. A strain precision of 6×10−4 using a probe size of 2.7 nm with a convergence angle of 0.5 mrad has been reached. The bidimensional distortion tensor in the plane perpendicular to the electron beam has been obtained.

155 citations


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Reference EntryDOI
31 Oct 2001
TL;DR: The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as mentioned in this paper is an independent organization devoted to the development of standards for testing and materials, and is a member of IEEE 802.11.
Abstract: The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is an independent organization devoted to the development of standards.

3,792 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches and the performance limits and advantages, when exploited for both digital and analog applications.
Abstract: The compelling demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in electronic systems is the main driving force of the electronics industry's quest for devices and/or architectures based on new materials. Here, we provide a review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches. We focus on the performance limits and advantages of these materials and associated technologies, when exploited for both digital and analog applications, focusing on the main figures of merit needed to meet industry requirements. We also discuss the use of two-dimensional materials as an enabling factor for flexible electronics and provide our perspectives on future developments.

2,531 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the surface chemistry of the trimethylaluminum/water ALD process is reviewed, with an aim to combine the information obtained in different types of investigations, such as growth experiments on flat substrates and reaction chemistry investigation on high-surface-area materials.
Abstract: Atomic layer deposition(ALD), a chemical vapor deposition technique based on sequential self-terminating gas–solid reactions, has for about four decades been applied for manufacturing conformal inorganic material layers with thickness down to the nanometer range. Despite the numerous successful applications of material growth by ALD, many physicochemical processes that control ALD growth are not yet sufficiently understood. To increase understanding of ALD processes, overviews are needed not only of the existing ALD processes and their applications, but also of the knowledge of the surface chemistry of specific ALD processes. This work aims to start the overviews on specific ALD processes by reviewing the experimental information available on the surface chemistry of the trimethylaluminum/water process. This process is generally known as a rather ideal ALD process, and plenty of information is available on its surface chemistry. This in-depth summary of the surface chemistry of one representative ALD process aims also to provide a view on the current status of understanding the surface chemistry of ALD, in general. The review starts by describing the basic characteristics of ALD, discussing the history of ALD—including the question who made the first ALD experiments—and giving an overview of the two-reactant ALD processes investigated to date. Second, the basic concepts related to the surface chemistry of ALD are described from a generic viewpoint applicable to all ALD processes based on compound reactants. This description includes physicochemical requirements for self-terminating reactions,reaction kinetics, typical chemisorption mechanisms, factors causing saturation, reasons for growth of less than a monolayer per cycle, effect of the temperature and number of cycles on the growth per cycle (GPC), and the growth mode. A comparison is made of three models available for estimating the sterically allowed value of GPC in ALD. Third, the experimental information on the surface chemistry in the trimethylaluminum/water ALD process are reviewed using the concepts developed in the second part of this review. The results are reviewed critically, with an aim to combine the information obtained in different types of investigations, such as growth experiments on flat substrates and reaction chemistry investigation on high-surface-area materials. Although the surface chemistry of the trimethylaluminum/water ALD process is rather well understood, systematic investigations of the reaction kinetics and the growth mode on different substrates are still missing. The last part of the review is devoted to discussing issues which may hamper surface chemistry investigations of ALD, such as problematic historical assumptions, nonstandard terminology, and the effect of experimental conditions on the surface chemistry of ALD. I hope that this review can help the newcomer get acquainted with the exciting and challenging field of surface chemistry of ALD and can serve as a useful guide for the specialist towards the fifth decade of ALD research.

2,212 citations

01 Jan 2011

2,117 citations