scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Institution

Bayer

CompanyLeverkusen, Germany
About: Bayer is a company organization based out in Leverkusen, Germany. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Alkyl & Alkoxy group. The organization has 38513 authors who have published 49520 publications receiving 673845 citations. The organization is also known as: Bayer AG & Bayer Research Laboratories.
Topics: Alkyl, Alkoxy group, Isocyanate, Aryl, Polyurethane


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, median survival and the time to radiologic progression were nearly 3 months longer for patients treated with sorafenib than for those given placebo.
Abstract: Background No effective systemic therapy exists for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. A preliminary study suggested that sorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, the platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and Raf may be effective in hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods In this multicenter, phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 602 patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who had not received previous systemic treatment to receive either sorafenib (at a dose of 400 mg twice daily) or placebo. Primary outcomes were overall survival and the time to symptomatic progression. Secondary outcomes included the time to radiologic progression and safety. Results At the second planned interim analysis, 321 deaths had occurred, and the study was stopped. Median overall survival was 10.7 months in the sorafenib group and 7.9 months in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the sorafenib group, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 0.87; P<0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the median time to symptomatic progression (4.1 months vs. 4.9 months, respectively, P=0.77). The median time to radiologic progression was 5.5 months in the sorafenib group and 2.8 months in the placebo group (P<0.001). Seven patients in the sorafenib group (2%) and two patients in the placebo group (1%) had a partial response; no patients had a complete response. Diarrhea, weight loss, hand-foot skin reaction, and hypophosphatemia were more frequent in the sorafenib group. Conclusions In patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, median survival and the time to radiologic progression were nearly 3 months longer for patients treated with sorafenib than for those given placebo.

10,074 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The FAIR Data Principles as mentioned in this paper are a set of data reuse principles that focus on enhancing the ability of machines to automatically find and use the data, in addition to supporting its reuse by individuals.
Abstract: There is an urgent need to improve the infrastructure supporting the reuse of scholarly data. A diverse set of stakeholders—representing academia, industry, funding agencies, and scholarly publishers—have come together to design and jointly endorse a concise and measureable set of principles that we refer to as the FAIR Data Principles. The intent is that these may act as a guideline for those wishing to enhance the reusability of their data holdings. Distinct from peer initiatives that focus on the human scholar, the FAIR Principles put specific emphasis on enhancing the ability of machines to automatically find and use the data, in addition to supporting its reuse by individuals. This Comment is the first formal publication of the FAIR Principles, and includes the rationale behind them, and some exemplar implementations in the community.

7,602 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Data demonstrate that BAY 43-9006 is a novel dual action RAF kinase and VEGFR inhibitor that targets tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis.
Abstract: The RAS/RAF signaling pathway is an important mediator of tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The novel bi-aryl urea BAY 43-9006 is a potent inhibitor of Raf-1, a member of the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Additional characterization showed that BAY 43-9006 suppresses both wild-type and V599E mutant BRAF activity in vitro. In addition, BAY 43-9006 demonstrated significant activity against several receptor tyrosine kinases involved in neovascularization and tumor progression, including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2, VEGFR-3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta, Flt-3, and c-KIT. In cellular mechanistic assays, BAY 43-9006 demonstrated inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in colon, pancreatic, and breast tumor cell lines expressing mutant KRAS or wild-type or mutant BRAF, whereas non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines expressing mutant KRAS were insensitive to inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by BAY 43-9006. Potent inhibition of VEGFR-2, platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta, and VEGFR-3 cellular receptor autophosphorylation was also observed for BAY 43-9006. Once daily oral dosing of BAY 43-9006 demonstrated broad-spectrum antitumor activity in colon, breast, and non-small-cell lung cancer xenograft models. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a close association between inhibition of tumor growth and inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1/2 phosphorylation in two of three xenograft models examined, consistent with inhibition of the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway in some but not all models. Additional analyses of microvessel density and microvessel area in the same tumor sections using antimurine CD31 antibodies demonstrated significant inhibition of neovascularization in all three of the xenograft models. These data demonstrate that BAY 43-9006 is a novel dual action RAF kinase and VEGFR inhibitor that targets tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis.

3,749 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDT) and its derivatives can be found in this article, along with a description of the broad array of properties accessible and a set of the more prominent applications in which they can be utilized.
Abstract: An overview of one of the most successful conducting polymers, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDT) and its derivatives, is presented, detailing its early development, the synthesis of numerous hybrid and derivative materials, along with a description of the broad array of properties accessible and a description of a set of the more prominent applications in which they can be utilized. Synthetic flexibility and facility is the key to the many new 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene- (EDT-) based monomers, oligomers, and (co) polymers. These (co) polymers provide highly conducting and especially stable doped states, a range of optical properties with electronic bandgaps varying across the entire visible spectrum, and enhanced redox properties, making them useful for numerous electrochemical devices. Present and future applications for PEDT that are discussed include static charge dissipation films and electrode materials in solid electrolyte capacitors.

3,080 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) study provides such information but does not routinely aggregate results that are of interest to clinicians specialising in neurological conditions as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Summary Background Comparable data on the global and country-specific burden of neurological disorders and their trends are crucial for health-care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study provides such information but does not routinely aggregate results that are of interest to clinicians specialising in neurological conditions. In this systematic analysis, we quantified the global disease burden due to neurological disorders in 2015 and its relationship with country development level. Methods We estimated global and country-specific prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), years of life lost (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) for various neurological disorders that in the GBD classification have been previously spread across multiple disease groupings. The more inclusive grouping of neurological disorders included stroke, meningitis, encephalitis, tetanus, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron disease, migraine, tension-type headache, medication overuse headache, brain and nervous system cancers, and a residual category of other neurological disorders. We also analysed results based on the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a compound measure of income per capita, education, and fertility, to identify patterns associated with development and how countries fare against expected outcomes relative to their level of development. Findings Neurological disorders ranked as the leading cause group of DALYs in 2015 (250·7 [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 229·1 to 274·7] million, comprising 10·2% of global DALYs) and the second-leading cause group of deaths (9·4 [9·1 to 9·7] million], comprising 16·8% of global deaths). The most prevalent neurological disorders were tension-type headache (1505·9 [UI 1337·3 to 1681·6 million cases]), migraine (958·8 [872·1 to 1055·6] million), medication overuse headache (58·5 [50·8 to 67·4 million]), and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (46·0 [40·2 to 52·7 million]). Between 1990 and 2015, the number of deaths from neurological disorders increased by 36·7%, and the number of DALYs by 7·4%. These increases occurred despite decreases in age-standardised rates of death and DALYs of 26·1% and 29·7%, respectively; stroke and communicable neurological disorders were responsible for most of these decreases. Communicable neurological disorders were the largest cause of DALYs in countries with low SDI. Stroke rates were highest at middle levels of SDI and lowest at the highest SDI. Most of the changes in DALY rates of neurological disorders with development were driven by changes in YLLs. Interpretation Neurological disorders are an important cause of disability and death worldwide. Globally, the burden of neurological disorders has increased substantially over the past 25 years because of expanding population numbers and ageing, despite substantial decreases in mortality rates from stroke and communicable neurological disorders. The number of patients who will need care by clinicians with expertise in neurological conditions will continue to grow in coming decades. Policy makers and health-care providers should be aware of these trends to provide adequate services. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

2,995 citations


Authors

Showing all 38537 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Shizuo Akira2611308320561
James J. Collins15166989476
David A. Brenner12849952756
Leonard B. Saltz12254552829
Lutz Ackermann11666945066
Ana Maria Cuervo11427861817
Matthias Beller11373346344
Manfred T. Reetz11095942941
Wolfgang A. Herrmann107117455261
Gerd Heusch10558237291
Toshio Suda10458041069
Alfred Pühler10265845871
Dieter Seebach101119749633
Paul Knochel99237344786
Alexander Steinbüchel9759733649
Network Information
Related Institutions (5)
University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
85.6K papers, 2.6M citations

86% related

University of Göttingen
86.3K papers, 3M citations

85% related

University of Freiburg
77.2K papers, 2.8M citations

85% related

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
161.5K papers, 5.7M citations

85% related

RWTH Aachen University
96.2K papers, 2.5M citations

84% related

Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202312
202252
2021810
2020827
2019735
2018621