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JournalISSN: 0022-1007

Journal of Experimental Medicine 

About: Journal of Experimental Medicine is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Antigen & T cell. It has an ISSN identifier of 0022-1007. Over the lifetime, 23877 publication(s) have been published receiving 2967147 citation(s). The journal is also known as: J. Exp. Med. & J Exp Med.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Cultured DCs are as efficient as antigen-specific B cells in presenting tetanus toxoid (TT) to specific T cell clones and their efficiency of antigen presentation can be further enhanced by specific antibodies via FcR- mediated antigen uptake.
Abstract: Using granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 4 we have established dendritic cell (DC) lines from blood mononuclear cells that maintain the antigen capturing and processing capacity characteristic of immature dendritic cells in vivo. These cells have typical dendritic morphology, express high levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules, CD1, Fc gamma RII, CD40, B7, CD44, and ICAM-1, and lack CD14. Cultured DCs are highly stimulatory in mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) and are also capable of triggering cord blood naive T cells. Most strikingly, these DCs are as efficient as antigen-specific B cells in presenting tetanus toxoid (TT) to specific T cell clones. Their efficiency of antigen presentation can be further enhanced by specific antibodies via FcR-mediated antigen uptake. Incubation of these cultured DCs with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) or soluble CD40 ligand (CD40L) for 24 h results in an increased surface expression of MHC class I and class II molecules, B7, and ICAM-1 and in the appearance of the CD44 exon 9 splice variant (CD44-v9); by contrast, Fc gamma RII is markedly and sometimes completely downregulated. The functional consequences of the short contact with TNF-alpha are in increased T cell stimulatory capacity in MLR, but a 10-fold decrease in presentation of soluble TT and a 100-fold decrease in presentation of TT-immunoglobulin G complexes.

5,276 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Novel evidence is presented that conversion of naive peripheral CD4+CD25− T cells into anergic/suppressor cells that are CD25+, CD45RB−/low and intracellular CTLA-4+ can be achieved through costimulation with T cell receptors (TCRs) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β).
Abstract: CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are instrumental in the maintenance of immunological tolerance. One critical question is whether Treg can only be generated in the thymus or can differentiate from peripheral CD4+CD25− naive T cells. In this paper, we present novel evidence that conversion of naive peripheral CD4+CD25− T cells into anergic/suppressor cells that are CD25+, CD45RB−/low and intracellular CTLA-4+ can be achieved through costimulation with T cell receptors (TCRs) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). Although transcription factor Foxp3 has been shown recently to be associated with the development of Treg, the physiological inducers for Foxp3 gene expression remain a mystery. TGF-β induced Foxp3 gene expression in TCR-challenged CD4+CD25− naive T cells, which mediated their transition toward a regulatory T cell phenotype with potent immunosuppressive potential. These converted anergic/suppressor cells are not only unresponsive to TCR stimulation and produce neither T helper cell 1 nor T helper cell 2 cytokines but they also express TGF-β and inhibit normal T cell proliferation in vitro. More importantly, in an ovalbumin peptide TCR transgenic adoptive transfer model, TGF-β–converted transgenic CD4+CD25+ suppressor cells proliferated in response to immunization and inhibited antigen-specific naive CD4+ T cell expansion in vivo. Finally, in a murine asthma model, coadministration of these TGF-β–induced suppressor T cells prevented house dust mite–induced allergic pathogenesis in lungs.

4,410 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is reported here that the ligand of PD-1 (PD-L1), an immunoinhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells, is a member of the B7 gene family.
Abstract: PD-1 is an immunoinhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells. Mice deficient in PD-1 exhibit a breakdown of peripheral tolerance and demonstrate multiple autoimmune features. We report here that the ligand of PD-1 (PD-L1) is a member of the B7 gene family. Engagement of PD-1 by PD-L1 leads to the inhibition of T cell receptor-mediated lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine secretion. In addition, PD-1 signaling can inhibit at least suboptimal levels of CD28-mediated costimulation. PD-L1 is expressed by antigen-presenting cells, including human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with interferon gamma, and activated human and murine dendritic cells. In addition, PD-L1 is expressed in nonlymphoid tissues such as heart and lung. The relative levels of inhibitory PD-L1 and costimulatory B7-1/B7-2 signals on antigen-presenting cells may determine the extent of T cell activation and consequently the threshold between tolerance and autoimmunity. PD-L1 expression on nonlymphoid tissues and its potential interaction with PD-1 may subsequently determine the extent of immune responses at sites of inflammation.

4,076 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using passive transfer studies, it is confirmed that these IL-23–dependent CD4+ T cells are highly pathogenic and essential for the establishment of organ-specific inflammation associated with central nervous system autoimmunity.
Abstract: Interleukin (IL)-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of a unique p19 subunit, and a common p40 subunit shared with IL-12. IL-12 is important for the development of T helper (Th)1 cells that are essential for host defense and tumor suppression. In contrast, IL-23 does not promote the development of interferon-γ–producing Th1 cells, but is one of the essential factors required for the expansion of a pathogenic CD4+ T cell population, which is characterized by the production of IL-17, IL-17F, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor. Gene expression analysis of IL-23–driven autoreactive T cells identified a unique expression pattern of proinflammatory cytokines and other novel factors, distinguishing them from IL-12–driven T cells. Using passive transfer studies, we confirm that these IL-23–dependent CD4+ T cells are highly pathogenic and essential for the establishment of organ-specific inflammation associated with central nervous system autoimmunity.

3,816 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicate that IL-10 has important regulatory effects on immunological and inflammatory responses because of its capacity to downregulate class II MHC expression and to inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes.
Abstract: In the present study we demonstrate that human monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were able to produce high levels of interleukin 10 (IL-10), previously designated cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), in a dose dependent fashion. IL-10 was detectable 7 h after activation of the monocytes and maximal levels of IL-10 production were observed after 24-48 h. These kinetics indicated that the production of IL-10 by human monocytes was relatively late as compared to the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which were all secreted at high levels 4-8 h after activation. The production of IL-10 by LPS activated monocytes was, similar to that of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and G-CSF, inhibited by IL-4. Furthermore we demonstrate here that IL-10, added to monocytes, activated by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), LPS, or combinations of LPS and IFN-gamma at the onset of the cultures, strongly inhibited the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, GM-CSF, and G-CSF at the transcriptional level. Viral-IL-10, which has similar biological activities on human cells, also inhibited the production of TNF alpha and GM-CSF by monocytes following LPS activation. Activation of monocytes by LPS in the presence of neutralizing anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibodies resulted in the production of higher amounts of cytokines relative to LPS treatment alone, indicating that endogenously produced IL-10 inhibited the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, GM-CSF, and G-CSF. In addition, IL-10 had autoregulatory effects since it strongly inhibited IL-10 mRNA synthesis in LPS activated monocytes. Furthermore, endogenously produced IL-10 was found to be responsible for the reduction in class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression following activation of monocytes with LPS. Taken together our results indicate that IL-10 has important regulatory effects on immunological and inflammatory responses because of its capacity to downregulate class II MHC expression and to inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes.

3,750 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
202216
2021330
2020264
2019215
2018231
2017258