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Journal ArticleDOI

Diversity and Distribution of Archaea in the Mangrove Sediment of Sundarbans.

TL;DR: The diversity and distribution of archaea in the tropical mangrove sediments of Sundarbans using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing indicated that sediment archaeal community patterns were influenced by environmental conditions.
Abstract: Mangroves are among the most diverse and productive coastal ecosystems in the tropical and subtropical regions. Environmental conditions particular to this biome make mangroves hotspots for microbial diversity, and the resident microbial communities play essential roles in maintenance of the ecosystem. Recently, there has been increasing interest to understand the composition and contribution of microorganisms in mangroves. In the present study, we have analyzed the diversity and distribution of archaea in the tropical mangrove sediments of Sundarbans using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing resulted in approximately 142 Mb of data from three distinct mangrove areas (Godkhali, Bonnie camp, and Dhulibhashani). The taxonomic analysis revealed the dominance of phyla Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota (Marine Group I) within our dataset. The distribution of different archaeal taxa and respective statistical analysis (SIMPER, NMDS) revealed a clear community shift along the sampling stations. The sampling stations (Godkhali and Bonnie camp) with history of higher hydrocarbon/oil pollution showed different archaeal community pattern (dominated by haloarchaea) compared to station (Dhulibhashani) with nearly pristine environment (dominated by methanogens). It is indicated that sediment archaeal community patterns were influenced by environmental conditions.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two As-resistant halophilic bacterial strains were isolated, identified and characterized from mangrove rhizosphere of Sundarban and when used as inoculum promoted the growth of rice seedlings but also decreased As uptake and accumulation in plants.

147 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Zhichao Zhou1, Han Meng1, Yang Liu2, Ji-Dong Gu1, Meng Li2 
TL;DR: Seasonal variations of microbial communities within sediment profiles from two sediment types at three sampling locations in coastal Mai Po wetland were characterized using MiSeq high throughput sequencing and 16S rRNA quantitative PCR methods and showed clear decreasing trends with increasing depth.
Abstract: The stratified distribution of bacterial and archaeal communities has been detected in many sediment profiles from various natural environments. A better understanding of microbial composition and diversity pattern in coastal mangrove wetlands in relation to physicochemical and spatial-temporal influences could provide more insights into the ecological functions of microbes in coastal wetlands. In this study, seasonal variations of microbial communities within sediment profiles from two sediment types (mangrove forest and intertidal mudflats) at three sampling locations in coastal Mai Po wetland were characterized using MiSeq high throughput sequencing and 16S rRNA quantitative PCR methods. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance showed clear decreasing trends with increasing depth for all sites, seasonality and sediment types. There is a weak seasonal dynamic of bacterial and archaeal community abundance in both seasons. Seasonality imposed more influence on the beta diversity pattern of bacterial community than archaeal community. The five most abundant phyla within bacterial and archaeal community remain stable between two distinctive seasons. Sediment depth and seasonality are the most influential factors affecting bacterial community composition and diversity. The pH is the most influential factor on shaping the archaeal community. Stratified distribution of bacterial community including aerobic and anaerobic bacterial taxa is largely represented in the surface layers and the subsurface layers, respectively. For archaeal stratification, Thaumarchaeota Marine Group I is the dominant member in surface sediments while Bathyarchaeota and MBG-B dominate in subsurface sediments. Such stratified distribution patterns are irrespective of sediment types, sampling locations or seasonality, but significantly correlated to the sediment depth, which might be shaped by oxygen availability and the distribution of other terminal electron accepters along the depth profile.

88 citations


Cites background from "Diversity and Distribution of Archa..."

  • ...The mangrove forests, characterized as highly productive ecosystems, contribute to 10–15% global coast sediment carbon storage, and provide nutrients and habitats for microorganisms, micro-/marco-fauna, andmigratory birds (Yan et al., 2006; Alongi, 2014; Bhattacharyya et al., 2015)....

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  • ...Increasing researches are focused on the distribution pattern and potential biogeochemical functions in mangrove ecosystems (Nedwell et al., 1994; Yan et al., 2006; Sahoo and Dhal, 2009; Wang et al., 2012; Jiang et al., 2013; Bhattacharyya et al., 2015)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These genomes from deep anoxic layers suggest the presence of Thorarchaeota with the potential to degrade organic matter, fix inorganic carbon, reduce sulfur/sulfate and produce acetate, and may be involved in ethanol production, nitrogen fixation, nitrite reduction, and arsenic detoxification.
Abstract: Thorarchaeota are a new archaeal phylum within the Asgard superphylum, whose ancestors have been proposed to play possible ecological roles in cellular evolution. However, little is known about the lifestyles of these uncultured archaea. To provide a better resolution of the ecological roles and metabolic capacity of Thorarchaeota, we obtained Thorarchaeota genomes reconstructed from metagenomes of different depth layers in mangrove and mudflat sediments. These genomes from deep anoxic layers suggest the presence of Thorarchaeota with the potential to degrade organic matter, fix inorganic carbon, reduce sulfur/sulfate and produce acetate. In particular, Thorarchaeota may be involved in ethanol production, nitrogen fixation, nitrite reduction, and arsenic detoxification. Interestingly, these Thorarchaeotal genomes are inferred to contain the tetrahydromethanopterin and tetrahydrofolate Wood–Ljungdahl (WL) pathways for CO2 reduction, and the latter WL pathway appears to have originated from bacteria. These archaea are predicted to be able to use various inorganic and organic carbon sources, possessing genes inferred to encode ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-like proteins (normally without RuBisCO activity) and a near-complete Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle. The existence of eukaryotic selenocysteine insertion sequences and many genes for proteins previously considered eukaryote-specific in Thorarchaeota genomes provide new insights into their evolutionary roles in the origin of eukaryotic cellular complexity. Resolving the metabolic capacities of these enigmatic archaea and their origins will enhance our understanding of the origins of eukaryotes and their roles in ecosystems.

83 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Quan Chen1, Qian Zhao1, Jing Li1, Shuguang Jian1, Hai Ren1 
TL;DR: Regression and ordination analyses indicated that the changes in the microbial community with mangrove succession were mainly associated with properties of the aboveground vegetation and the sediment and can probably be explained by increases in nutrients and microhabitat heterogeneity during mangroves succession.
Abstract: Sediment microorganisms help create and maintain mangrove ecosystems. Although the changes in vegetation during mangrove forest succession have been well studied, the changes in the sediment microbial community during mangrove succession are poorly understood. To investigate the changes in the sediment microbial community during succession of mangroves at Zhanjiang, South China, we used phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and the following chronosequence from primary to climax community: unvegetated shoal; Avicennia marina community; Aegiceras corniculatum community; and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza + Rhizophora stylosa community. The PLFA concentrations of all sediment microbial groups (total microorganisms, fungi, gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and actinomycetes) increased significantly with each stage of mangrove succession. Microbial PLFA concentrations in the sediment were significantly lower in the wet season than in the dry season. Regression and ordination analyses indicated that the changes in the microbial community with mangrove succession were mainly associated with properties of the aboveground vegetation (mainly plant height) and the sediment (mainly sediment organic matter and total nitrogen). The changes in the sediment microbial community can probably be explained by increases in nutrients and microhabitat heterogeneity during mangrove succession.

62 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Comparison of samples collected from a variety of habitats shows that genes involved in resistance to both heavy metals and antibiotics are ubiquitous, irrespective of the ecosystem examined.
Abstract: The mangrove ecosystem harbors a complex microbial community that plays crucial role in biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we analyzed mangrove sediments from India using de novo whole metagenome next generation sequencing (NGS) and compared their taxonomic and functional community structures to mangrove metagenomics samples from Brazil and Saudi Arabia. The most abundant phyla in the mangroves of all three countries was Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. A total of 1,942 genes were found to be common across all the mangrove sediments from each of the three countries. The mangrove resistome consistently showed high resistance to fluoroquinolone and acriflavine. A comparative study of the mangrove resistome with other ecosystems shows a higher frequency of heavy metal resistance in mangrove and terrestrial samples. Ocean samples had a higher abundance of drug resistance genes with fluoroquinolone and methicillin resistance genes being as high as 28.178% ± 3.619 and 10.776% ± 1.823. Genes involved in cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance were higher in the mangrove (23.495% ± 4.701) and terrestrial (27.479% ± 4.605) ecosystems. Our comparative analysis of samples collected from a variety of habitats shows that genes involved in resistance to both heavy metals and antibiotics are ubiquitous, irrespective of the ecosystem examined.

62 citations

References
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Journal Article
TL;DR: Copyright (©) 1999–2012 R Foundation for Statistical Computing; permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and permission notice are preserved on all copies.
Abstract: Copyright (©) 1999–2012 R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one. Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a translation approved by the R Core Team.

272,030 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new approach to rapid sequence comparison, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), directly approximates alignments that optimize a measure of local similarity, the maximal segment pair (MSP) score.

88,255 citations


"Diversity and Distribution of Archa..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...After quality trimming all the sequence reads were aligned against the SILVA, which is a curated ribosomal RNA sequence database using BLASTN [36, 37]....

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  • ...Within our sequence dataset, we were able to assign 1,39,953 sequences to the domain archaea and to classify all of these sequences below domain level using BLASTN 2.2.25+ in SILVA database and MEGAN (Table 2)....

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  • ...After quality trimming all the sequence reads were aligned against the SILVA, which is a curated ribosomal RNA sequence database using BLASTN [36, 37]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: SILVA (from Latin silva, forest), was implemented to provide a central comprehensive web resource for up to date, quality controlled databases of aligned rRNA sequences from the Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya domains.
Abstract: Sequencing ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes is currently the method of choice for phylogenetic reconstruction, nucleic acid based detection and quantification of microbial diversity. The ARB software suite with its corresponding rRNA datasets has been accepted by researchers worldwide as a standard tool for large scale rRNA analysis. However, the rapid increase of publicly available rRNA sequence data has recently hampered the maintenance of comprehensive and curated rRNA knowledge databases. A new system, SILVA (from Latin silva, forest), was implemented to provide a central comprehensive web resource for up to date, quality controlled databases of aligned rRNA sequences from the Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya domains. All sequences are checked for anomalies, carry a rich set of sequence associated contextual information, have multiple taxonomic classifications, and the latest validly described nomenclature. Furthermore, two precompiled sequence datasets compatible with ARB are offered for download on the SILVA website: (i) the reference (Ref) datasets, comprising only high quality, nearly full length sequences suitable for in-depth phylogenetic analysis and probe design and (ii) the comprehensive Parc datasets with all publicly available rRNA sequences longer than 300 nucleotides suitable for biodiversity analyses. The latest publicly available database release 91 (August 2007) hosts 547 521 sequences split into 461 823 small subunit and 85 689 large subunit rRNAs.

5,733 citations


"Diversity and Distribution of Archa..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...After quality trimming all the sequence reads were aligned against the SILVA, which is a curated ribosomal RNA sequence database using BLASTN [36, 37]....

    [...]

  • ...Within our sequence dataset, we were able to assign 1,39,953 sequences to the domain archaea and to classify all of these sequences below domain level using BLASTN 2.2.25+ in SILVA database and MEGAN (Table 2)....

    [...]

  • ...After quality trimming all the sequence reads were aligned against the SILVA, which is a curated ribosomal RNA sequence database using BLASTN [36, 37]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence for the widespread occurrence of unusual archaea in oxygenated coastal surface waters of North America is provided and it is suggested that these microorganisms represent undescribed physiological types of archaea, which reside and compete with aerobic, mesophilic eubacteria in marine coastal environments.
Abstract: Archaea (archaebacteria) are a phenotypically diverse group of microorganisms that share a common evolutionary history. There are four general phenotypic groups of archaea: the methanogens, the extreme halophiles, the sulfate-reducing archaea, and the extreme thermophiles. In the marine environment, archaeal habitats are generally limited to shallow or deep-sea anaerobic sediments (free-living and endosymbiotic methanogens), hot springs or deep-sea hydrothermal vents (methanogens, sulfate reducers, and extreme thermophiles), and highly saline land-locked seas (halophiles). This report provides evidence for the widespread occurrence of unusual archaea in oxygenated coastal surface waters of North America. Quantitative estimates indicated that up to 2% of the total ribosomal RNA extracted from coastal bacterioplankton assemblages was archaeal. Archaeal small-subunit ribosomal RNA-encoding DNAs (rDNAs) were cloned from mixed bacterioplankton populations collected at geographically distant sampling sites. Phylogenetic and nucleotide signature analyses of these cloned rDNAs revealed the presence of two lineages of archaea, each sharing the diagnostic signatures and structural features previously established for the domain Archaea. Both of these lineages were found in bacterioplankton populations collected off the east and west coasts of North America. The abundance and distribution of these archaea in oxic coastal surface waters suggests that these microorganisms represent undescribed physiological types of archaea, which reside and compete with aerobic, mesophilic eubacteria in marine coastal environments.

2,687 citations

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