Health behavior change following chronic illness in middle and later life
TL;DR: Results provide important new information on health behavior changes among those with chronic disease and suggest that intensive efforts are required to help initiate and maintain lifestyle improvements among this population.
Abstract: Objectives Understanding lifestyle improvements among individuals with chronic illness is vital for targeting interventions that can increase longevity and improve quality of life. Methods Data from the U.S. Health and Retirement Study were used to examine changes in smoking, alcohol use, and exercise 2-14 years after a diagnosis of heart disease, diabetes, cancer, stroke, or lung disease. Results Patterns of behavior change following diagnosis indicated that the vast majority of individuals diagnosed with a new chronic condition did not adopt healthier behaviors. Smoking cessation among those with heart disease was the largest observed change, but only 40% of smokers quit. There were no significant increases in exercise for any health condition. Changes in alcohol consumption were small, with significant declines in excessive drinking and increases in abstention for a few health conditions. Over the long term, individuals who made changes appeared to maintain those changes. Latent growth curve analyses up to 14 years after diagnosis showed no average long-term improvement in health behaviors. Discussion Results provide important new information on health behavior changes among those with chronic disease and suggest that intensive efforts are required to help initiate and maintain lifestyle improvements among this population.
Cites background from "Health behavior change following ch..."
...%) than those without any new serious diagnosis (22.8 to 20.8%), but there was no significant group difference in alcohol intake, and a greater reduction in physical activity in the cancer group (Newsom et al, 2012a)....
...For two of the studies, this could be because the comparison group was not only free of a cancer diagnosis, but also free from heart disease, diabetes, stroke and lung disease, and these conditions could also contribute to the motivation to change (Keenan, 2009; Newsom et al, 2012a)....
...Previous research has found evidence for higher rates of smoking cessation following a cancer diagnosis (Falba, 2005; Keenan, 2009; Karlsen et al, 2012; Newsom et al, 2012a)....
...In a Canadian sample (Newsom et al, 2012b), a cancer diagnosis was associated with a greater reduction in smoking rates (from 17.2% to 13.5...
"Health behavior change following ch..." refers methods in this paper
...—Latent growth curve models using all available data assume that the data are at least missing at random (Little & Rubin, 2002), and the pattern of missing data from this study may not meet this criterion (i.e., nonignorable missingness)....
"Health behavior change following ch..." refers background in this paper
...Subjective norms in favor of changing behavior (Ajzen & Albarracín, 2007) are likely to be salient when a chronic illness has been diagnosed and also should lead to healthier behavior....
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