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Institution

Cancer Epidemiology Unit

About: Cancer Epidemiology Unit is a(n) based out in . It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Cancer. The organization has 669 authors who have published 1725 publication(s) receiving 93979 citation(s).


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
19 Mar 1981-Nature
TL;DR: If dietary β-carotene is truly protective—which could be tested by controlled trials—there are a number of theoretical mechanisms whereby it might act, some of which do not directly involve its ‘provitamin A’ activity.
Abstract: Human cancer risks are inversely correlated with (a) blood retinol and (b) dietary beta-carotene. Although retinol in the blood might well be truly protective, this would be of little immediate value without discovery of the important external determinants of blood retinol which (in developed countries) do not include dietary retinol or beta-carotene. If dietary beta-carotene is truly protective--which could be tested by controlled trials--there are a number of theoretical mechanisms whereby it might act, some of which do not directly involve its 'provitamin A' activity.

1,467 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1991-BMJ
TL;DR: H pylori infection may be an important cause of gastric cancer; between 35% and 55% of all cases may be associated with such an infection.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE--To investigate the association between gastric cancer and prior infection with Helicobacter pylori. DESIGN--Case-control comparison of prevalence of IgG antibodies to H pylori in blood samples collected prospectively, before diagnosis of gastric cancer in the cases. Presence of H pylori antibody (greater than 10 micrograms IgG/ml) determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SUBJECTS--29 men with a subsequent diagnosis of gastric cancer and 116 aged matched controls selected from over 22,000 middle aged men participating in two ongoing cohort studies (the British United Provident Association study and the Caerphilly collaborative heart disease study), who had provided blood samples during 1975-1982. RESULTS--20 of the 29 cases (69%) and 54 of the 116 controls (47%) were positive for H pylori specific antibody. The median specific IgG concentration was significantly higher in the cases than controls (90 micrograms/ml v 3.6 micrograms/ml, p less than 0.01). The estimated odds ratio for the risk of gastric cancer in those with a history of infection with H pylori was 2.77 (95% confidence interval 1.04 to 7.97, 2p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS--H pylori infection may be an important cause of gastric cancer; between 35% and 55% of all cases may be associated with such an infection.

1,350 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
29 Nov 2007-BMJ
TL;DR: Increasing body mass index is associated with a significant increase in the risk of cancer for 10 out of 17 specific types examined, and for colorectal cancer, malignant melanoma, breast cancer, and endometrial cancer, the effect ofBody mass index on risk differed significantly according to menopausal status.
Abstract: Objective To examine the relation between body mass index (kg/m2) and cancer incidence and mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Participants 1.2 million UK women recruited into the Million Women Study, aged 50-64 during 1996-2001, and followed up, on average, for 5.4 years for cancer incidence and 7.0 years for cancer mortality. Main outcome measures Relative risks of incidence and mortality for all cancers, and for 17 specific types of cancer, according to body mass index, adjusted for age, geographical region, socioeconomic status, age at first birth, parity, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, years since menopause, and use of hormone replacement therapy. Results 45 037 incident cancers and 17 203 deaths from cancer occurred over the follow-up period. Increasing body mass index was associated with an increased incidence of endometrial cancer (trend in relative risk per 10 units=2.89, 95% confidence interval 2.62 to 3.18), adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus (2.38, 1.59 to 3.56), kidney cancer (1.53, 1.27 to 1.84), leukaemia (1.50, 1.23 to 1.83), multiple myeloma (1.31, 1.04 to 1.65), pancreatic cancer (1.24, 1.03 to 1.48), non-Hodgkin9s lymphoma (1.17, 1.03 to 1.34), ovarian cancer (1.14, 1.03 to 1.27), all cancers combined (1.12, 1.09 to 1.14), breast cancer in postmenopausal women (1.40, 1.31 to 1.49) and colorectal cancer in premenopausal women (1.61, 1.05 to 2.48). In general, the relation between body mass index and mortality was similar to that for incidence. For colorectal cancer, malignant melanoma, breast cancer, and endometrial cancer, the effect of body mass index on risk differed significantly according to menopausal status. Conclusions Increasing body mass index is associated with a significant increase in the risk of cancer for 10 out of 17 specific types examined. Among postmenopausal women in the UK, 5% of all cancers (about 6000 annually) are attributable to being overweight or obese. For endometrial cancer and adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus, body mass index represents a major modifiable risk factor; about half of all cases in postmenopausal women are attributable to overweight or obesity.

1,245 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Both oral contraceptives and hormonal therapy for menopause cause a small increase in breast-cancer risk, which appears to diminish once use stops, and alcohol increases risk, whereas physical activity is probably protective.
Abstract: Summary Breast cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Rates vary about five-fold around the world, but they are increasing in regions that until recently had low rates of the disease. Many of the established risk factors are linked to oestrogens. Risk is increased by early menarche, late menopause, and obesity in postmenopausal women, and prospective studies have shown that high concentrations of endogenous oestradiol are associated with an increase in risk. Childbearing reduces risk, with greater protection for early first birth and a larger number of births; breastfeeding probably has a protective effect. Both oral contraceptives and hormonal therapy for menopause cause a small increase in breast-cancer risk, which appears to diminish once use stops. Alcohol increases risk, whereas physical activity is probably protective. Mutations in certain genes greatly increase breastcancer risk, but these account for a minority of cases.

1,065 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The meta-analyses showed a statistically significant association between risk for lung cancer and PM10 and PM2·5, and no association between lungcancer and nitrogen oxides concentration or traffic intensity on the nearest street.
Abstract: Summary Background Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations. Methods This prospective analysis of data obtained by the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Eff ects used data from 17 cohort studies based in nine European countries. Baseline addresses were geocoded and we assessed air pollution by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10), less than 2·5 μm (PM2·5), and between 2·5 and 10 μm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2·5absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and two traffi c indicators. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specifi c analyses and random eff ects models for meta-analyses. Findings The 312 944 cohort members contributed 4 013 131 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 12·8 years), 2095 incident lung cancer cases were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed a statistically signifi cant association between risk for lung cancer and PM10 (hazard ratio [HR] 1·22 [95% CI 1·03–1·45] per 10 μg/m³). For PM2·5 the HR was 1·18 (0·96–1·46) per 5 μg/m³. The same increments of PM10 and PM2·5 were associated with HRs for adenocarcinomas of the lung of 1·51 (1·10–2·08) and 1·55 (1·05–2·29), respectively. An increase in road traffi c of 4000 vehicle-km per day within 100 m of the residence was associated with an HR for lung cancer of 1·09 (0·99–1·21). The results showed no association between lung cancer and nitrogen oxides concentration (HR 1·01 [0·95–1·07] per 20 μg/m³) or traffi c intensity on the nearest street (HR 1·00 [0·97–1·04] per 5000 vehicles per day).

1,059 citations


Authors

Showing all 669 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Richard Peto183683231434
Kay-Tee Khaw1741389138782
Silvia Franceschi1551340112504
Timothy J. Key14680890810
Hans-Olov Adami14590883473
Alicja Wolk13577866239
Paolo Vineis134108886608
Lars Klareskog13169763281
Eva Negri129101066735
John A. Baron12860961182
Jack Cuzick12875479979
Anders Ekbom11661351430
C. La Vecchia11581753460
Valerie Beral11447153729
Carlo La Vecchia112126556282
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
2021174
2020131
2019130
201890
201784
201678