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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANI11030677

Hermetia illucens and Poultry by-Product Meals as Alternatives to Plant Protein Sources in Gilthead Seabream ( Sparus aurata) Diet: A Multidisciplinary Study on Fish Gut Status

04 Mar 2021-Open Access Journal (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 11, Iss: 3, pp 677
Abstract: The attempt to replace marine-derived ingredients for aquafeed formulation with plant-derived ones has met some limitations due to their negative side effects on many fish species. In this context, finding new, sustainable ingredients able to promote fish welfare is currently under exploration. In the present study, poultry by-products and Hermetia illucens meal were used to replace the vegetable protein fraction in diets totally deprived of fish meal intended for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). After a 12-week feeding trial, a multidisciplinary approach including histological, molecular, and spectroscopic techniques was adopted to investigate intestine and liver responses to the different dietary formulations. Regardless of the alternative ingredient used, the reduction in dietary vegetable proteins resulted in a lower incidence of intestine histological alterations and inflammatory responses. In addition, the dietary inclusion of insect meal positively affected the reduction in the molecular inflammatory markers analyzed. Spectroscopic analyses showed that poultry by-product meal improved lipid absorption in the intestine, while insect meal induced increased liver lipid deposition in fish. The results obtained demonstrated that both poultry by-products and H. illucens meal can successfully be used to replace plant-derived ingredients in diets for gilthead seabream, promoting healthy aquaculture.

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Topics: Fish meal (62%), Hermetia illucens (56%), Plant protein (51%)
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13 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3920/JIFF2020.0135
27 Apr 2021-
Abstract: A major challenge for development of sustainable aquafeeds is its dependence on fish meal and fish oil. Replacement with more sustainable, nutritious and safe ingredients is now a priority. Over th...

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Topics: Fish meal (69%), Hermetia illucens (65%)

4 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AQUACULTURE.2021.736921
15 Oct 2021-Aquaculture
Abstract: Two trials were conducted to test the effect of partial replacement of fishmeal by two brewery industry by-products, yeast and spent grain, included in isoproteic and isolipidic diets for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), having in mind the commercial availability of these by-products. According to the obtained results, the inclusion of up to 30% brewers' spent yeast and 15% spent grain in the feed for gilthead seabream gave similar results in terms of growth, food conversion and fillet final composition to a feed with fish meal as the main protein source and show a protein digestibility of 89–95%. Taking into account that these by-products are produced in large quantities in Europe, they can be a potential source of protein to reduce the use of plant proteins or fish/animal by-products (trimmings) and increase the sustainability of both sectors, brewery industry and aquaculture.

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Topics: Fish meal (55%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANI11061779
Abstract: The need to replace antibiotics in aquafeed is increasing, and alternative safe substances are now encouraged for sustainable aquaculture activity. Curcumin is regarded as a multifunctional feed additive with growth-promoting and immunostimulant potential. Thus, this study evaluated dietary inclusion of curcumin at rates of 0, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3% in the diets of Gilthead seabream for 150 days. The results showed an improved final body weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed conversion ratio in fish treated with curcumin, in a dose-dependent manner. The highest growth performance was observed in fish fed a diet supplemented with 3% curcumin. The results also showed lowered activity of pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio spp. and Faecal coliform) in the intestines of Gilthead seabream fed a diet with curcumin inclusion, in a dose-dependent manner. The hematological indices were within the normal range for healthy fish, without meaningful effects except for hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cells (RBCs), and white blood cells (WBCs), which were markedly increased by dietary curcumin. Phagocytic activity was obviously enhanced by dietary curcumin, compared with the control. The biochemical blood metabolites related to liver function (alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT)), renal tissue (urea), and total cholesterol were within the normal values, without significant differences. Overall, the inclusion of curcumin at a rate of 2-3% improved the growth performance and well-being of Gilthead seabream.

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Topics: Liver function (54%), Curcumin (52%), Feed additive (50%) ... show more

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AQUACULTURE.2021.737026
15 Oct 2021-Aquaculture
Abstract: Poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a replacement for fish meal (FM), an expensive and unsustainable protein aquafeed ingredient, has been tested on different aquaculture fish species. However, the complete replacement of FM with a mixture of PBM and Hermetia illucens (HI) larvae in barramundi culture has not been previously investigated. In this study, results are presented on growth performance, fillet fatty acid composition, serum metabolites, skin mucosal barriers, hepatic steatosis, antioxidant activity, and immunity of juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer fed either a FM-based diet (0PBM-0HI) or two test diets in which total FM protein was replaced by a mixture of 70% PBM and 30% full-fat (FHI) and defatted HI larvae (DHI) meal (designated as 70PBM-30FHI and 70PBM-30DHI). After 56 days of feeding, the results showed that the growth was affected when fish were fed 70PBM-30DHI with a higher feed conversion ratio (FCR) with respect to 0PBM-0HI and 70PBM-30FHI diets. There was no variation in growth performance, feed utilization, and FCR between 0PBM-0HI and 70PBM-30FHI. The retention of total saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased in the fillet of juveniles fed 70PBM-30FHI and 70PBM-30DHI while total retention of polyunsaturated (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, and n-6 PUFA decreased than the control. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT) increased in fish fed 70PBM-30DHI whereas haptoglobin upsurged in 70PBM-30FHI compared to 0PBM-0HI. There were no significant effects in the serum immune response between dietary treatments whilst serum and liver CAT activity were negatively impacted by 70PBM-30DHI. The 70PBM-30DHI induced hepatic steatosis whilst 0PBM-0HI and 70PBM-30FHI showed no obvious change in the liver. Skin mucosal barriers were impacted by 70PBM-30DHI whilst 70PBM-30FHI fed fish showed a similar response to 0PBM-0HI. The fish fed on 70PBM-30DHI showed a higher proportion of infection rate with Vibrio harveyi than 70PBM-30FHI but showed no variation with the control-fed fish. In summary, FHI larvae meal could be a good complementary protein source, particularly when replacing FM completely with insect-based proteins.

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Topics: Fish meal (64%), Poultry by-product meal (56%), Feed conversion ratio (53%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/FERMENTATION7030152
13 Aug 2021-Fermentation
Abstract: The rapid growth of aquaculture and the lack of fish meal demand new sustainable ingredients. Although fungal biomass is found to be a promising sustainable fish feed supplementation candidate, the characteristics of this protein-rich source are closely influenced by the quality of the applied growth medium. In this work, the nutritional properties of pure filamentous fungal biomass provided from the cultivation of Aspergillus oryzae, Neurospora intermedia and Rhzopus oryzae were evaluated to assess their potential as alternative novel protein sources in fish feed. In this regard, fungal biomass yields of up to 0.19 ± 0.005 (g dry biomass/g substrate glucose) were obtained during submerged cultivation of fungal strains. The pure fungal biomass acquired could contain significant amounts of protein up to 62.2 ± 1.2% (w/w). The obtained protein had a high quality with notable inclusion of essential amino acids such as lysine, arginine, methionine and threonine with comparable concentrations to those of fish meal. Fungal biomass is mainly considered as protein source, however, entitlement of 6.9 ± 0.5, 4.0 ± 0.7 and 17.2 ± 1.1% (w/w) of lipids and ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) of 1.37:1, 1.74:1 and 1.47:1 in A. oryzae, N. intermedia and R. oryzae, respectively, signal health benefits for the fish. Considering the results, protein-rich pure fungal biomass with amino acid composition is greatly compatible with fish meal, and contains essential nutrients such as fatty acids and minerals. This pure biomass constitutes a promising sustainable alternative supplement to be introduced in fish feed industry.

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Topics: Fish meal (66%), Commercial fish feed (60%), Biomass (53%) ... show more

2 Citations


References
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89 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1365-2109.2007.01704.X
Abstract: Continued growth and intensi¢cation of aquaculture production depends upon the development of sustainable protein sources to replace ¢sh meal in aquafeeds. This document reviews various plant feedstuis, which currently are or potentially may be incorporated into aquafeeds to support the sustainable production of various ¢sh species in aquaculture. The plant feedstuis considered include oilseeds, legumes and cereal grains, which traditionally have been used as protein or energy concentrates as well as novel products developed through various processing technologies. The nutritional composition of these various feedstuis are considered along with the presence of any bioactive compounds that may positively or negatively aiect the target organism. Lipid composition of these feedstuis is not speci¢cally considered although it is recognized that incorporating lipid supplements in aquafeeds to achieve proper fatty acid pro¢les to meet the metabolic requirements of ¢sh and maximize human health bene¢ts are important aspects. Speci¢c strategies and techniques to optimize the nutritional composition of plant feedstuis and limit potentially adverse eiects of bioactive compounds are also described. Such information will provide a foundation for developing strategic research plans for increasing the use of plant feedstuis in aquaculture to reduce dependence of animal feedstuis and thereby enhance the sustainability of aquaculture.

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1,646 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1365-2109.2009.02349.X
Ronald W. Hardy1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Aquafeed ingredients are global commodities used in livestock, poultry and companion animal feeds. Cost and availability are ditated less by demand from the aquafeed sector than by demand from other animal feed sectors and global production of grains and oilseeds. The exceptions are fishmeal and fish oil; use patterns have shifted over the past two decades resulting in nearly exclusive use of these products in aquafeeds. Supplies of fishmeal and oil are finite, making it necessary for the aquafeed sector to seek alternative ingredients from plant sources whose global production is sufficient to supply the needs of aquafeeds for the foreseeable future. Significant progress has been made over the past decade in reducing levels of fishmeal in commercial feeds for farmed fish. Despite these advances, the quantity of fishmeal used by the aquafeed sector has increased as aquaculture production has expanded. Thus, further reduction in percentages of fishmeal in aquafeeds will be necessary. For some species of farmed fish, continued reduction in fishmeal and fish oil levels is likely; complete replacement of fishmeal has been achieved in research studies. However, complete replacement of fishmeal in feeds for marine species is more difficult and will require further research efforts to attain.

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Topics: Fish meal (53%), Plant protein (51%)

771 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1046/J.1365-2095.2003.00264.X
Abstract: Duplicate tanks of c.280 g Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) were fed for 60 days on diets in which fishmeal was substituted with graded levels of extracted soybean meal (SBM) comprising 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% or 35% of total protein. The effects on feed intake, growth, feed conversion, apparent digestibility and utilization of macronutrients and energy, pathohistological response of the distal intestine (DI), activities of digestive enzymes in the mid and distal intestinal mucosa, and faecal trypsin and plasma insulin concentrations were studied. A negative, dose-dependent effect of SBM was observed on nearly all performance parameters with a notable exception of feed intake. The lowest SBM inclusion level of 10% resulted in moderate pathohistological changes in the DI. Each subsequent increase in SBM level increased the number of fish displaying severe changes. In contrast to the mid-intestine (MI), all enzyme activities in the distal intestinal mucosa decreased dose-dependently with increasing SBM inclusion. Faecal trypsin increased up to an SBM inclusion level of 20% and then levelled off. Plasma insulin increased from 0% to 15% SBM inclusion and then decreased. The results suggest that caution should be exercised in the use of even low levels of extracted SBM in salmon feeds.

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Topics: Intestinal mucosa (56%), Soybean meal (54%), Feed conversion ratio (52%) ... show more

570 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1365-2095.2004.00327.X
Abstract: This review summarizes information regarding digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in cultivated fish Relevant results of studies of digestive enzymes, eg amylase, chitinase, cellulase and brush border disaccharidases are presented Fish amylases appear to be molecularly closely related and to have characteristics comparable to mammalian amylases Whether chitinases and cellulases are endogenous enzymes of some fish species is still a matter of speculation, although recent molecular evidence, at least for chitinase seems to settle the issue in favour of endogenous sources Feed and intestinal microbes may be the source of polysaccharidases in fish feeding on nutrients-containing non-starch polysaccharides Knowledge regarding monosaccharide transport in fish intestine as interpreted from studies of brush border membrane vesicles, everted sleeves of fish intestinal sections and molecular biology is discussed Glucose transporters of the intestinal brush border show characteristics similar to those found in mammals A tabulatory presentation of experimental details and results reported in the literature regarding starch digestibility is included as a basis for discussion Although numerous investigations on digestion of starch and other carbohydrates in fish have been published, the existing information is highly fragmentary As yet, it is impossible to derive a cohesive picture on the integrated process of carbohydrate hydrolysis and absorption and interaction with diet composition for any of the fish species under cultivation The physiological mechanisms behind the species differences are not known

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Topics: Monosaccharide transport (55%), Amylase (52%)

479 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0044-8486(99)00210-0
03 Nov 1999-Aquaculture
Abstract: The apparent digestibility of 20 rendered animal protein ingredients from various origins was determined in three digestibility trials. The ingredients consisted of eight blood meals, four feather meals, six meat and bone meals and two poultry by-product meals. Within each type of ingredient, a relatively large range of raw materials, processing conditions and equipment were represented. In each of three trials, a reference diet was mixed with test ingredients in a 70:30 ratio to produce a series of test diets. The reference and test diets were fed to rainbow trout reared at 15°C and fecal samples were collected using the “Guelph system”. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for protein and energy of the four feather meals varied between 81 and 87% and 76 and 80%. Significant differences in the ADC for protein of feather meal were observed and may be related to the drying equipment. The ADC for protein of the two poultry by-product meals was 87 and 91% and that of energy 77 and 87%. The ADC for protein and energy of the six meat and bone meals varied between 83 and 89% and 68 and 83%, respectively. Treatment of one of the meat and bone meals by air-classification to reduce its ash content resulted in a significant increase in the ADC for protein and lipid. ADC for protein of the blood meals varied between 82 and 99% whereas ADC for energy varied between 79 and 99%. Spray-dried blood products (whole blood, blood cells, blood plasma) were highly digestible (ADC protein=96-99%). Rotoplate-, steam-tube- and ring-dried blood meals had significantly lower ADC for protein and energy than spray-dried blood products.

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Topics: Feather meal (54%), Blood meal (54%), Poultry by-product meal (53%) ... show more

435 Citations