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Journal Article

Low Latency Routing Algorithm for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Ad-Hoc Networks

TL;DR: A new routing protocol for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that equipped with directional antenna that is based on the well known protocol called Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR) and developed a heuristic that allows DOLSR protocol to minimize the number of the multipoint relays.

AbstractIn this paper, we proposed a new routing protocol for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that equipped with directional antenna. We named this protocol Directional Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (DOLSR). This protocol is based on the well known protocol that is called Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR). We focused in our protocol on the multipoint relay (MPR) concept which is the most important feature of this protocol. We developed a heuristic that allows DOLSR protocol to minimize the number of the multipoint relays. With this new protocol the number of overhead packets will be reduced and the End-to-End delay of the network will also be minimized. We showed through simulation that our protocol outperformed Optimized Link State Routing Protocol, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol and Ad- Hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol in reducing the End-to-End delay and enhancing the overall throughput. Our evaluation of the previous protocols was based on the OPNET network simulation tool.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper surveys the work done toward all of the outstanding issues, relating to this new class of networks, so as to spur further research in these areas.
Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have enormous potential in the public and civil domains. These are particularly useful in applications, where human lives would otherwise be endangered. Multi-UAV systems can collaboratively complete missions more efficiently and economically as compared to single UAV systems. However, there are many issues to be resolved before effective use of UAVs can be made to provide stable and reliable context-specific networks. Much of the work carried out in the areas of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), and vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) does not address the unique characteristics of the UAV networks. UAV networks may vary from slow dynamic to dynamic and have intermittent links and fluid topology. While it is believed that ad hoc mesh network would be most suitable for UAV networks yet the architecture of multi-UAV networks has been an understudied area. Software defined networking (SDN) could facilitate flexible deployment and management of new services and help reduce cost, increase security and availability in networks. Routing demands of UAV networks go beyond the needs of MANETS and VANETS. Protocols are required that would adapt to high mobility, dynamic topology, intermittent links, power constraints, and changing link quality. UAVs may fail and the network may get partitioned making delay and disruption tolerance an important design consideration. Limited life of the node and dynamicity of the network lead to the requirement of seamless handovers, where researchers are looking at the work done in the areas of MANETs and VANETs, but the jury is still out. As energy supply on UAVs is limited, protocols in various layers should contribute toward greening of the network. This paper surveys the work done toward all of these outstanding issues, relating to this new class of networks, so as to spur further research in these areas.

1,152 citations


Cites result from "Low Latency Routing Algorithm for U..."

  • ...However, in [55], the performance based on end-to-end latency of DSR was worst for UAV networks as compared to AODV and...

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2013
TL;DR: In this paper, Flying Ad-Hoc Networks (FANETs) are surveyed which is an ad hoc network connecting the UAVs, and the main FANET design challenges are introduced.
Abstract: One of the most important design problems for multi-UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicle) systems is the communication which is crucial for cooperation and collaboration between the UAVs. If all UAVs are directly connected to an infrastructure, such as a ground base or a satellite, the communication between UAVs can be realized through the in-frastructure. However, this infrastructure based communication architecture restricts the capabilities of the multi-UAV systems. Ad-hoc networking between UAVs can solve the problems arising from a fully infrastructure based UAV networks. In this paper, Flying Ad-Hoc Networks (FANETs) are surveyed which is an ad hoc network connecting the UAVs. The differences between FANETs, MANETs (Mobile Ad-hoc Networks) and VANETs (Vehicle Ad-Hoc Networks) are clarified first, and then the main FANET design challenges are introduced. Along with the existing FANET protocols, open research issues are also discussed.

841 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed adaptive hybrid communication protocols including a novel position-prediction-based directional MAC protocol (PPMAC) and a self-learning routing protocol based on reinforcement learning (RLSRP) have the potential to provide an intelligent and highly autonomous communication solution for FANETs.
Abstract: The flying ad hoc network (FANET) is a new paradigm of wireless communication that governs the autonomous movement of UAVs and supports UAV-to-UAV communication. A FANET can provide an effective real-time communication solution for the multiple UAV systems considering each flying UAV as a router. However, existing mobile ad hoc protocols cannot meet the needs of FANETs due to high-speed mobility and frequent topology change. In addition, the complicated flight environment and varied flight tasks lead to the traditional built-in-rules protocols no longer meeting the demands of autonomy. Hence, we have proposed adaptive hybrid communication protocols including a novel position-prediction-based directional MAC protocol (PPMAC) and a self-learning routing protocol based on reinforcement learning (RLSRP). The performance results show that the proposed PPMAC overcomes the directional deafness problem with directional antennas, and RLSRP provides an automatically evolving and more effective routing scheme. Our proposed hybrid adaptive communication protocols have the potential to provide an intelligent and highly autonomous communication solution for FANETs, and indicate the main research orientation of FANET protocols.

112 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a somewhat complete survey of the routing protocols designed for UAVs is presented, and the performance of existing routing protocols is compared in detail.
Abstract: Nowadays, mini-drones, officially called unmanned aerial vehicles, are widely used in many military and civilian fields. Compared to traditional ad hoc networks, the mobile ad hoc networks established by UAVs are more efficient in completing complex tasks in harsh environments. However, due to the unique characteristics of UAVs (e.g., high mobility and sparse deployment), existing protocols or algorithms cannot be directly used for UAVs. In this article, we focus on the routes designed for UAVs, and aim to present a somewhat complete survey of the routing protocols. Moreover, the performance of existing routing protocols is compared in detail, which naturally leads to a great number of open research problems that are outlined afterward.

100 citations


Cites background or methods from "Low Latency Routing Algorithm for U..."

  • ...DOLSR[4]...

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  • ...proposed directional OLSR (DOLSR) [4] for UAVs that were equipped with directional antennas....

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  • ...[4] A....

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  • ...In this section, we classify the routing protocols into two categories: single-hop routing [1, 2] and multihop routing [3–15]....

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  • ...DOLSR [4] Proactive Yes Yes No Yes Periodically No No Optimized link...

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
09 Nov 2015
TL;DR: The existing routing protocols for FANETs are classified into six major categories which are critically analyzed and compared based on various performance criteria to help network engineers in choosing appropriate routing protocols based on the specific scenario where the FANet will be deployed.
Abstract: The usage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is increasing day by day. In recent years, UAVs are being used in increasing number of civil applications, such as policing, fire-fighting, etc in addition to military applications. Instead of using one large UAV, multiple UAVs are nowadays used for higher coverage area and accuracy. Therefore, networking models are required to allow two or more UAV nodes to communicate directly or via relay node(s). Flying Ad-Hoc Networks (FANETs) are formed which is basically an ad hoc network for UAVs. This is relatively a new technology in network family where requirements vary largely from traditional networking model, such as Mobile Ad-hoc Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks. In this paper, Flying Ad-Hoc Networks are surveyed along with its challenges compared to traditional ad hoc networks. The existing routing protocols for FANETs are then classified into six major categories which are critically analyzed and compared based on various performance criteria. Our comparative analysis will help network engineers in choosing appropriate routing protocols based on the specific scenario where the FANET will be deployed.

89 citations


Cites background from "Low Latency Routing Algorithm for U..."

  • ...Simulation studies [25] showed that DOLSR can reduce the number of MPRs with directional antennas....

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References
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01 Jul 2003
TL;DR: A logging instrument contains a pulsed neutron source and a pair of radiation detectors spaced along the length of the instrument to provide an indication of formation porosity which is substantially independent of the formation salinity.
Abstract: The Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol is intended for use by mobile nodes in an ad hoc network. It offers quick adaptation to dynamic link conditions, low processing and memory overhead, low network utilization, and determines unicast routes to destinations within the ad hoc network. It uses destination sequence numbers to ensure loop freedom at all times (even in the face of anomalous delivery of routing control messages), avoiding problems (such as "counting to infinity") associated with classical distance vector protocols.

11,293 citations


Book
01 Jan 2008
Abstract: Ad hoc networks are to computing devices what Yahoo Personals are to single people: both help individuals communicate productively with strangers while maintaining security. Under the rules of ad hoc networking--which continue to evolve--your mobile phone can, when placed in proximity to your handheld address book, establish a little network on its own and enable data sharing between the two devices. In Ad Hoc Networking, Charles Perkins has compiled a series of technical papers about networking on the fly from a variety of laboratories and experts. The collection explains the latest thinking on how mobile devices can best discover, identify, and communicate with other devices in the vicinity. In this treatment, ad hoc networking covers a broad swath of situations. An ad hoc network might consist of several home-computing devices, plus a notebook computer that must exist on home and office networks without extra administrative work. Such a network might also need to exist when the people and equipment in normally unrelated military units need to work together in combat. Though the papers in this book are much more descriptive of protocols and algorithms than of their implementations, they aim individually and collectively at commercialization and popularization of mobile devices that make use of ad hoc networking. You'll enjoy this book if you're involved in researching or implementing ad hoc networking capabilities for mobile devices. --David Wall Topics covered: The state-of-the-art in protocols and algorithms to be used in ad hoc networks of mobile devices that move in and out of proximity to one another, to fixed resources like printers, and to Internet connectivity. Routing with Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV), and other resource-discovery and routing protocols; the effects of ad hoc networking on bandwidth consumption; and battery life.

2,021 citations


Book
01 May 2004

1,055 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
26 Mar 2000
TL;DR: This paper attempts to design new MAC protocols suitable for ad hoc networks based on directional antennas, such as the IEEE 802.11 standard, which do not benefit when using directional antennas because they have been designed for omnidirectional antennas.
Abstract: Using directional antennas can be beneficial for wireless ad hoc networks consisting of a collection of wireless hosts. To best utilize directional antennas, a suitable medium access control (MAC) protocol must be designed. Current MAC protocols, such as the IEEE 802.11 standard, do not benefit when using directional antennas, because these protocols have been designed for omnidirectional antennas. In this paper, we attempt to design new MAC protocols suitable for ad hoc networks based on directional antennas.

786 citations


"Low Latency Routing Algorithm for U..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Thus we assume that such a network implements a directional medium access control protocol [10], [11], [12], [13], [14] that is capable of adapting any constraints imposed by the UAV....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The article compares the scalability properties and operational features of the protocols and discusses challenges in future routing protocol designs.
Abstract: The growing interest in mobile ad hoc network techniques has resulted in many routing protocol proposals. Scalability issues in ad hoc networks are attracting increasing attention these days. We survey the routing protocols that address scalability. The routing protocols included in the survey fall into three categories: flat routing protocols; hierarchical routing approaches; GPS augmented geographical routing schemes. The article compares the scalability properties and operational features of the protocols and discusses challenges in future routing protocol designs.

767 citations