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Journal Article

Overlapping sets of transcripts from host and non-host interactions of tomato are expressed early during non-host resistance

01 Jan 2014-Plant Omics (Southern Cross Publishing)-Vol. 7, Iss: 1, pp 19-27

TL;DR: This is the first report of transcriptome profile in tomato during non-host interactions against M. grisea, and it is identified that the pathway involved in synthesis of volatile compounds like 2-phenylethanol was induced during NHR in tomato.

AbstractNatural immunity present in all the plants against most of the pathogens is called as non-host resistance (NHR). Although NHR is most durable form of resistance, it was less studied compared to other forms of resistance. We compared transcriptional changes in tomato during non-host ('Magnaporthe grisea') and compatible ('Alternaria alternata' f. sp. 'lycopersici') interactions using Agilent microarray GeneChip containing 44,000 probe sets. The experiment was designed to understand the early and late responses of tomato leaves inoculated with non-host and compatible pathogens. Microarray data revealed that the expression profiles in the non- host and compatible interactions at 6 h post inoculation (hpi) and 24 hpi largely overlapped indicating that a set of genes are activated during plant-pathogen interaction. However, these genes were expressed much earlier in NHR compared to a compatible interaction. NHR is, therefore, an accelerated and amplified basal defense response. Transcripts involved in energy production (carbohydrate metabolism and photosynthesis) were down-regulated, whereas transcripts associated with catabolic processes (starch and sucrose hydrolysis) were up-regulated in both the interactions at 6 and 24 hpi. We have also identified that the pathway involved in synthesis of volatile compounds like 2-phenylethanol was induced during NHR in tomato. This is the first report of transcriptome profile in tomato during non-host interactions against M. grisea.

Topics: Magnaporthe grisea (52%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Use of H-CSNPs is effective for sustained-release of harpinPss and provides resistance for prolonged duration and Transcripts of several genes involved in defense response were differentially expressed in har pinPss, CSNPs and H- CSNP treatments, indicating the role of JA pathway in triggering harpin-mediated defense responses.
Abstract: HarpinPss, an elicitor from Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, induces systemic acquired resistance in non-host plants, providing resistance to phytopathogens. Poor assimilation of harpinPss is a major constraint in foliar application as biopesticide. We, therefore, prepared harpinPss-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (H-CSNPs) to improve permeability and bio-availability of harpinPss in tomato. H-CSNPs showed high encapsulation efficiency (90%), improved stability (p < 0.01) and bioavailability of harpinPss (p < 0.01). Treatment with H-CSNPs resulted in sustained induction of peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and decreased Rhizoctonia solani infection (p < 0.05). Transcripts of several genes involved in defense response were differentially expressed in harpinPss, CSNPs and H-CSNPs treatments. While, genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) metabolism were up-regulated during harpinPss and H-CSNP spray treatments, indicating the role of JA pathway in triggering harpin-mediated defense responses. Furthermore, the entry of CSNPs into the cell and localization of harpinPss into chloroplast was tracked using rhodamine-labelled CSNPs encapsulated with GFP tagged harpinPss. The results of this study indicate use of H-CSNPs is effective for sustained-release of harpinPss and provides resistance for prolonged duration.

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The regulatory networks were inferred using MCoA and correlation analysis to reveal the relationships among the expression of transcripts, proteins, and metabolites that highlight the corresponding elements of these core metabolic pathways in drought-resistant annual ryegrass.
Abstract: Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) is a commercially important, widely distributed forage crop that is used in the production of hay and silage worldwide. Drought has been a severe environmental constraint in its production. Nevertheless, only a handful of studies have examined the impact of short-term drought stress on annual ryegrass. The aim of this study was to explore how stress-induced core metabolic processes enhance drought tolerance, or adaptation to drought, in annual ryegrass. We profiled the transcriptomes, proteomes, and metabolomes of two annual ryegrass genotypes: the drought-resistant genotype “Abundant 10” and drought-susceptible genotype “Adrenalin 11.” We identified differentially expressed metabolites and their corresponding proteins and transcripts that are involved in 23 core metabolic processes, in response to short-term drought stress. Protein–gene–metabolite correlation networks were built to reveal the relationships between the expression of transcripts, proteins, and metabolites in drought-resistant annual ryegrass. Furthermore, integrated metabolic pathways were used to observe changes in enzymes corresponding with levels of amino acids, lipids, carbohydrate conjugates, nucleosides, alkaloids and their derivatives, and pyridines and their derivatives. The resulting omics data underscored the significance of 23 core metabolic processes on the enhancement of drought tolerance or adaptation to drought in annual ryegrass. The regulatory networks were inferred using MCoA and correlation analysis to reveal the relationships among the expression of transcripts, proteins, and metabolites that highlight the corresponding elements of these core metabolic pathways. Our results provide valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms of drought resistance, and represent a promising strategy toward the improvement of drought tolerance in annual ryegrass.

13 citations


Cites background from "Overlapping sets of transcripts fro..."

  • ...Uma and Podile [40] reported that the transcripts encoding 9-LOX and a 9-LOX-derived compound, colnelenic acid, are...

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  • ...Uma and Podile [40] reported that the transcripts encoding 9-LOX and a 9-LOX-derived compound, colnelenic acid, are significantly upregulated in resistant host tomato plants....

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  • ...Uma B, Podile AR. Overlapping sets of transcripts from host and non-host interactions of tomato are expressed early during non-host resistance....

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01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: Buckwheat extracts increased the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in tomato and maize tissues, which may be related to the activation of the adaptation mechanism to stressful conditions.
Abstract: The aim of the work was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of water extracts from the above-ground parts of the seedlings of control buckwheat and buckwheat treated with methyl jasmonate vapours (JA-Me), as well as extracts enriched with 2-phenylethylamine (PEA) and its metabolites: phenylacetic acid (PAA) and 2-phenylethanol (PE), on the growth of the seedlings of dicotyledonous (tomato, radish and watercress) and monocotyledonous vegetables (maize) Also their effect on the level of phenolic compounds and flavonoids was determined, as well as the degree of lipid peroxidation in acceptor plant tissues In all the cases, plant growth inhibition was noted, and the effect differed in relation to the applied extract, the studied species, and the duration of allelochemical stress Application of JA-Me caused an increase in the content of phenolic compounds and, as an effect, the allelopathic potential of buckwheat tissues Generally, the roots of the tested acceptor plants were more susceptible to the effect of the studied extracts than the above-ground parts In the case of maize, the addition of PEA, PAA, and PE strongly inhibited the growth of both the roots and the above-ground plant parts Different phenomenon occurred, on the other hand, in tomato roots, the growth of which was stimulated by PE Buckwheat extracts also caused enhancement in lipid peroxidation in maize, although adding PEA, PAA, and PE limited the process Buckwheat extracts also increased the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in tomato and maize tissues, which may be related to the activation of the adaptation mechanism to stressful conditions

4 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is now clear that gene-for-gene resistance can be mediated through at least three genetically distinguishable pathways.
Abstract: In the past two years, the focus of studies of the genes controlling expression of defense responses in Arabidopsis has shifted from the identification of mutants to gene isolation and the ordering of genes within branches of the signal transduction networks. It is now clear that gene-for-gene resistance can be mediated through at least three genetically distinguishable pathways. Additional genes affecting salicylic-acid-dependent signaling have been identified, and double-mutant analyses have begun to reveal the order in which they act. Genes required for jasmonic-acid-dependent signaling and for induced systemic resistance have also been identified.

744 citations


"Overlapping sets of transcripts fro..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The JA/ET hormones are positive regulators of resistance to necrotrophic fungi (Glazebrook, 2001) and may be part of the basal defense response....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that in soybean cells, PCD-activating oxidative stress induced a set of cysteine proteases, and a new role for proteinase inhibitor genes as modulators of PCD in plants is proposed.
Abstract: Programmed cell death (PCD) is a process by which cells in many organisms die. The basic morphological and biochemical features of PCD are conserved between the animal and plant kingdoms. Cysteine proteases have emerged as key enzymes in the regulation of animal PCD. Here, we show that in soybean cells, PCD-activating oxidative stress induced a set of cysteine proteases. The activation of one or more of the cysteine proteases was instrumental in the PCD of soybean cells. Inhibition of the cysteine proteases by ectopic expression of cystatin, an endogenous cysteine protease inhibitor gene, inhibited induced cysteine protease activity and blocked PCD triggered either by an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv glycinea or directly by oxidative stress. Similar expression of serine protease inhibitors was ineffective. A glutathione S -transferase–cystatin fusion protein was used to purify and characterize the induced proteases. Taken together, our results suggest that plant PCD can be regulated by activity poised between the cysteine proteases and the cysteine protease inhibitors. We also propose a new role for proteinase inhibitor genes as modulators of PCD in plants.

730 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Despite high similarity between responses mediated by the R genes R PS2 and RPM1 in wild-type plants, RPS2-mediated responses were strongly suppressed by the ndr1 mutation and the NahG transgene, whereas RPM1- mediated responses were not, which is consistent with the resistance phenotypes of these plants.
Abstract: We performed large-scale mRNA expression profiling using an Affymetrix GeneChip to study Arabidopsis responses to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The interactions were compatible (virulent bacteria) or incompatible (avirulent bacteria), including a nonhost interaction and interactions mediated by two different avirulence gene–resistance (R) gene combinations. Approximately 2000 of the ∼8000 genes monitored showed reproducible significant expression level changes in at least one of the interactions. Analysis of biological variation suggested that the system behavior of the plant response in an incompatible interaction was robust but that of a compatible interaction was not. A large part of the difference between incompatible and compatible interactions can be explained quantitatively. Despite high similarity between responses mediated by the R genes RPS2 and RPM1 in wild-type plants, RPS2-mediated responses were strongly suppressed by the ndr1 mutation and the NahG transgene, whereas RPM1-mediated responses were not. This finding is consistent with the resistance phenotypes of these plants. We propose a simple quantitative model with a saturating response curve that approximates the overall behavior of this plant-pathogen system.

722 citations


"Overlapping sets of transcripts fro..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Arabidopsis and barley, during non-host and compatible interactions, did not show significant host- or non-host specific expression (Tao et al., 2003; Lee et al., 2004; Zimmerli et al., 2004; Eichmann et al., 2006; Stein et al., 2006)....

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  • ...A plant is resistant or susceptible to a specific pathogen depending on the speed and rate at which the same host defense molecules are produced, suggesting that the resistance is based on quantitative rather than qualitative differences (Tao et al., 2003)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Arabidopsis thaliana is a host to the powdery mildew Erysiphe cichoracearum and nonhost to Blumeria graminis f. sp hordei, the powdery mildew pathogenic on barley (Hordeum vulgare). Screening for Arabidopsis mutants deficient in resistance to barley powdery mildew identified PENETRATION3 (PEN3). pen3 plants permitted both increased invasion into epidermal cells and initiation of hyphae by B. g. hordei, suggesting that PEN3 contributes to defenses at the cell wall and intracellularly. pen3 mutants were compromised in resistance to the necrotroph Plectosphaerella cucumerina and to two additional inappropriate biotrophs, pea powdery mildew (Erysiphe pisi) and potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans). Unexpectedly, pen3 mutants were resistant to E. cichoracearum. This resistance was salicylic acid-dependent and correlated with chlorotic patches. Consistent with this observation, salicylic acid pathway genes were hyperinduced in pen3 relative to the wild type. The phenotypes conferred by pen3 result from the loss of function of PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE8 (PDR8), a highly expressed putative ATP binding cassette transporter. PEN3/PDR8 tagged with green fluorescent protein localized to the plasma membrane in uninfected cells. In infected leaves, the protein concentrated at infection sites. PEN3/PDR8 may be involved in exporting toxic materials to attempted invasion sites, and intracellular accumulation of these toxins in pen3 may secondarily activate the salicylic acid pathway.

604 citations


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  • ...Arabidopsis and barley, during non-host and compatible interactions, did not show significant host- or non-host specific expression (Tao et al., 2003; Lee et al., 2004; Zimmerli et al., 2004; Eichmann et al., 2006; Stein et al., 2006)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is proposed that the cell wall can signal stress responses in plants, and cev1 mutant phenotype could be reproduced by treating wild-type plants with cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors, and the cellulose synthase mutant rsw1 also had constitutive expression of VSP.
Abstract: Biotic and abiotic stresses stimulate the synthesis of jasmonates and ethylene, which, in turn, induce the expression of genes involved in stress response and enhance defense responses. The cev1 mutant has constitutive expression of stress response genes and has enhanced resistance to fungal pathogens. Here, we show that cev1 plants have increased production of jasmonate and ethylene and that its phenotype is suppressed by mutations that interrupt jasmonate and ethylene signaling. Genetic mapping, complementation analysis, and sequence analysis revealed that CEV1 is the cellulose synthase CeSA3. CEV1 was expressed predominantly in root tissues, and cev1 roots contained less cellulose than wild-type roots. Significantly, the cev1 mutant phenotype could be reproduced by treating wild-type plants with cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors, and the cellulose synthase mutant rsw1 also had constitutive expression of VSP. We propose that the cell wall can signal stress responses in plants.

511 citations


"Overlapping sets of transcripts fro..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Loss-of-function or treatment with inhibitors of CESA3, which leads to decrease in the cellulose content of the wall, causes constitutive expression of genes of JA/ET signaling or results in production of lignin in response to pathogen attack or wounding (Caño-Delgado et al., 2003; Ellis et al., 2002)....

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